en-us Wed, 08 Apr 2015 20:09:10 +0100 Phenibut Review: Mechanism of action, benefits, dosage and side effects Fri, 03 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not endorse intake of phenibut or any nootropic agent. Any undesirable effects from intake of phenibut are sole responsibility of the user.

Nootropic agents are any type/form of substances that are known to help in improving brain health and cognitive functioning. This includes natural nootropic agents, synthetic ones and nootropic substances derived from natural resources. One of those naturally derived smart drugs includes phenibut. Phenibut is a popular nootropic agent known for its ability to help in decreasing anxiety, augmenting brain performance and improving one’s sleep patterns. Phenibut is actually a derivative of gamma amino butyric acid, hence its chemical name – Beta-phenyl-gamma amino butyric acid. It is more often used by some people suffering from social anxiety and depression in relieving their symptoms. In this review, we will discuss about phenibut’s mechanism of action, benefits, proper dosage and possible side effects.

What exactly is phenibut?

Phenibut is the modified version of GABA. GABA is one of the major brain chemicals acting as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It is naturally produced by the brain primarily to promote relaxation and calmness. Despite this, supplementing with GABA is not advisable as it is not able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). To help resolve this problem, scientists developed phenibut through modifying GABA and adding a phenyl ring. With phenibut, BBB is easily penetrated while the benefits of GABA are gleaned by phenibut users.

How does phenibut work?

GABA primarily works through calming the excited neurons in your brain. If it is available in sufficient amounts in the brain, it works by balancing brain chemistry. For instance, when some neurotransmitters act too rapidly, GABA will immediately act by preventing this excitation. Through maintaining balanced brain chemistry, we are able to experience calmness and well-being. Hence, if you have inadequate levels of GABA, you may experience persistent anxiety, irritation and agitation. You may also find it difficult to concentrate, think clearly and sleep peacefully.

Phenibut and GABA’s mode of action is yet to be revealed. Nonetheless, some literature shows that once it is able to cross the blood brain barrier, it immediately communicates and stimulates neuronal receptors, particularly GABA-A and GABA-B receptors. This mode of action is similar to how alcohol is able to stimulate these receptors to decrease feelings of stress and anxiety whilst promote sedation, muscle relaxation and reduction of inhibitions. This ability sets phenibut apart from other nootropic agents which mostly have the ability to stimulate its users.

What are the benefits of phenibut supplementation?

Numerous benefits have been associated with phenibut. Firstly, it is known as an excellent anxiolytic agent. It is able to decrease the anxiety and stress felt by its users through decreasing or eliminating overactive neuronal activities. Some users report that taking phenibut makes them feel serene, composed and less likely to experience worrying bouts.

Furthermore, it also has the ability to improve one’s cognitive organization through decreasing “over thinking.” Despite limited studies conducted regarding phenibut, there is some evidence proving that it may help in increasing the cognitive performance of individuals who are supplementing with this compound.  Studies show that it may be able to exhibit this improvement through enhancing the communication between the right and left brain hemispheres leading to creativity and higher problems solving abilities. It may further help in supporting better learning and memory.

Phenibut may also help in improving your sleep patterns. If you have trouble sleeping peacefully during the night, you might find it easier to sleep after taking phenibut and wake up feeling energetic and rested. More importantly, phenibut has neuroprotective properties. Some evidence points out that it helps in decreasing brain cell damage commonly occurring when there is increased levels of stress hormones in the brain. This is also the primary reason why phenibut may be able to produce some cardioprotective benefits to which it helps in decreasing ventricular pressure to the heart.

How much phenibut should you take?

The recommended dosage for phenibut is 250 mgs to 750 mgs, you may take more than this range but you should not exceed 1 g daily. We also recommend that you begin with a lower dose to evaluate the individual effects of phenibut to your body.

What are the side effects of phenibut supplementation?

Phenibut is generally safe for human consumption and has low toxicity. Nonetheless, you may experience some side effects particularly if you take it with other GABAergics such as alcohol. Some of these side effects include dizziness, light headedness, upset stomach, nausea, fatigue and headaches. Please do not take phenibut with alcohol to prevent these side effects. More importantly, you should follow the recommended dosage. It is also advisable that you do not use phenibut regularly as there are some reports about phenibut withdrawal.

rhosalie cruz
Nootropics Role in ADHD Treatment Mon, 23 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Nootropics are known to enhance cognitive abilities. And as more people discover its benefits, so are the different applications of this so called “smart drugs”. Nootropics are continuously being studied for its effects on various cognition and mental problems/disorders and this includes ADHD.

What is ADHD?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder and one of the most common brain disorders among children. Although ADHD can affect people of different ages, it often begins during childhood which could continue through adolescence and even to adulthood.

People with ADHD are usually impulsive, restless or overly active, and may have difficulty in paying attention. Although being impulsive, hyperactive and inattentive are common among children – these are also signs of ADHD and therefore, recognizing its signs and symptoms is an important step in addressing this disorder immediately.

Three Subtypes of ADHD

When referring to ADHD, many people usually think of a hyperactive child who doesn’t seem to keep still even for just a moment whilst ceaselessly disrupting people around him. Well this is only one picture in ADHD. There are other subtypes of ADHD which depends on the 3 key behaviors associated with this disorder.

The key behaviors associated with ADHD are impulsiveness, hyperactivity and inattention. And for children with ADHD, they usually exhibit this behavior more often and in a more severe manner. Another key indicator is that children with ADHD display these signs for 6 (or more) months and with a severity that is higher than other children their age.

Predominantly Inattentive Type

Inattentiveness is the dominant behavior of an individual having this type of ADHD. People having inattention type may have most or all of the following signs and symptoms:

  • Have difficulty maintaining, focusing or finishing a task.
  • Easily distracted, forget things and details
  • Can’t focus on one task and frequently switches between different activities
  • Have difficulty paying attention, following instructions and conversations.
  • Do not seem to listen and usually daydreams.
  • Have trouble processing information and moves slowly.

Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type

The hyperactive-impulsive type are restless and always in constant motion; talking, fidgeting, running, interrupting other people around them and doing things impulsively. People with this type of ADHD are more prone to accidents and injuries. Signs and symptoms of this include:

  • Incessant talking, usually about nonsense things.
  • Difficulty staying in one place, constantly on the move.
  • Can’t remain seated, squirming on their seats.
  • Excessive running, climbing or playing around.
  • Difficulty in doing quiet activities.
  • Constantly disturbs others with their constant motion and impulsive behavior.

Combined Type

This type is a combination of the Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive types of ADHD. Among the three, this is the most prevalent subtype of ADHD.

The Role of Nootropics in ADHD

The prevalence of ADHD worldwide is estimated to be between 5.29%-7.1%. In the U.S. alone, there’s an estimated 11% among ages 4-17 who have been diagnosed with ADHD. Treatment for ADHD includes the use of stimulant drugs, either used alone or accompanied with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or CBT.

Meanwhile, the use of stimulant drugs is with side effects which include: loss of appetite, difficulty in falling asleep, headache, stomach ache and sometimes increased blood pressure. Long-term use is even related to slower growth among children. Moreover, a user of stimulants has potential to abuse or get addicted to it. With these side effects, the number of people looking for alternative treatment is increasing – and one such alternative which is highly promising is nootropics.

Nootropics are widely used as a cognition enhancer. It helps boost memory, enhance learning, focus, attention span, mental clarity and even improves mood. And with these effects, there’s no wonder why many are interested in its potential as a treatment of ADHD. Like stimulant drugs, nootropics can help treat the different signs and symptoms associated with ADHD.

Improves Inattention

One effect of nootropics is to increase attention span and concentration. It works by increasing levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, particularly the dopamine and serotonin levels. Boosting dopamine is associated with concentration, focus for longer periods, motivation and better mental drive especially in finishing a specific activity. Consequently, nootropics also increase norepinephrine which is related in increasing the ability to pay attention.

Improves Learning and Memory

Forgetfulness, difficulty in processing information and poor school performance are just a few symptoms of ADHD. Nootropics are being used by students in sharpening cognitive abilities. In the same way , nootropics can be used in improving learning and memory of an individual with ADHD. Nootropics boost growth of neurons, stimulate various neurotransmitters in the brain, help regulate brain blood flow and even provide neuro-protective effects which benefits overall cognitive function.

Enhances Mood

A challenge among people with ADHD is staying mentally focused – and thus it is common to feel restless and fidgety. Frustration, anxiety and irritability may emerge from being unable to control oneself and this may worsen one’s symptoms. Nootropics can help improve mood and calm emotions by increasing neurotransmitters, especially GABA. This specific neurotransmitter reduces anxiety, lift mood and improve focus.

Nootropics provide a great potential as a treatment or at the least, as a supplement to current treatments available for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. While there aren’t much studies published regarding Nootropics’ effects in treating ADHD, it has promising effects which could be excellent direction for future research.


rhosalie cruz
Emoxypine: Benefits, Side Effects and Dosage Mon, 23 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000  

Note: This article is intended for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of Emoxypine or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Emoxypine (2-Ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine) is also known under different brand names including: Mexidol, Mexicor, Mexiprim, Mexifin and Metaprot. It is produced by Russian company Pharmasoft Pharmaceuticals primarily as an antioxidant although it is not approved for any medical purposes in both Europe and U.S. In Russia where Emoxypine was first developed and manufactured, emoxypine serves different application in the medical field.

It is notable that Emoxypine has a biochemical structure that resembles Pyridoxine, a form of Vitamin B6. With this semblance, some benefits of Pyridoxine are sometimes attributed to Emoxypine. Such benefits include function for the central nervous system and brain, as well as its positive influence to red and white blood cells formation.


The benefits that Emoxypine provides aid general health, in particular:

  • Emoxypine act as a Nootropic, whereas it is able to aid concentration and enhance cognition. Emoxypine do not act like other types of nootropics which influence or alter the behavior of various neurotransmitters in the brain like serotonin and norepinephrine. Instead, it works by protecting neurons from low oxygen and low glucose by regulating oxygen level in the brain whilst increase blood flow to the brain. Furthermore, it increases dopamine level in the brain which could help improve cognitive ability.
  • Emoxypine provides neuroprotective effects. Relative to its Nootropic behavior, emoxypine further helps increase focus and enhance learning and memory by protecting neurons from harmful free radicals which could cause damage to the brain’s neurons.
  • Another benefit of emoxypine is its anxiolytic effects. In studies conducted before, it was noted that emoxypine helps reduce feelings of anxiety. Moreover, there were no side effects (such as sedation) which are commonly associated with anxiolytic medications.
  • This drug is known to have anti-stress effects. It is being used by patients during their period of post-stress to help normalize and improve their behaviors.
  • Emoxypine is also known for its antioxidant properties. Accordingly, emoxypine’s main means of activity is its membrane-protective and antioxidant results. It enhances the activity of various antioxidant enzymes, particularly superoxide dismutase while it also inhibits the activity of free radicals which may cause damage to one’s health.
  • Emoxypine also displays anti-inflammatory properties. It can reduce severity of pain and it can further influence rapid recovery of the functions of peripheral nerves and even the spinal roots. In a study conducted in the past, emoxypine’s anti-inflammatory effects have been shown to significantly decrease the back pain involved in Lumbosacral Radiculopathy.
  • Emoxypine exhibits anti-addictive influence in alcohol. It decreases alcohol intoxication and can help prevent and even reverse the damages caused by constant frequent alcohol drinking. It also provides relief against the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.
  • It also exhibits direct coronarolytic effect whereas emoxypine can increase coronary blood flow which is beneficial for patients with coronary heart disease. It displays hypolipidemic action as it stabilizes lipid synthesis by decreasing LDL or bad cholesterol while increasing HDL or good cholesterol. It further improves condition of patients with coronary heart disease by normalizing oxidative stress.
  • This drug displays cardioprotective effects. It is known to inhibit the effects of ischemia, a condition which causes severe damage to brain and heart tissues. It exhibits anti-ischemic effects by normalizing metabolic processes in the ischemic myocardium whilst improving coronary blood flow and myocardial contraction.
  • Emoxypine can also enhance visual acuity by enhancing the function of the optic nerve and retina.
  • It is also observed that this drug inhibits platelet aggregation.
  • Emoxypine is also known because of its anti-hypoxia, anti-atherosclerosis and anticonvulsant mechanisms of action.

Side Effects

Emoxypine exhibited limited side effects which include:

  • Nausea
  • Dry mouth
  • Dyspepsia
  • Digestive system problems
  • Allergic reactions (e.g. rashes, sores, thrush)
  • Drowsiness


  • Recommended dosage is to take 125-250 mg thrice (3x) daily. The maximum dose daily should not exceed 800 mg.
  • For a therapeutic effect, take 1 to 2 pills of 125-250 mg of this drug daily. Gradually increase dosage.
  • The use of Emoxypine should be stopped gradually.
  • Usage for those under alcoholism withdrawal should be around 1week only.
  • Patients with coronary heart disease should use product at least within 1.5 to 2 months.

Drug Interactions:

  • It is observed that Emoxypine can reduce the toxic effects of ethanol (alcohol).
  • Emoxypine enhances activity by some drugs (i.e. anticonvulsants, anxiolytic, medications for Parkisnon’s disease)


  • Since there’s still insufficient knowledge and studies conducted about this drug, it is recommended that pregnant women, breastfeeding moms and those who are planning to get pregnant should avoid using this product without consulting a physician first.
  • Contraindicated against people with liver problems, renal dysfunction and hypersensitivity to emoxypine or any of its ingredient.
  • In a few cases, patients with asthma or sensitivity to sulfites may develop allergic reactions.


rhosalie cruz
Coluracetam: A close look to this new cognitive enhancing drug Sat, 21 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not endorse intake of coluracetam or any nootropic agent. Any undesirable effects from intake of coluracetam are sole responsibility of the user.

Coluracetam is currently gaining attention from nootropic enthusiasts nowadays. Despite being recently developed, it is aggressively penetrating the neuroenhancing drug market due to its purported potent beneficial effects on the human brain. In light of this, this article will provide a closer look on this newly developed cognitive enhancing drug.

Other names



N-(2,3-dimethyl-5,6,7,8- tetrahydrofuro[2,3-b] quinolin-4-yl)-2- (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide


Coluracetam was primarily developed in Japan. In 2005, the pharmaceutical company Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharmaceutical Company first obtained coluracetam’s patent. This patent was handed down to BrainCells Inc. later on. BrainCells Inc. is a drug manufacturing company that manufactures and creates pharmaceutical products geared to treat cognitive disorders. After gaining coluracetam’s patent, BrainCells Inc. conducted studies to evaluate its effects in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Results of this study revealed that coluracetam may be effective in treating MDD co-morbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). To date, coluracetam continues to be studied although no country has identified it other than as a research chemical.

What is coluracetam?

Coluracetam is a cognitive enhancing drug under the racetam family. Structurally, it has a modified pyrrolidine structure similar to its predecessors. It is primarily a cholinergic type of nootropic agent powerfully acting as a choline uptake enhancer. It helps in increasing the levels of choline in the brain and body.

How does coluracetam works?

Coluracetam has some definitive mechanisms of action. First, it is identified as a high affinity choline uptake (HACU). HACU is the uptake of choline (one of your body’s most essential nutrient) at the synaptic level aimed to promote synthesis of acetylcholine. As a HACU, coluracetam acts as a rate limiter allowing your brain to convert choline to acetylcholine easily. Through increasing the levels of your acetylcholine, your alertness, memory and focus are improved.

This nootropic agent is thought to help in potentiating your brain’s AMPA receptors. It does so through helping with AMPA potentiation resulting to better memory capacity and learning abilities. Coluracetam is further identified to help with glutaminergic neurotransmission. Some studies have shown that it was able to decrease the excitotoxicity caused by either calcium or glutamate influx further helping in repairing and giving a boost to several cognitive activities.

How should you use coluracetam?

Since coluracetam is a fairly new nootropic substance, there are limited studies regarding its effective dosage. Some studies however show that 240 mgs a day taken in divided doses is safe for human use. If you are unused or just starting out with coluracetam, we highly recommend that you take it one step at a time. Starting with a dose of 20 mgs will already provide beneficial effects. You can increase this dosage as you get used to it for optimal results.

What are the benefits of coluracetam?

A host of benefits have been associated with coluracetam supplementation. Some of these beneficial effects include:

  • Memory improvement (particularly amongst individuals with impaired memory processes)
  • Treatment for MDD with GAD patients
  • Anxiolytic
  • Treatment for depression
  • Improved decision making skills
  • Increased alertness
  • Enhanced focus
  • Better learning skills

User accounts also show that coluracetam helps in increasing motivation, cognition and moods particularly if stacked with other racetamic agents. Some nootropic enthusiasts deemed it helpful in improving vision acuity.

How long does coluracetam takes effect?

Coluracetam is a fast acting nootropic substance. 30 minutes after ingestion, you may already feel its positive effects on your body. Expect that its effect will decrease after 3 hours of oral intake. We therefore suggest that you divide your dosing accordingly.

Is coluracetam safe to use?

Studies done to assess coluracetam’s effectiveness reveal that oral intake of this nootropic agent for up to 240 mgs daily divided in 3 doses do not cause any untoward side effects. Hence, we suggest that you follow this dosing instruction. Headache, nausea and upset stomach may occur that is why it is critical that you assess your body’s response to this drug. To prevent headaches, some suggest that you take it with excellent choline sources such as Centrophenoxine and CDP Choline. You may skip this suggestion if you want as coluracetam is an excellent source of acetylcholine itself.

Coluracetam is an excellent nootropic agent that is able to exert its beneficial effects in the human body safely, immediately and efficiently. For these reasons, it is one of the most potent nootropic substances under the racetam family. Nonetheless, further studies are needed to unearth its positive effects on the body whilst identify how it should be taken for optimal results. Prospective users should always undertake precautionary measures before taking coluracetam.


rhosalie cruz
Fasoracetam: Benefits, side effects and dosage Sat, 21 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not endorse intake of fasoracetam or any nootropic agent. Any undesirable effects from intake of fasoracetam are sole responsibility of the user.

Piracetam was created to enhance human intelligence and from then on, the age of nootropic substance research and use began. Our innate curiosity and interest in improvement got the better of us bringing about the discovery of many other nootropic agents. Despite this, nobody could not deny the fact that piracetam remains to be one of the best choice for improving cognitive processes leading to the development of numerous piracetam analogues – all of which are considered more powerful than its predecessor.

One of the most potent piracetam derivatives includes fasoracetam. Although it is less popular compared to the other racetamic substances, its POTENCY is AT PAR to the MOST POWERFUL NOOTROPIC AGENTS available in the market today – noopept and sunifiram.


Fasoracetam was developed by Nippon Shinyaku primarily to treat a degenerative condition known as Alzheimer’s disease. It is currently being studied in genome medicine to evaluate its effectiveness in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) amongst a particular group of ADHD patients sharing a particular gene. There is limited study done on fasoracetam particularly on its effectiveness in treating Alzheimer’s disease and ADHD. Most of these studies are even done using animals. Moreover, it has never been approved for human use worldwide. Currently, fasoracetam is considered as a research chemical.

What is fasoracetam?

Fasoracetam is a member of the nootropic class – racetams. Racetams are substances famed for its ability to improve cognitive processes and modulate moods. Fasoracetam shares the same pyrrolidine nucleus on its chemical structure similar to other racetamic agents. It is currently gaining interest from nootropic users primarily because of its potency that extends beyond what piracetam can do. It also has the ability to improve one’s intellectual ability, improve motivation, decrease apathy, prevent anxiety and treat ADHD exciting both the medical community and nootropic enthusiasts.

What are the benefits of fasoracetam?

There are numerous beneficial effects associated with fasoracetam. These benefits include:

Increase motivation

Fasoracetam is thought to help in improving motivation amongst its users. Some studies have demonstrated that it may be effective in increasing motivation in animals. For instance, an animal study have shown that rats administered with fasoracetam were able to survive and swim in water while submersed in water while those rats that were not given this nootropic agent perished from drowning. Brain imaging studies done on these rats indicated that fasoracetam increased the amount of GABA B receptors in the animals brain whilst increase their perseverance, aggression and general energy. These rats were shown to have increased activity during this situation indicative of improved motivation and increased will to survive. Subjective reports from users support these findings stating that they experience better motivation after intake of fasoracetam.

Memory improvement

Similar to its predecessors, fasoracetam has the ability to improve one’s memory. It is able to improve numerous memory processes including memory organization, conversion to long term memory, recall, storage and retention. Some animal studies have also shown that it is effective in treating amnesia induced by scopolamine administration. This is also the primary reason why it might be effective in treating dementia amongst Alzheimer’s patients. Its ability to boost intellectual capacity and improve one’s motivation in doing mentally tedious tasks makes it an ideal study pill for students cramming for exams, assignments and papers.

Improve mood

Similar to most nootropic agents identified under the racetam family, fasoracetam may be effective in improving and modulating moods. It helps in relieving anxiety and apathy – both of which are barriers to effective and proficient learning.

ADHD treatment

Fasoracetam may also be effective in treating ADHD. Current research proves that it can help treat this medical condition and serve as an adjunct treatment method.

Other than these beneficial effects, user reviews show that fasoracetam helps in promoting mental clarity which may prove helpful amongst individuals on shift jobs requiring consistent cognitive activities. Some reports also show that it helps in preventing procrastination amongst others.

What are the side effects of fasoracetam?

Most common side effect associated with fasoracetam supplementation includes headaches. Although it is relatively safe for human use, some people might develop allergic reactions towards its components. Hence, it is highly recommended that you take great precautions before using fasoracetam. Pregnant and lactating mothers, as well as individuals suffering from any medical condition or are currently taking other medicines are not advised to take fasoracetam.

What is the proper dosage for fasoracetam?

No studies have established the appropriate dosage for fasoracetam supplementation. Although some other studies have shown that 100 mgs does not cause any severe untoward effects, experts suggest that 10 mgs a day sublingually is effective in producing its effects. Make sure that you don’t exceed the recommended dosage since fasoracetam is notably as potent as noopept.

rhosalie cruz
A review on the benefits of Fasoracetam Mon, 16 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of fasoracetam or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Fasoracetam was initially created to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Anecdotal and preclinical studies revealed that this neuro-enhancing drug may be effective as an anxiolytic and anti-depressant agent. Recent studies also show that it is a promising treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Considering that fasoracetam is relatively less known as compared to other nootropic agents, it is a very potent one. Numerous benefits were associated with fasoracetam supplementation. In this article, we will provide a deeper understanding of fasoracetam benefits and how it exerts these beneficial effects.

What is fasoracetam?

Fasoracetam is initially created to treat individuals suffering from symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Today, it is now being portrayed as a very potent nootropic agent with unique mechanism of actions. Basically, this nootropic agent belongs to the racetam family. It is one of the successors of piracetam, albeit the stronger one. Similar to its parent compound, it contains a pyrrolidine nucleus on its chemical structure. It is also able to provide its users benefits similar to what piracetam could give although at much lower doses.

How does fasoracetam exerts its beneficial effects?

This specific nootropic agent works in several ways.  It has demonstrated a noteworthy ability to increase the amount of GABA b receptors in the brain without affecting 5HT-2 and adreno receptors. This indicates that fasoracetam is able to exert its beneficial effects without causing the user to build tolerance to the drug. As such, you may use fasoracetam continuously without worrying that its potency will decrease. This specific ability makes it an ideal anti-depressant as many anti-depressants nowadays lead to many undesirable side effects (e.g. suicidal thoughts, impotency).

Fasoracetam further works through increasing the levels of acetylcholine in specific brain areas such as hippocampal region and cerebral cortex via high affinity choline uptake. Increasing the levels of acetylcholine in these brain regions have been shown to improve learning capacity and memory as acetylcholine is critical to memory and learning facilitation. These brain areas also play an important role in memory storage, formation, retention, organization and recall. Therefore, through increasing the levels of acetylcholine in the brain, these abilities will be greatly improved.

What are the benefits of fasoracetam?

Numerous benefits have been associated with fasoracetam use. Primarily, it is associated with better memory. As shown in one animal study, fasoracetam is able to repair scopolamine induced amnesia demonstrating its ability to improve memory. It is able to provide an intellectual boost to individuals who need it and unlock one’s great potential. Fasoracetam enhances intelligence fluidity leading to better recall, memory formation, organization and retrieval.

Fasoracetam was also associated to prevent learned helplessness amongst animals. In one study, it was revealed that rats that were administered with fasoracetam remained active when submersed in water while those that were not given drowned. Further brain studies on these animals revealed that fasoracetam were able to increase the amount of GABA receptors in the brain, aggression, energy and perseverance. This study only demonstrates that fasoracetam may be effective in promoting motivation amongst its users. Users’ accounts on their experiences while under the influence of fasoracetam corroborate these study results stating that they feel highly motivated in doing certain activities which they normally find tedious, time consuming and difficult.

Anecdotal evidence and user reports show that fasoracetam helps in boosting mood, eliminating anxiety and prevent procrastination. It has been associated with better motivation and mental clarity. More importantly, it may be an effective treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and ADHD.

Why use fasoracetam?

Although fasoracetam is not as popular as piracetam and other known nootropic agents, you may want to try this nootropic agent as it is very potent. Its potency is even considered to be comparable with sunifiram and noopept. Second, your brain will never develop tolerance with fasoracetam. You may use it continuously as your last dosage intake is likely to be effective as your initial intake. Hence, you may opt not to cycle fasoracetam. In addition, fasoracetam is not addictive as it does not influence your monoamine neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine, epinephrine, serotonin).

Is fasoracetam safe to use?

Generally, fasoracetam is safe to use. No studies have shown any severe side effects with fasoracetam intake, nonetheless, note that it is not yet approved for human consumption or as a vitamin or supplement. Some mild side effects associated with fasoracetam supplementation is headaches. You may be able to prevent this side effect by stacking fasoracetam with any excellent choline source.


Fasoracetam is a very effective drug. It has numerous beneficial effects that range from improving your memory and mood to preventing procrastination. More importantly, it does not cause tolerance and is non-addictive. Hence, you may want to use it on your daily nootropic stack.


rhosalie cruz
Highlight: Fasoracetam and Coluracetam Mon, 16 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of fasoracetam coluracetam or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of these nootropic substances are sole responsibility of the user.

Use of cognitive enhancing substances started ages ago from use of caffeine to several herbs – all of which are known to improve both physical and intellectual abilities. Interest on synthetic smart drugs further caught up with the discovery of piracetam. Today, piracetam is backed up with numerous studies proving its ability to improve memory, focus, attention, and learning capacity.

Piracetam is categorized as racetamic nootropic agent. After the inherent success of this nootropic agent, other racetamic substances follow suit. Some of its potent successors include noopept, oxiracetam and pramiracetam. Two of the newest nootropic substances under the racetam family include fasoracetam and coluracetam. This article will cover these new racetam supplements to help you understand how these neurocognitive drugs work, its benefits, and potential side effects.


Chemical name: (5R)-5-(piperidine-1-carbonyl) pyrrolidin-2-one

What is fasoracetam?

Fasoracetam is one of the newest derivatives of piracetam. Similar to its parent compound, fasoracetam contains the characteristic pyrrolidine structure of all racetamic agents. Despite this similarity, fasoracetam is more potent than piracetam. Its efficiency in improving numerous memory processes naturally caught the attention of nootropic enthusiasts.

How does fasoracetam works?

Fasoracetam works through binding with the GABA receptors in the brain. It specifically works on excitatory GABA receptors thereby stimulating several brain processes. Fasoracetam is also known to stimulate metabotropic glutamate receptors which can increase your intelligence for up to 30% more.

This nootropic drug also works through stimulating your brain’s cyclic adenosine monophosphate – a secondary messenger necessary for many biological reactions. Through this mechanism, it is able to treat several cognitive problems (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD). It is also able to stimulate the HCN brain channels which enable improved cognitive capacity of elderly patients.

Furthermore, fasoracetam improves choline uptake particularly that it has high affinity for choline. It acts similarly with coluracetam whereas it works as a positive modulator of choline receptors thereby increasing your cognitive functioning.

Conclusively, fasoracetam works through three different mechanisms. First, it works on the excitatory GABA receptors of the brain, stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate and increase choline uptake. These mechanisms now enable fasoracetam to improve your cognitive functioning.

What are the benefits of fasoracetam intake?

Some benefits associated with fasoracetam include the following:

  • Enhanced memory
  • Alzheimer’s disease treatment
  • ADHD treatment
  • Increased learning abilities
  • Improved attention
  • Better focus
  • Potent anti-depressant
  • Decreased anxiety
  • Enhanced mental clarity
  • Improved motivation

Anecdotal evidence and some animal studies using fasoracetam revealed that this nootropic agent is very potent in improving memory and learning capacity.

What are the probable side effects of fasoracetam intake?

Fasoracetam is relatively safe for use; nonetheless, it is not yet approved for human consumption. Hence, precautions must be taken to evaluate its effects on your body. Some side effects may include headaches, dizziness, nausea and gastrointestinal distress.


Code name: BCI-540

What is coluracetam?

Similar to fasoracetam, coluracetam is a racetamic agent that contains a pyrrolidine nucleus on its chemical structure. It was initially developed by a Japanese pharmaceutical company as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Its patent was obtained by BrainCells.Inc thereafter. The drug company funded a study to evaluate coluracetam’s efficiency in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). Results of this particular study revealed that it may be effective in treating MDD.

How does coluracetam works?

Coluracetam has similar mechanism of actions with fasoracetam. It is able to exert its effects on the human mind through acting as a choline uptake enhancer. It increases choline levels in the brain whilst stimulate the activities of this essential protein. Through this mechanism, it is able to increase the levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Acetylcholine is a powerful brain chemical thought to play a critical role in learning capacity, memory formation and other cognitive processes.

This particular nootropic substance is also though to potentiate the activities of AMPA receptors in the brain. Through this mechanism, glutamatergic activities are increased leading to improved synaptic plasticity. Note that synaptic plasticity is central to the development of new connections in the brain crucial for the creation of new memories.

What are the benefits of coluracetam?

Some benefits associated with coluracetam supplementation include:

  • Improved memory formation and retention
  • Enhanced conversion of short term to long term memory
  • Better concentration
  • Mood enhancer
  • Potent memory booster
  • Energy booster

User reports associate coluracetam supplementation with sound and color enhancement.

What are the probable side effects of coluracetam use?

Coluracetam is safe for human use; however, it is not yet approved for human consumption. Hence, it is crucial that you first evaluate its effects on your body before continuous supplementation. Since it is a potent nootroopic substance, you might experience some side effects. Some of its mild side effects include headaches and dizziness.


Fasoracetam and coluracetam are newly discovered nootropic agents under the racetam family. Both substances are potent in improving memory, learning capacity, attention, mood, and focus. However, these nootropic agents are relatively new in the market, hence; we highly suggest that you take extra precautionary measures before intake of these neuro-enhancing drugs

rhosalie cruz
Things you need to know about oxiracetam Thu, 12 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of oxiracetam or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

What is oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is a nootropic agent more popularly known as an off label cognitive enhancing agent and a mild stimulant. It has been dubbed as five times more active than your typical piracetam in exerting its effects on memory and other cognitive functioning.


Oxiracetam was developed in Italy during the 1970’s. It has been marketed in late 1980’s and has been distributed in European markets thereafter. It has also reached Japan after being licensed by a Japanese pharmaceutical company, to date however, the US Food and Drug Administration has not approved oxiracetam as a drug or supplement.

Unlike its predecessors, oxiracetam is not used by healthcare providers to treat mental disorders. Several animal trials however revealed that it may be effective in improving brain health and preventing cognitive decline. Human studies have also revealed that it may help in treating Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and abuse of organic solvents. These trials have renewed interest towards using oxiracetam in enhancing cognitive functioning for both young and elderly individuals.

What does it looks like?

Oxiracetam is available in various forms such as capsules, tablet and powder. Powdered oxiracetam is whitish in color and has crystalline like formation.

How does it work? 

The mechanism of action of oxiracetam remains to be a mystery. Nonetheless, experts thought that this nootropic substance works through influencing two of the most important neurotransmitters in the brain – acetylcholine and glutamate. Both these neurotransmitters play major roles in thought processing, memory formation, attention, focus and learning. Oxiracetam is thought to help in increasing the levels of these powerful brain chemicals creating more connections between the neurons thereby leading to better cognitive functioning.


Upon ingestion, your gastrointestinal tract will absorb oxiracetam. It is water soluble and immediately exerts its effects in the body, hence, you may be able to feel some of its effects in as fast as 25 minutes. When it reaches the receptor sites of acetylcholine and glutamate, it will bind to them and prevent the breakdown of these neurotransmitters. As a result, the levels of these brain chemicals in the brain increase whilst work more effectively. Through working on both neurotransmitters, oxiracetam is now able to promote improvement on your brain plasticity and communication.

What are the side effects of oxiracetam?

One of the most important things you need to know about oxiracetam are the potential risks of usage. It is a very potent supplement. As such, we recommend that you use it appropriately.

When asked about its safety, we would like you to know that this particular nootropic agent has low toxicity. It is well tolerated by humans and is relatively safe for use. Nonetheless, its effects vary from one person to another. Hence, some may experience some side effects. These side effects include:


Numerous users report headaches after intake of oxiracetam. Headaches occur as similar to other racetams, oxiracetam works through facilitating the levels of acetylcholine and glutamate in the brain. Our brain then needs to have adequate acetylcholine supply to keep up with the higher demand. To prevent this side effect, you must consider taking some form of choline supplement when supplementing with oxiracetam. Most oxiracetam users report elimination of headaches when stacking oxiracetam with choline. Excellent sources of choline include citicoline and alpha GPC.

Upset stomach, nausea and dizziness

Experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. upset stomach, diarrhea), nausea and dizziness are most commonly experienced by individuals who are supplementing oxiracetam exceeding its recommended dosage. Note that oxiracetam is a powerful nootropic agent. Hence it is not recommended that you take more than the suggested dose. More importantly, an added dosage has no positive effects to the user; rather, it will cause these aforementioned symptoms. If you experience these symptoms, you must immediately stop taking oxiracetam. These symptoms will be gone in a day or two after stopping oxiracetam intake.

Nervousness, anxiety and insomnia

Nervousness, anxiety and insomnia are some of the less reported side effects of oxiracetam. These side effects are caused by the mild psychostimulatory effects of oxiracetam. Some individuals experience these symptoms because reaction to oxiracetam differs from user to user. These symptoms are mild, and may go away on its own after your body get used to this nootropic substance. You may opt to stack oxiracetam with aniracetam to prevent anxiety and sleep problems.

How much oxiracetam should I take?

Experts recommend that you take 600 to 800 mgs (in 2 to 3 divided doses) of oxiracetam for your daily supplementation. We suggest that you start with low doses on you first week of usage to evaluate your body’s response to oxiracetam.

rhosalie cruz
Incredible beneficial effects of acetyl l-carnitine in the brain Wed, 11 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of acetyl l-carnitine or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Acetyl l-carnitine is an essential nutrient with increased bioavailability that helps in promoting brain health, metabolism (fat metabolism), stress tolerance and overall health. Unlike l-carnitine, acetyl l-carnitine is considered as fat soluble. More importantly, it is highly active within the nerves, hence, it is able to protect the body from damage due to stress and toxicity.

It is one of the few nutrients that are able to produce synergistic and robust effect on your neurons. It helps in energy production and cellular health. It is has also neuroprotective properties which protects your nerve cells as well as help in cell regeneration.

Acetyl l-carnitine and l-carnitine: A brief comparison

L-carnitine is commonly known for its ability to help improve physical performance amongst athletes and individuals who has physically exhausting occupation. Acetyl l-carnitine on the other hand is known for its ability to improve cognitive performance due to its ability to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) easily. These supplements have similar chemical structures; the only difference is the presence of acetyl group in acetyl l-carnitine’s structure. Despite their similar structure, these supplements work differently. Acetyl l-carnitine is involved with improvement in memory, perception, analysis, critical thinking, computation, learning and other cognitive functioning.

How does acetyl l-carnitine works in the brain?

Acetyl l-carnitine’s mechanism of action remains to be unclear. Early and recent studies however indicate that its beneficial effects may be associated with its ability to regulate mitochondrial metabolism. This essential nutrient plays an important role in cellular energy dissemination and production. As an important cofactor of long chain fatty acid transmission, it is able to facilitate the metabolic pathways through the mitochondria. As such, it is now able to move across the BBB reaching the certain brain areas where acetylic groups are usually delivered. It modifies these acetylic groups to activate coenzyme A, decrease peroxidation, improve neurotransmitter synthesis and sustain intramitochondrial salvage trails. More importantly, it is able to maintain the fluidity of the cell membrane, enhance cellular energy production and inhibit death of brain cells.

Another mechanism associated with acetyl l-carnitine is its ability to increase acetylcholine levels in the brain. These cholinergic effects are facilitated through blocking post-synaptic inhibition leading to increased levels of acetylcholine. Increased levels of acetylcholine are associated with better synaptic plasticity and enhanced memory processes. Several studies suggest that it is able to stimulate nerve synaptic activities and promote nerve growth factor production.

Acetyl l-carnitine and the aging brain

Acetyl  l-carnitine most popular beneficial effects includes its ability to help improve the aging brain. Cognitive problems such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia are problems that are related to the normal wear and tear the brain experiences as we age. Aging results to the formation of amyloid plaques in the brain causing symptoms of AD and other symptoms of age-related cognitive decline. Acetyl l-carnitine is able to address these problems in several ways. First, acetyl l-carnitine is able to promote better nerve cell health leading to lesser formation of damaging beta-amyloid plaques. It also helps through preserving the levels of BDNF helping production and repair of neurons. BDNF may also help in reversing and preventing the damaging effects of AD in the brain.

In addition, acetyl l-carnitine helps in metabolizing cholesterol and fats in the brain to prevent these lipids in accumulating and clogging brain functioning. Its ability to metabolize these excess lipids is the primary reason why cholesterol is less likely to turn into beta amyloid plaques. Acetyl l-carnitine has been associated with the removal of damaged fatty particles from excess alcohol intake. Eliminating these fatty particles helps prevent free radical production and damage from too much alcohol consumption.

Acetyl l-carnitine helps eliminate toxins in the brain. Eradicating these toxins helps normal neuronal energy production take place. Sustaining energy brain production helps in regulating mood and slows down the rate of the brain’s normal wear and tear. Some studies revealed that it can even help in decrease nerve destruction amongst animal models.

Several studies also revealed that acetyl -carnitine may be effective in increasing overall nerve transmission. This shows that acetyl l-carnitine may be effective in treating patients suffering from diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It may help in decreasing nerve pain, promote nerve regeneration and improve nerve conduction amongst diabetics.

Acetyl l-carnitine may also be effective in decreasing oxidative damage and inflammation of the brain. Supplementing with acetyl l-carnitine helps in decreasing damage from free radicals and help reverse the problem. Aside from decreasing free radical damage, acetyl l-carnitine may also be effective in eliminating lipofuscin accumulation in the brain.


rhosalie cruz
Phenylpiracetam: Benefits, side effects and risks Wed, 11 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of phenylpiracetam or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Nootropic agents are relatively safe for both animal and human use. It offers a host of benefits from neuroprotection, cognitive enhancement, mood regulation to physical ability enhancement. However, more potent ones tend to have side effects. Phenylpiracetam is one of the strongest nootropic compounds available today. It is even said to be 60 times more powerful than its parent compound – piracetam. Despite having similar structure with piracetam, it offers unique psychostimulatory effects.

What are the benefits of phenylpiracetam?

Phenylpiracetam helps in improving memory, recall, attention and learning. It works through increasing your brain’s ability to uptake choline. Note that choline is responsible for memory formation and recall, hence, increasing levels of choline in the brain may help in improving your memory. Many users swore that it helps in increasing their memory retention to intricate concepts and details enhance their attention span, prevents distraction and fatigue when doing mentally exhausting activities. It also helps in increasing user concentration, overall alertness and decrease anxiety levels. Moreover, it is said to help in an individual’s ability to interact and communicate better.

Athletes can also benefit from phenylpiracetam use as it can help in boosting not only their focus but also their energy. It also helps in increasing reaction time, recovery, endurance, and perceptual awareness during physically exhausting activities. It is useful to increase tolerance against pain and cold primarily due to its ability to improve the body’s overall response to stress. Moreover, not only will phenylpiracetam help in improving your mental and physical abilities, it is known to help in increasing productivity and motivation levels as well. The novel characteristics of phenylpiracetam make it one of the strongest nootropic substance available today.

Is phenylpiracetam safe to use?

Similar to most nootropic agents, pehnylpiracetam is relatively safe to use. It has low toxicity hence; most users can tolerate it with limited reports of side effects which are usually mild. There are some important precautionary measures to remember when taking this supplement. You may also take several steps to prevent any of its undesirable side effects.

What are the side effects of phenylpiracetam?

Common side effects of phenylpiracetam include the following:

  • Headaches (most common)
  • Nausea
  • Irritability (anxiety)
  • Nervousness
  • Gastrointestinal disturbance (upset stomach, diarrhea)

When should I use phenylpiracetam?

If you are a student, a known output obsessed worker or someone who just needs a boost on your productivity, then, phenylpiracetam is the right nootropic agent for you. It is a great study pill for students for their last night cramming sessions or  for those who need to stay fully alert and awake for studying or finishing a long due paper or project. You may use it before a scheduled examination to improve your mental energy, learning capacity, memory and recall. Anecdotal evidence also revealed that it can help in increasing one’s mood and overall motivation. More importantly, it helps in relieving anxiety and stress, hence, it is one of the few nootropic substance to help you during a big, hard, upcoming examination.

Phenylpiracetam can also be used by athletes to reduce stress, remove negative effects (mental and physical exhaustion) brought about by tough training and improve overall endurance capabilities, stamina and recovery. As it is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), we suggest that athletes supplement with it during trainings as a pre-workout supplement.

Generally, phenylpiracetam can be taken by those who are interested in increasing their mental and physical energy levels. This supplementary energy has no amphetamine-like side effects such as a sudden bout of depression, crash, jitteriness, anxiety, let alone nervousness when its effects wear off. As such, phenylpiracetam is relatively safer to use.

Precautionary measures

Despite being identified as having low toxicity and safe for human use. We would like to reiterate that certain precautions must be considered when taking phenylpiracetam or any other nootropic substance. First, we recommend that you take phenylpiracetam on its recommended dosage to avoid the aforementioned side effects. If you experience any undesirable, severe symptoms, stop taking phenylpiracetam and consult a doctor. Also, we suggest that lactating or pregnant mothers, individuals suffering from any medical condition or is taking some medications (either prescribed or non-prescribed drugs) consult with their primary healthcare provider.

On your first intake of phenylpiracetam, it is important that you take a small dose to evaluate how your body reacts on it. Note that the effects of phenylpiracetam or any other nootropic agents vary from one person to another. Please understand that long-term intake leads to tolerance. Hence, you might want to cycle phenylpiracetam taking a week off or a few days off this nootropic agent in a week.


rhosalie cruz
Oxiracetam for boosting mental capacity Mon, 09 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake ofoxiracetam or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Oxiracetam is one of the best nootropic substances under the racetam family. It has been associated with numerous benefits including improved cognitive functioning, mental energy, attention span, focus, memory and alertness. It was also identified as an AMPAkine drug due to its ability to stimulate AMPA receptors in the brain leading to better learning and memory recall and formation. Its effects are quite similar to other nootropic drugs under the racetam family (e.g. aniracetam, piracetam, pramiracetam), however, it is considered to be more potent than its parent compound – piracetam. Despite these similarities, it has a host of beneficial effects that are unlike other racetamic agents. For instance, it has a slightly stimulatory property which makes it an effective supplement for better focus and alertness. Moreover, it is known to be water soluble making it easy to take. The body is able to metabolize it easier as well, however, it is critical that you follow the recommended dosage for oxiracetam to prevent adverse events. If you are interested in learning how to use oxiracetam to boost your mental capacity, here are some things you need to know.

How oxiracetam works in improving memory

The exact mechanism of oxiracetam remains to be a mystery.  Studies however suggest that it is able to interfere with the production of glutamate and acetylcholine. Note that acetylcholine plays a role in activating PNS muscles and in maintaining attention in the CNS while glutamate is necessary in maintaining neuronal transmissions, memory formation and learning. It is also known to act as a neuromodulator to increase learning ability and short-term memory recall.

It is also known to act as a memory enhancer through increasing long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. It also helps in improving the efficiency of glutamate release leading to stimulation of the AMPA receptors. Through activating these receptors, a major intermediary protein for memory creation known as protein kinase C is activated. More importantly, it helps in promoting the secretion of acetylcholine in the brain.

Furthermore, it appears that this particular nootropic agent has the ability to facilitate glutamatergic neurotransmission and cholinergic transmission – all of which result to enhanced learning and memory abilities. Note however that it does not have the anxiolytic properties of aniracetam and other similar nootropic agents.

Beneficial effects of oxiracetam

Oxiracetam is a very potent nootropic agent. It can be used alone or stacked with other racetams or nootropic agents for improved potency. It is also known as an ideal study pill for its ability to help in improving memory formation and recall and in exerting stimulatory effects. Other than increasing memory, anecdotal evidence and pre-clinical studies revealed that it helps in improving sensory perception, focus, learning capacity, technical thinking and critical thinking abilities. Numerous studies are currently being undertaken to assess oxiracetam’s ability to treat medical conditions such as dementia, organic solvent abuse, Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders. Some have found this nootropic substance as useful in treating age related degenerative cognitive conditions as it known to exert some powerful neuroprotective mechanisms.

Is oxiracetam effective?

Please note that the effects of oxiracetam vary from one person to another. Hence, you may experience some palpable benefits while others may experience subtle or slight improvements. If this is the case for you, you may try stacking oxiracetam with other potent nootropic substances.

Safety of oxiracetam

Whens used appropriately and in recommended dosages, oxiracetam is relatively safe to use. It has low toxicity and there is little risk for overdose. Some of its side effects include fatigue, headache, and gastrointestinal problems – all of which can be resolved if you lower your intake. We also recommend that you take it with some excellent choline sources such as CDP choline or Alpha GPC to prevent headaches.

Precautionary measures

Since oxiracetam is not recognized as safe for human consumption in most countries, we recommend that you follow some precautionary measures below.

  • Do not exceed recommended dosage.
  • Take oxiracetam as directed by the manufacturer.
  • Take oxiracetam at a lower dose upon initial usage to observe for any untoward reaction to the supplement.
  • Lactating mothers and pregnant women should not take oxiracetam unless otherwise stated by your primary healthcare provider.
  • Individuals suffering from any medical condition must consult your physician to assess if oxiracetam is safe for your use.
  • If you are taking other prescribed or non-prescribed medications, we highly recommend that you ask for your doctor’s advice whether oxiracetam is safe for your use as unwarranted drug interaction may occur.
  • If you experience any side effects from taking oxiracetam, please stop your supplementation.



rhosalie cruz
Centrophenoxine review: Benefits, dosage, side effects and stacking Mon, 09 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of centrophenoxine or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Despite being the lesser understood nootropic supplement, centrophenoxine is a very powerful neuro enhancing nootropic substance available in the market today. It has been studied by researchers for the past five decades; hence, it is only apt to say that it is an effective smart drug safe for human use. Centrophenoxine is also known to enhance cognitive performance particularly in the areas of focus, concentration, alertness, attention, learning and memory. A number of studies have also shown that it can help in boosting brain health through improving cellular function and decreasing the rate of neuronal aging. It also helps in promoting improved neuronal performance by eliminating the toxic wastes (lipofuscin and potassium) that naturally accumulates in your neurons. More importantly, it is known to be an excellent source of acetylcholine. In this guide, we will be discussing about the benefits, dosage, side effects and stacking of centrophenoxine.

What is centrophenoxine?

Centrophenoxine, also known by its trade names – Lucidril and Meclofenoxate, is a well-known nootropic agent that has some potent effects in decreasing the rate of aging amongst its users. It is a compound of parachlorophenoxyacetate and dimethyaminoethanol (DMAE). In many ways however, it is considered to be more potent than its parent compound, DMAE. Being the enhanced version of DMAE, centrophenoxine is able to exert the beneficial effects of the said cognitive enhancing agent in addition to its anti-aging properties.

What are the benefits of centrophenoxine supplementation?

In a cognitive standpoint, studies and anecdotal evidence have shown that centrophenoxine supplementation can help in improving attention, focus, and learning capacity. It is also known to influence any memory processes including memory recall, formation, retention and conversion of short term memory to long term memory.

Studies have also shown to positively influence Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and other age related memory decline/deterioration. It is known to improve memory loss amongst both healthy and elderly individuals who are supplementing with centrophenoxine. It significantly helps in improving memory recall and in converting recent information/data to long term memory.

Individuals suffering from dementia symptoms also report positive effects after supplementing wit meclofenoxate. Some studies give evidence on its efficiency to slow down rate of age related memory decline through enhancing intracellular water content and in increasing cell division. Centrophenoxine is thought to increase the rate of cell division through preventing the accumulation of potassium and lipofuscin in the neuronal cells which leads to the decreased rate of cellular aging.

What are the possible side effects of centrophenoxine supplementation?

Many studies have shown that centrophenoxine has low toxicity to humans. It has been proven to be relatively safe for human use. However, since it is a potent neuro enhancing agent, some users may experience mild undesirable effects such as irritability, headaches, nervousness, fatigue, nausea, difficulty sleeping and gastrointestinal issues (e.g. diarrhea). At much higher doses, centrophenoxine may lead to jaw clamping. If these rare effects occur, it is suggested that you discontinue centrophenoxine use for a few days until these symptoms are resolved or lower your dose at recommended levels.

How should you use centrophenoxine?

The recommended daily dose for centrophenoxine is 500 to 1000 mgs. It is suggested that younger individuals take 250 to 500 mgs a day while elderly individuals take 750 to 1000 mgs a day for optimal results. We recommend however that you stay within this range to prevent the abovementioned side effects.

You may opt to take centrophenoxine once a day or split your target dose to 2 – 3 divided doses. It is highly recommended that you take it in the morning or not later than midday as it is known to increase your energy which may keep you awake at night. However, if you wish to work at night or pull an all nighters, then you may take centrophenoxine later in the afternoon.

Lactating and pregnant mothers should not take centrophenoxine. If you are suffering from any medical condition or is taking any other supplements or medications, we recommend that you consult your doctor before using centrophenoxine. Unknown drug to drug interactions may occur if centrophenoxine is used with other medications, drugs, or supplements.

Centrophenoxine stacking

Centrophenoxine’s potential beneficial effects are increased when stacked with other nootropic agents. Some nootropic substances that may help potentiate centrophenoxine’s effect include racetams and acetyl L-carnitine. This particular nootropic agent is best stacked with piracetam not only because it works synergistically. Piracetam signals the brain to produce more acetylcholine while centrophenoxine makes it probable for your brain to produce more acetylcholine. Note that centrophenoxine is an excellent source of choline – a precursor of acetylcholine. Therefore, centrophenoxine and piracetam stack is recommended if you want to potentiate both nootropic supplements’ beneficial effects to your body.



rhosalie cruz
Phenylpiracetam dosage for optimal results Fri, 06 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of phenylpiracetam or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Phenylpiracetam is one of the most potent neuro enhancing drugs known to man today. Due to its high potency, it was even identified as 60 times more powerful than its original parent compound – piracetam. The cognitive and physical benefits of phenylpiracetam are truly remarkable! Its ability to increase your learning capacity, enhance speed of memory recall and formation and improve rational and critical thinking skills whilst help increase your stamina, endurance and recovery during physically stressful conditions make it an ideal supplement for students, productivity freaks and athletes. Nonetheless, how much phenylpiracetam should you take to experience these beneficial effects? What is likely to happen if you take more than its recommended dosage? If you want to know more, then we suggest that you continue reading.

How does phenylpiracetam works?

Phenylpiracetam has a similar structure with piracetam. The only difference is the benzene phenyl ring attached on its structure. Having this unique feature makes this particular nootropic agent cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) easier than what its parent compound is able to do. This is also the primary reason why it has a hundred percent biovailability. Despite the fact that scientists are unable to completely explain how phenylpiracetam works, experts believed that it works through facilitating several chemicals and receptor sites on the brain including dopamine, acetylcholine, acetylcholine receptor sites, GABA and NDMA. Phenylpiracetam works by binding with neurotransmitter receptors enhancing the latters’ sensitivity thereby leading to responsiveness and increased neurotransmitter levels in the brain. Note that dopamine facilitates moods, attention, focus and muscle movements while GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter which help us relax and calm down.

Best phenylpiracetam dosage for beginners

Just starting out with nootropic supplementation? If that’s the case, please be reminded that phenylpiracetam is a very potent nootropic agent. Hence, there is a higher risk of experiencing undesirable side effects from phenylpiracetam use. We highly suggest that you take lower doses of phenylpiracetam to assess how your body reacts on it. If you have zero experience on nootropic supplementation, it is advisable that you take other weaker supplements such as piracetam.

Users with fewer experiences with nootropics should opt of taking 50 mgs of phenylpiracetam per day. You may do this early in the morning or in the middle of the day as this particular nootropic agent has psychostimulatory effects which could interfere with your sleep pattern. However, you may take it in the afternoon or in the evening if you are planning to put up an all nighters or if you want to use it as a pre-workout supplement. Also, it is highly advisable that you cycle phenylpiracetam as you may develop tolerance. As such, it would be best if you take it as needed (e.g. before a difficult test, business presentation or a competition). As your body gets used to phenylpiracetam, you may increase your intake of no more than 300 mgs a day. However, if you experience any untoward signs and symptoms, please stop taking phenylpiracetam.

Best phenylpiracetam dosage for experts

If you have a wide range of experience using nootropics agents including phenylpiracetam, you are now aware that even with your expertise, precautionary measures are still needed. Please bear in mind that phenylpiracetam works on your catecholamine levels and adrenergic systems causing stimulatory effects on your body. This in mind, it is not important that you control your intake to the recommended dosages. We do not encourage that you take more than what was recommended particularly that it may lead to receptor down-regulation instead of the other way around. You could start with a hundred mg of phenylpiracetam daily in 1 take or 2 divided doses.

If you have been using phenylpiracetam for a while now, you might want to try larger doses. Still, you should do it with precautions. Ensure that you listen to what your body tells you with high dose intake. More importantly, please do not take more than 300 mgs a day. If you experience any untoward signs and symptoms, please stop taking phenylpiracetam.

The importance of cycling phenylpiracetam

Please bear in mind that it is not advisable for you to take phenylpiracetam for long term. You should cycle it meaning, you must schedule your use and non-use of this supplement. Scheduling days of phenylpiracetam nonuse is important to prevent developing tolerance towards this nootropic substance. Ideally, you may want to use phenylpiracetam only when you need it, say, before an exam or a competition.

You might also want to consider stacking phenylpiracetam with other nootropic substances. You may use it along with some excellent choline sources (e.g. CDP choline, alpha GPC) to prevent headaches whilst potentiate its effects.







rhosalie cruz
The wonders of Acetyl L-carnitine Fri, 06 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of acetyl l-carnitine or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Acetyl L-carnitine is an essential amino acid that has numerous beneficial effects. It is a vital nutrient critical to improving your body’s capacity to produce and utilize energy within the cells. As sich, it is now able to produce a host of benefits from improved cellular functioning and metabolism. Some of its well-known benefits include better physical performance, increased mental abilities, enhanced energy, focus and general health. Today, acetyl l-carnitine is being prescribed for treating medical conditions such as heart and muscle diseases. Some of its non-medical use however includes cognitive and physical ability enhancement.

What is acetyl l-carnitine?

Acetyl l-carnitine is an altered version of an essential supplement known as L-carnitine. Acetyl l-carnitine’s chemical structure has slight difference with l-carnitine. This difference however makes acetyl l-carnitine more bioavailable – meaning, it is able to easily cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to improve cognitive functioning in ways that its parent compound is unable to.

Acetyl L-carnitine’s nootropic effects

Acetyl l-carnitine’s nootropic effects are associated with its ability to protect the brain from damage due to aging. It has anti-oxidant properties to which it is able to help in eliminating toxins and other chemical wastes that accumulates in the brain tissues as we age. Its ability to cross the blood brain barrier easily makes it effective in protecting the neurons from oxidation associated damage. This mechanism gives acetyl l-carnitine the ability to enhance and improve neurons and its neuronal structures with prolonged supplementation.

Its anti-oxidant properties extend to its ability to eliminate lipofuscin accumulation not only from your brain cells but throughout your body. Lipofuscin is a toxic waste product that is comprised of fats. This toxic waste accumulates on the cells of your skin, lungs and heart. It appears as brown spots “liver spots” on the skin as you age.

Lipofuscin accumulation is a normal process that happens within our bodies. However, excessive lipofuscin build up can damage your normal cell functioning that may lead to medical conditions and memory problems. Experts associate lipofuscin accumulation to several neurological problems including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Acetyl l-carnitine has the ability to eliminate lipofuscin from the cells and reverse its effects in the body whilst slow down the rate of the aging process.

Other beneficial effects of acetyl l-carnitine

Aside from its neuroprotectant properties, acetyl l-carnitine has the ability to treat numerous medical conditions. This is the primary reason why this potent nootropic agent is truly a wonder. Some of these beneficial effects include:

Treatment for Alzheimer’s disease

Numerous studies have discovered that the main culprit behind Alzheimer’s disease is decreased levels of acetylcholine. Note that acetyl l-carnitine helps in the production and synthesis of acetylcholine, hence, this particular nootropic supplement may be able to help in treating Alzheimer’s disease. Studies revealed that combining acetyl l-carnitine with rivastigmine is beneficial for Alzheimer’s disease patients who are not responsive to acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment.

Treatment for sciatic pain                                                                                  

Some studies suggest that acetyl l-carnitine has peripheral nerve regeneration, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. It may be able to treat substantial neuropathic pain, hence, it may be effective in treating sciatic pain.

Treatment for minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE)

MHE is one of the most frequent complications associated to individuals suffering from liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by high levels of ammonia which leads to problems with psychomotor functioning, memory, personality, concentration, and reaction time. Acetyl l-carnitine is able to decrease serum ammonia levels and enhance numerous neuropsychological functioning.

Improve cardiovascular health

Acetyl l-carnitine has been associated with better cardiovascular health. Some studies reveal that it can significantly decrease the systolic blood pressure amongst patients suffering from hypertension. It is also said to strengthen blood vessel linings thereby increasing blood flow and delivery of nutrients to the heart.

Enhance sperm motility

Sperm motility is the measure of how active the sperm is after ejaculation. Studies revealed that acetyl l-carnitine supplementation can significantly increase sperm motility leading to improved male fertility. Males who are trying to have a child may supplement with acetyl l-carnitine to increase chances of having a child.

Promote weight loss

Acetyl l-carnitine is an essential nutrient needed by the body. Its primary responsibility is to carry fatty acids into the mitochondria of the cells for energy production. Hence, it may be effective in promoting weight loss as it promotes increased fat metabolism.

Decrease nerve pain from diabetes

Acetyl l-carnitine has analgesic effects and relieves nerve pain. Some studies revealed that it may be able to relieve the distressing pain experienced by diabetic patients.

Increase insulin response

Supplementation with acetyl l-carnitine is associated with better insulin response amongst patients suffering from diabetes. This means that the body is able to regulate blood sugar better leading to decreased strain on the kidneys of patients with diabetes.


rhosalie cruz
Centrophenoxine: How does it improve your memory? Wed, 04 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of centrophenoxine or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Nootropic agents are supplements known to improve memory, boost brain health and even help in improving some of your physical functioning. You may be wondering how these substances are able to exert its effects in your body and mind. Well, most work its magic immediately and efficiently upon intake and you may be wondering how these substances are able to exert its effects in your body and mind. Firstly, let me reassure you that there is a whole lot of science behind these agents’ effects on the body. And since there are numerous types of nootropic agents, not to mention its derivatives and such, we will start with centrophenoxine.

Centrophenoxine is one of the nootropic agents that are often overlooked by many noot beginners due to lack of knowledge regarding this substance. For this reason, we decided to provide you a more in depth explanation on how this particular nootropic agent works.

What is centrophenoxine?

Despite being the lesser understood nootropic supplement, centrophenoxine, also known as meclofenoxate, has been studies by neurology experts for more than 50 years. From these studies, researchers discovered that it is both a cholinergic and a neuroprotectant compound. It is an altered version of dimethylethanolamine or DMAE developed to easily cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Since it is the improved version of DMAE, it exerts similar effects to which it is able to improve alertness, attention, focus, memory and learning capacity. It also acts as a neuroprotectant protecting the brain from chemicals and toxins that can damage the brain. Numerous studies have revealed that it is a very potent agent to combat age related brain deterioration.

How does it work?

How do centrophenoxine really works? To answer this question, we have created a simplified explanation for you.

Centrophenoxine as an excellent source of choline

Choline is a B vitamin that has long been identified as an essential nutrient needed by the human body for normal functioning. You can get from dietary resources including red meat, liver, eggs and some dietary supplements (e.g. choline bitartrate, choline chloride). Although choline is readily available from many resources, choline supply from these resources has poor bioavailability – this means that it may not be able to reach your brain as 60% of the choline is broken down on your intestines. Choline from centrophenoxine is of higher quality as it contains DMAE which cannot be digested by intestinal bacteria. Moreover, it is better absorbed by the blood increasing the probability that it will be able to reach the brain easier and faster.


Centrophenoxine increases choline levels in your brain

Two things may happen once the choline from centrophenoxine reaches your brain. First, it may be converted into phosphatidylcholine - once it becomes phosphatidylcholine, it will be integrated to your neurons. Choline may also turn into acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is an essential brain chemical that helps in facilitating functions that are related to reasoning, attention and memory. It is involved in numerous memory processes including memory retrieval, formation and conversion of short term to long term memory.

Increased levels of acetylcholine are also related with enhance learning, brain plasticity and data retention. Low levels of this essential neurotransmitter on the other hand have been associated with Alzheimer’s disease, memory loss, cognitive deterioration and age related senility. Centrophenoxine is able to deliver all these beneficial effects of acetylcholine by being an excellent precursor of the said neurotransmitter. It also ensures that there are sufficient levels of choline for acetylcholine production. Centrophenoxine can therefore help in improving intelligence and cognitive functioning amongst its users.

Centrophenoxine improves elimination of lipofuscin in the brain

Lipofuscin is a waste produced by the body as we age. This biochemical waste accumulates on the cells of your brain, skin, heart and lungs. It is noticeable on the skin wherein you see “liver spots” or brown spots on the skin of the elderlies. While liposfuscin accumulation is a normal process that our body undergoes, excessive accumulation may render your cells less functional and may even cause cell death. Accumulation of lipofuscin in the brain will then lead to neuronal death, impaired memory and reduced learning capacity as well.

Centrophenoxin works through decreasing lipofuscin accumulation in the brain cells. Some studies even suggest that meclofenoxate is able to significantly reduce lipofuscin in the brain in as much as 42% within 8 weeks. This enables restoration of memory capacity and slow down aging process amongst the elderlies.

Centrophenoxine improves RNA production

Meclofenoxate has been associated with improving production of RNA as well. This nootropic agent increases RNA production which in turn helps with the release of essential proteins necessary for normal brain functioning. RNA also enables necessary proteins critical for cell repair and memory improvement.

Other than these mechanisms, centrophenoxine is also able to enhance uptake of glucose and oxygen in the brain leading to better memory and cognitive functions.

rhosalie cruz
Phenylpiracetam: A powerful nootropic for cognitive and physical abilities enhancement Wed, 04 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of phenylpiracetam or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Nootropic agents are taken by users to improve cognitive functioning including attention, memory, focus, learning capacity, critical thinking skills and many more. The additional motivation, alertness, improved sleep or better moods are just some of the additional perks that most noots offer. However, what if we tell you that some of these neuro enhancing drugs has the ability to improve your stamina and tolerance during physical activities? Or improve your ability to work on stressful situations? Well, if you want to improve both your physical and mental performance, you might want to take a look on one of the strongest nootropic on our list – phenylpiracetam.

What is phenylpiracetam?

Phenylpiracetam ((RS)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide) was originally developed in Russia to improve the work capacity of astronauts and military. When the world has caught up on its ability to improve one’s skills and endurance, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) decided to put it on their list of prohibited substances. Athletes are now banned on using it to gain a competitive advantage over other athletes. In 2003, it was identified as a prescription drug in Russia for improving the physical and cognitive skills of patients suffering from memory and somatic problems.

Primarily, phenylpiracetam is a modified, improved rather, version of piracetam. It also has similar structure to its parent compound and other piracetam derivatives such as nefiracetam and aniracetam. The only structure that differentiates it from piracetam is its phenyl ring. This molecule group was added in the structure as it is said to potentiate the effects of the original structure making it 60 times more powerful than phenylpiracetam’s parent compound. It is known to afford this noortopic substance’s unique nootropic and stimulating effects. More importantly, it allows the substance to easily pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB).

How does it work?

The mode of action of phenylpiracetam remains unclear. Recent studies however tried to explain how it works and how its mechanism differs from the rest of the piracetam derivatives. First and foremost, this substance can be divided into two enantiomers – the S- and R- enantiomers. Expert revealed that the S- enantiomer has an anticonvulsant action and is actually responsible to leviteractam’s anticonvulsant capabilities. It was also discovered that the R- enantiomer is responsible for improved memory, anti-depressant activities and better locomotor capabilities (such as enhanced motor coordination and muscle strength) through increasing the density of numerous receptors and chemicals in the brain such as dopamine, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NDMA), nicotinic acetylcholine and GABA – all of which are involved in memory enhancement and overall cognitive processing.

What are the benefits phenylpiracetam offers?

For starters, phenylpiracetam have similar effects with its parent compound – piracetam. Some of these similar beneficial effects are related to the neurological enhancing benefits of phenylpiracetam. These benefits include faster memory recall, increased memory capacity, faster learning abilities, increased concentration, better focus and enhanced mental energy. Anecdotal evidence also shows that phenylpiracetam is one of the best nootropic agents to prevent or eliminate what we all know as “brain fog”.

There are a lot of studies showing that it is able to help in improving motor skills and mood. Well, we cannot discount these benefits primarily that it influences some of our brain’s receptor sites and essential chemicals – all of which are known to influence both mood and movement. This is the reason why phenylpiracetam can help decrease fear, anxiety, motion sickness whilst increase locomotor activities.

Most recent and ongoing studies also show that phenylpiracetam offers a myriad of effects including increasing problem solving abilities and increasing attention-switching capabilities of individuals diagnosed with asthenia. It has been shown to be effective in possibly treating a host of medical conditions such as epilepsy, encephalopathy, stroke, glaucoma, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Some users also revel on its ability to increase their tolerance to cold.

Phenylpiracetam is a very effective supplement for athletes and anybody who has tough physical needs for their jobs (e.g. trainers, bodybuilders). You can say that it is a stress reducing agent helping eliminate some negative effects of tough working conditions while enhancing your endurance, stamina and recovery. Bodybuilders have been using it as a pre-workout supplement.

Safety of phenylpiracetam

Similar to most nootropic agents, phenylpiracetam is relatively safe for human consumption. It has low toxicity and no severe adverse reaction or side effect has been reported upon ingestion. However, we strongly advise that you take this nootropic agent on its recommended dosage. Since it is a powerful nootropic substance, you must supplement in as low as 100 mg a day. Note that you may develop tolerance if you take it on a long term basis, hence, we recommend that you cycle it.




rhosalie cruz
Best oxiracetam stacks Mon, 02 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of oxiracetam or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Oxiracetam is a popular supplement used as an off label nootropic substance. It was synthesized in Italy during the late 1970’s as a more potent nootropic compound under the racetam family. It is commonly as a brain boosting agent and an effective study pill. Numerous tests and clinical trials have also shown that it is effective in treating a host of neurodegenerative disorders associated with aging (e.g. dementia, Alzheimer’s disease). Oxiracetam is also effective in improving an individual’s focus, reasoning, learning abilities and memory. This nootropic agent is more potent than other racetamic nootropic agents developed before oxiracetam was created. Oxiracetam is a very potent nootropic drug when used alone. Interestingly, its potency is even increased when used with other nootropic agents. Please check the list of some of the best oxiracetam stacks to buy.

Aniracetam – Oxiracetam stack

Aniracetam is a poplar nootropic drug for reducing anxiety. It is also known to help in facilitating the production of dopamine and serotonin – both of which are known to cause anxiety and mood problems when in decreased levels. Oxiracetam on the other hand is known to work well in improving cognitive functioning psychostimulation. It is well known for its ability to improve technical thinking, memory, abstract reasoning and analytical processing.

Knowing both the effects of these nootropic agents, it is easy to see that these nootropic agents’ works synergistically potentiating each other’s effects in the brain. This stack can be analytical and critical thinking ability and a more accurate recall. The anxiolytic effects of aniracetam combined with the stimulatory effects of oxiracetam makes this particular stack a perfect nootropic combination. This stack can be very effective during examination weeks or when working on large projects. Note that you must take lower dosages of aniracetam and oxiracetam when taking it together. More importantly, you may need to take it few days before your exam week or before working on your project as racetams may take time before exerting its effects.

Piracetam – Oxiracetam stack

Piracetam is a vasodilating agent that helps stimulate the AMPA receptor sites. It also helps in stimulating acetylcholine – a neurotransmitter important in developing long term and short term memory. Oxiracetam on the other hand has a mild stimulatory effect, albeit without the usual side effects caused by amphetamines. Oxiracetam helps in improving learning abilities and memory of users. It also helps in enhancing logical, abstract, and technical thinking skills of users; hence, it is a very potent supplement for activities requiring intense attention and precise judgment. Moreover, it is known to help in increasing one’s ability to identify associations and patterns as well as memory recall.

Similar to the aniracetam – oxiracetam stack, the piracetam – oxiracetam stack works synergistically.  Taking racetam stacks results to multiplied results instead of simply having additive results. This particular stack leads to enhanced motivation, rational thinking and focus making this an ideal stack for activities that require better productivity.

Choline – oxiracetam stack

Choline is a popular precursor of acetylcholine. Remember that acetylcholine is critical in memory consolidation and formation. Choline is often combined with other nootropic agents, particularly racetams because it helps in increasing the production of acetylcholine in the brain whilst prevent the side effects (e.g. headaches) this activity causes. As such, supplementing with excellent sources of choline such as citicoline or alpha GPC while using racetams can help relieve some unwarranted side effects.  If you experience head ache when taking this stack, we recommend that you increase your citicoline supplementation.

The choline- oxiracetam stack is very effective. Oxiracetam stimulates cholinergic mechanism while choline assures enough production of acetylcholine to keep up with the increased neuronal activity rate. This particular stack leads to superior logical ability, improved linear thinking ability, better focus and enhanced memorization ability.


Things to remember

When taking these stacks, keep in mind that oxiracetam has a psycho-stimulant effect to the body. Hence, you must not take oxiracetam after lunch unless you are planning to study or work during the night. More importantly, the effects of racetams are not felt immediately. Hence, we recommend that you take these stacks a few weeks or days before your scheduled exam or important activity.

Please ensure that you cycle oxiracetam when used alone or with stacks. User reports reveal that continuous oxiracetam use leads to tolerance.


Best Oxiracetam Stacks To Buy


Centrophenoxine: A great nootropic against brain aging Mon, 02 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of centrophenoxine or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

What is centrophenoxine?

Centrophenoxine, also known as meclofenoxate is a nootropic drug primarily developed to treat memory problems. It is known to have anti-aging properties protecting the brain from the effects of aging. This potent nootropic agent has been extensively studied for many years; however, most of these studies involved animals as sample population. Today, it is a prescription drug for most countries. Today however, it is an OTC drug in France for treatment of cognitive problems and Alzheimer’s disease.

This particular substance is a cholinergic compound with potent nootropic effects. It has similar chemical structure to its parent compound dimethyl amino ethanol (DMAE). DMAE is a naturally occurring compound that can be gleaned from numerous dietary sources such as fishes. Centrophenoxine however is considered as more powerful than DMAE.

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How does centrophenoxine works?

To date, there is no clear explanation how centrophenoxine exerts its effects on the brain. Nonetheless, experts have various explanations on how this supplement works. Its principal mechanisms include:

Improved glucose and oxygen intake

Centrophenoxine is thought to work through increasing the chemical activities and general functions of the brain. It increases overall cognitive functioning through improving absorption of glucose and oxygen. As a result, the brain and the body is provided with adequate energy to perform mentally exhausting tasks.

Increase levels of acetylcholine in the brain

Centrophenoxine is also associated with increased levels of acetylcholine in the brain. It works through promoting cholinergic activities leading to production of choline and other necessary phospholipids that will then be converted to acetylcholine. Increased levels of acetylcholine in the brain help in improving the communication of neuronal cells whilst help with improving brain plasticity. Such improvements not only lead to better cognitive functioning but to better memory formation and recall as well.

Better production of RNA

Centrophenoxine is also associated with higher production of RNA. It actually increases rate of RNA production as well as the release of other essential proteins needed for normal cognitive processing. Note that RNA enables your brain cells to develop necessary proteins which are important in memory enhancement and cell repair.

Increase lipofuscin elimination

Lipofuscin is the buildup of potassium in the brain, lungs, heart and skin cells. This activity is not dangerous. However, when there is increased accumulation of potassium in the cell, it is rendered less functional and may even lead to cell death. Lipofuscin accumulates in the human body as we age resulting to symptoms you see when an individual ages (e.g. saggy skin, decreased immune system, memory lapses). Centrophenoxine works through eliminating potassium and lipofuscin levels in the body. As a result, better body and brain functioning as well as longevity is achieved. Its ability to eliminate lipofuscin is also the primary reason why centrophenoxine is a potent brain aging nootropic agent.

Through these modes of action, this nootropic agent is able to slow down the rate of brain decline seen on brain damage, aging, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and other problems caused by aging. More importantly, it helps in getting rid of free radicals accumulation leading to a healthier mind and body.

What are the benefits of centrophenoxine use?

Numerous studies have shown that centrophenoxine has significant positive effects on dementia, aging, memory decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Although these studies have conflicting results, it does not discount the fact that centrophenoxine may have potential beneficial effects to the aforementioned health conditions.

Improvement of memory loss

Numerous studies have shown that centrophenoxine is effective in improving memory loss. Healthy and elderly individuals may benefit from centrophenoxine supplementation as it is said to increase the conversion of most recent data into long term memories. Anecdotal evidence also revealed that this nootropic agent is able to improve mental alertness, attention, memory recall and formation.

Anti-aging properties

Several studies revealed that centrophenoxine can help in treating dementia amongst individuals diagnosed with the said symptom. One study revealed that it helped in enhancing intracellular water content indicating its antioxidant properties. Another study revealed that this particular brain supplement helped increase division of cells by 30 to 40% through preventing the build-up of potassium within the cells. This activity helps in decreasing rate of cellular aging.

Is centrophenoxine safe for human use?

Reports from clinical studies revealed that centrophenoxine is generally tolerated by users. However, some people may experience mild side effects including headaches, nausea, and gastrointestinal problems such as upset stomach and diarrhea. Side effects of centrophenoxine are mostly caused by taking excessive dosages. Nonetheless, it usually go on its own if you stop taking this supplement for a day or two.


Therapeutic and Novel Uses of Buying Adrafinil and Modafinil Fri, 27 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not endorse intake of adrafinil and modafinil or any nootropic agent. Any undesirable effects from intake of adrafinil and modafinil are sole responsibility of the user.

Adrafinil is a popular nootropic agent more commonly known for its stimulating properties. This particular cognitive enhancing substance is categorized as a eugeroic agent to which it is able to offer many beneficial effects the user minus the undesirable effects often experienced by individuals using stimulants. Adrafinil is a prodrug of modafinil and both have similar effects. Subjective reports demonstrate that both modafinil and adrafinil increases daytime wakefulness and alertness, motivation, productivity, and mental energy. It also helps in elevating one’s mood and overall energy. You can buy adrafinil online whilst modafinil is a controlled.

Buy Adrafinil or Modafinil For Novel usesAdrafinil works through various mechanisms to exert its effects. Firstly, it stimulates the alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in your brain. These receptors respond to your noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Note that norepinephrine is linked to concentration, attention, memory, energy and learning. Moreover, it works on your D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It binds with your dopamine transporters to prevent transmission whilst increase the levels of dopamine in your brain. As a direct result, users report feelings of euphoria, relaxation, lesser anxiety, positivity and overall well-being.

These effects are great; however, did you know that adrafinil’s beneficial effects do not end there? If you want to know more about its possible other positive effects, then take a look at some study results showing the efficiency of adrafinil and modafinil against a handful of medical conditions.

Adrafinil and modafinil in alleviating fatigue

One of the most common symptoms felt by patients diagnosed with some chronic health conditions includes fatigue. The following studies demonstrate how modafinil can help in alleviating fatigue amongst patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease, lung cancer and multiple sclerosis.

Parkinson’s disease

Almost 50% of patients identified from Parkinson’s disease report about suffering from fatigue. Despite this percentage, there remains to be no treatment or PD related fatigue. To assess whether modafinil may help in treating PD related fatigue, 13 patients were given modafinil or placebo for a 4 week treatment. After the study period, data was gathered and analyzed. Data analysis revealed that study participants who were under the modafinil treatment have had decreased fatigue and had their sleep patterns improved as compared to those who took placebo.

Lung cancer

Similar to PD, patients suffering from advanced stage cancer also experiences fatigue. To relieve cancer related exhaustion, healthcare providers always prescribe some CNS stimulants. However, most traditional CNS stimulants have serious adverse effects. Since adrafinil is a well-known stimulating agent that poses little to no minimal risks amongst healthy individuals, modafinil was  administered to patients with non-small cell lung cancer. In this randomized study, participants were fived modafinil doses that would otherwise last for 2 weeks. Data analysis revealed that modafinil was able to overcome fatigue, decrease depression symptoms and reduce excessive daytime sleepiness.

Multiple sclerosis

A total of 50 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis were involved in one study. The study participants were treated with low modafinil doses within 3 months. Baseline and subsequent evaluation data demonstrated that improvement was seen amongst 91.5% of the respondents. This particular study only shows that modafinil can definitely help in improving symptoms of fatigue as well as sleepiness.        

Behavior and attention enhancement

Adrafinil was thought to have what they call as behavioral-activating properties. Some studies have shown that modafinil and adrafinil helps in improving mood and vigilance amongst the energy. Both drugs help in improving attention, behavior and mood. Some studies even revealed that modafinil can help in improving attention, depression, sleepiness and psychomotor abilities.

Treatment for narcolepsy

Adrafinil was actually created to induce alertness and wakefulness amongst its users. As such, it is a useful drug for individuals suffering from excessive daytime sleepiness or narcolepsy. To show its efficiency against this particular sleep disorder, study participants were administered with modafinil for 3 weeks. Data analysis revealed that modafinil influenced the activities of the brain’s left hemisphere leading to increased vigilance amongst the study participants.

Another study also revealed similar positive effects. This study involved 151 patients diagnosed with narcolepsy. Participants were given modafinil for 6 weeks. After which, their response to the drug was evaluated. Data evaluation revealed that modafinil can help in improving the quality of life of the participants. It helped patients decrease fatigue and increase cognitive processing, energy and social and physical performance.

Treatment of insomnia

Patients with primary insomnia suffer from daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Since modafinil and adrafinil are known to help induce wakefulness and alertness, some researchers hypothesized that it can also help in decreasing the effect of insomnia in the body. As such, 30 patients were involved in one study. They were randomly involved to three treatments: modafinil only, placebo combined with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and modafinil combined with cognitive behavioral therapy. Data analysis revealed that modafinil combined with CBT treatment is most efficient in improving the sleep patterns of participants. It decreases daytime sleepiness, improve sleep latency and increase compliance to therapy. It was further revealed that modafinil can help in alleviating some of the undesirable effects of CBT.

These studies show the efficiency of adrafinil and modafinil in various medical conditions.

Adrafinil: History, mechanism and benefits Tue, 24 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not endorse intake of adrafinil or any nootropic agent. Any undesirable effects from intake of adrafinil are sole responsibility of the user.

Adrafinil was discovered by the French pharmaceutical company, Lafon in the late 1970s. It was first sold in France as a treatment for narcolepsy or excessive daytime sleepiness. Lafon however were able to develop modafinil – adrafinil’s metabolite. Many users and primary health physicians have favored modafinil because of its higher potency and lesser side effects. Still, those who are interested in using the nootropic effects of modafinil but does not have any sleeping disorder to have it prescribed prefers adrafinil. While more potent than adrafinil, modafinil is heavily regulated in the US.

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What is adrafinil?

Adrafinil is a nootropic agent that has stimulating properties. Unlike conventional stimulants (e.g. methylphenidate, methamphetamine, amphetamine salts) however, adrafinil is able to increase alertness and mental energy without being addictive to the user. Moreover, it does not produce any side effects that are normally seen with amphetamines including insomnia, increased heart rate, anxiety and jitteriness.

How is adrafinil metabolized in the body?

Adrafinin has a similar chemical structure with its metabolite modafinil. Note that when adrafinil is maetabolized by the human body, it becomes modafinil. As such, both nootropic agents demonstrate similar effects. Both modafinil and adrafinil belongs to the new nootropic class known as “eugeroics” which means “good arousal.”

Chemical name: Benzhydryl sulphinyl-autohydroxamic acid

Chemical formula: C15H15NO3S [2]

Appearance: Light pink solid

Usage: alpha adrenergic agonist; nootropic agent; stimulant


How does adrafinil work?

Adrenergic mechanism

Adrafinil is able to release its effects via stimulation of adrenergic receptors located in the hypothalamus and brain stem. Remember that these brain regions are responsible in the regulation of normal wakefulness and alertness through norepinephrine stimulation. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is associated with focus, attention, memory and learning. Through stimulating the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor sites of norepinephrine, learning, attention and memory are maintained and enhanced. Studies even suggest that it exerts some neuroprotective properties protecting the brain from free radical damage.

Glutamatergic mechanism and GABA inhibition

Research studies revealed that adrafinil helps in increasing the levels of glutamate in the thalamus. It is also said to prevent the action or inhibit gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in several parts of the hypothalamus. This particular mechanism then helps in promoting wakefulness and alertness.

Neuroprotective mechanism

Adrafinil is thought to be indirectly associated to any of the brain’s neurotransmitter. Instead, it is said that adrafinil helps in improving cerebral metabolism in the amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus. This specific activity leads to the synthesis of glutamine. Note that glutamine synthesis is related to wakefulness and increased awareness promotion.

What are the benefits of adrafinil use?

Adrafinil is well-known for a wide range of benefits it offers to its users. It is an active cognitive enhancing drug known to increase mental energy, speed up one’s though processes whilst promote clearer brain functioning. It also helps in promoting wakefulness and alertness without causing any undesirable side effect associate with consuming your standard stimulant (e.g. caffeine). Due to its brain and mental energy boosting capabilities, it has attracted attention from students, young entrepreneurs to high profile businessmen and academician. This particular nootropic drug is well known amongst individuals who want to maximize their productivity.

Other than promoting wakefulness and mental energy, adrafinil helps in increasing recall fluidity and memory. Anecdotal evidence shows that it makes it easier for some to recall specific figures and facts effortlessly. Some even reported that they were able to hold intelligent conversations longer without requiring any extra effort on their part. It makes a good study pill for its ability to increase attention, focus and concentration. We recommend that you take adrafinil before going to a dry, boring class that normally lulls you to sleep – this way, you are able to stay alert and awake while being able to absorb all the information that you need.

Since adrafinil has the ability to regulate your mood, it can help in improving your overall mood while reducing your anxiety and stress levels. For this reason, many individuals find adrafinil as more effective than other stimulants like Adderall. Adrafinil also helps in inhibiting an individual’s procrastination tendencies. Through elevating your mood and motivating you, you will surely accomplish and finish projects more than you usually do.

What are the side effects of adrafinil intake?

Generally, adrafinis is well-tolerated, has low toxicity and is safe for human consumption. Moreover, there might be some side effects upon use including indigestion, fever, skin irritation and headache. Preclinical data also shows that adrafinil may cause liver conditions when used for prolonged periods. Although this evidence is insufficient, we suggest that you cycle adrafinil and use it within the recommended dosage.

Legality of Noopept in Australia, Canada, UK and USA Tue, 24 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. We do not endorse intake of noopept or any nootropic agent. Any undesirable effects from intake of noopept are sole responsibility of the user.

What is noopept?

Noopept is a smart prescription drug developed, patented and is currently being produced in Russia. It belongs to a non-classified family of drugs known as nootropics – non-addictive, non-toxic and non-dangerous drug class. It was first manufactured and retailed by JSC LEKKO Pharmaceuticals during the late 1970s. Today, it is a prescription drug for cognitive improvement and neurological disorders in Russia and its neighboring countries. Noopept is derived from racetams although it is dubbed as a thousand times more potent than its parent compound, piracetam.

Legality of buying Noopept in Australia UK and USA
Discovery of noopept

Noopept was reportedly discovered as JSC LEKKO Pharmaceuticals are attempting to develop a pramiracetam prototype. Instead of creating the said nootropic agent, they came up with noopept. In 1995, it reached USA for patent application. Nonetheless, it was not yet approved by the US FDA and European Medicines Agency for human use.

What are the benefits of noopept?

Animal studies have shown that noopept has numerous potential benefits. One of the most common cited benefits associated with noopept is its neuroprotective abilities. Nooepept is said to protect the brain from deterioration due to mechanical or physical injuries, aging-related brain deterioration and free radical damage. Some studies also revealed that noopept has the ability to improve cognition and memory. Anecdotal evidence shows that noopept can restore memory and cognitive functions amongst noopept users. These preclinical evidences have motivated researchers to find out whether noopept is useful in treating some specific types of brain disorders and organic injuries of the CNS.

Is noopept legal?

Each nation has their own law pertaining about the legality of all substances being produced, imported and exported out of their shores. For instance, vitamin supplements (e.g. D-vitamins, B-vitamins) are very common throughout the globe; hence, the legal status of these drugs will never be questioned. However, nootropic drugs like noopept, piracetam and other popular nootropic agents may be perceived differently by varying world governments.

Noopept legality in USA

In USA, noopept is an unscheduled substance, hence, it is legal for anyone living in any US states to purchase, possess and use noopept. Regulated substances in the US are edientified as controlled or scheduled substance under their law. For instance, prescribed drugs are controlled compounds and all of them have specific schedules assigned on it. It is therefore important that interested individuals get a prescription from their doctor to gain access of their preferred nootropics. Put it simply, noopept is legal to use in the US if purchased online or imported outside the country for personal use.

Note however that noopept has not been approved for human use by the US food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Hence, though it appears like noopept is legal for use, selling and advertising this nootropic substance is limited. Legal restriction might be given directly to retailers and suppliers. As such, it might be difficult for most people to find a stock of noopept on any physical or brick and mortar supplement or health stores in the US.

Noopept legality in Australia

Upon checking Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia, noopept is neither on the list of poisons nor on the S4 or schedule 4 prescription drug categories. Hence, it may be sold within the country. Despite this, some reports from sellers and suppliers revealed that TGA have warned them to desist selling noopept. Noopept and other racetamic nootropic agents are said to fall under the analogue law. The Australian analogue law encompasses a broad range of banned drugs and substances; hence, one must be very careful in selling nootropic drugs. Some have extrapolated that noopept and other more potent nootropic substances are being regulated on some states in Australia one of which includes New South Wales (NSW).

Noopept legality in Canada

Noopept is one of the most popular cognitive enhancing drugs amongst Canadians. The drug regulatory body of Canada requires prescribed substances to be registered. Drugs that needs prescription and have been approved for human consumption will be given a Drug Identification Number (DIN). As of writing this article, noopept is not a controlled, regulated nor a scheduled drug under Canadian law. Hence, you may be able to import noopept from outside the country for personal use only. You are not allowed to import noopept in Canada for commercial or for distribution purposes. You may import a stock of noopept that may last for 3 months at a time only.

Noopept legality in UK

Similar to Canadian laws, noopept is not prohibited for use in the UK. You may buy noopept in small quantities and it does not currently require any prescription.

In buying noopept, it is critical that you always check the laws of the country you are currently living in or if you are planning to travel somewhere. You might also want to check frequently as laws changes continuously. One nootropic drug might be legal for use in your region today and may be banned the next week. Note that ignorance of the law is not a valid excuse once a particular drug is labeled as prohibited.

Alpha GPC: A great study pill Sun, 22 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of Alpha GPC or any nootropic agents. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Adolph Strecker discovered choline in 1864. It was then synthesized in a laboratory in 1866. Choline is an essential nutrient important for maintaining cognitive and physical health. In 1998, it was identified by the US Institute of Medicine as an essential nutrient needed by humans. Our bodies are able to secrete some amount of this nutrient through consuming choline-enriched foods including, mil, soy, eggs and liver. However, the amounts we can glean from these dietary resources are inadequate; hence, most individuals have insufficient levels of choline on their bodies. Since choline is critical for normal body growth and development, there were numerous attempts for choline supplements. Alpha GPC was one of the best choline supplement synthesized. Today, alpha GPC is a prescribed treatment for Alzheimer’s disease in UK while it is currently available as a cognitive supplement in the US.

What is Alpha GPC?

Alpha GPC is a water soluble phospholipid compound that is able to easily cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Through crossing the BBB, it can exert its effect on one’s memory and cognitive processes. Alpha GPC is a choline structure with a glycerol molecule attached on its phosphate group.

Other names: (2S)-2, 3-Dihydroxypropyl 2-(trimethylammonio) ethyl phosphate, L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine, choline alphoscerate

Uses: memory enhancer, cognitive enhancer, nootropic agent, choline supplement

How does alpha GPC works?

Alpha GPC is available orally and parenterally (intravenous). Both routes help in increasing glycerophosphocoline levels in the brain indicating easy passage across the BBB. Supplementation of alpha GPC and any other choline supplements will help in increasing the absorption of inositol phosphate in the neurons. Through an increased rate of phospholipid synthesis and potassium release, the hippocampus release calcium leading to increased production of inositol. These series of events leads to improved phospholipid metabolism and synthesis which helps in facilitating numerous cognitive processes.

This particular choline supplement plays an important role in transmitting signals from various chemicals in the brain. It also helps in enhancing the release of dopamine in the frontal cortex and cerebellum while improving the release of dopac – a dopamine metabolite and dopamine release through potassium activation. Aside from increasing dopamine release, it also helps in upregulating the amounts of serotonin to both cerebellum and frontal cortex. More importantly, alpha GPC helps in improving the concentration of acetylcholine. Some studies however revealed that alpha GPC is more reliable in maintaining adequate levels of acetylcholine and increase acetylcholine transporter release in the brain when the body is under stress. More importantly, it exerts some neuroprotective effects through increasing the cholinergic activities of the brain. Alpha GPC also aides in increasing GABA release through working on alpha-1adrenergic receptors.

What are the benefits of alpha GPC supplementation?

There are numerous benefits associated with continuous alpha GPC supplementation. These benefits include the following:

Improvement in memory and attention

Alpha GPC helps in improving different cognitive processes particularly attention, focus and memory. One study involving 32 healthy individuals revealed that alpha GPC supplementation has the potential to antagonize the attention and memory problems induced by scopolamine. Subjective reports of users revealed that daily supplementation of alpha GPC helps with increased memory recall and fluidity amongst others.

Fat oxidation improvement

Several studies have shown that alpha GPC may also be effective in increasing growth hormone release and help substitute the needed choline levels in the body to help in maintaining liver health.  Alpha GPC may help in protective the liver through increasing the liver’s ability to enhance fat metabolism. One study have shown that even a single dose of alpha GPC can help in improving growth hormone secretion as well a fat oxidation. This only shows that this particular supplement may help in protecting the liver from hepatic related disorders.

Cognitive disorder treatment

Numerous studies have shown that alpha GP is a potent precursor of acetylcholine. As such, it might help in alleviating impaired motor function, ability to learn and memories on individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and those who suffered from cerebral ischemic attack. Analysis of studies related to AD revealed that choline alfoscerate can help in safely treating mild to moderate dementia Alzheimer’s type. Similarly, it has the ability to help post cerebral ischemic attack patients to recover through protecting the neuronal cell walls.

Study pill

Aside from treating several cognitive disorders, alpha GPC may also help in enhancing reaction time, focus, alertness whilst decrease fatigue. Numerous studies have shown that it may be effective in improving brain processes and performance even in times of increased stress. Hence, alpha GPC may be an effective pill for students.

Alpha GPC is relatively safe to use and has low toxicity. However, you should still watch out for some side effects including headaches, nausea, heartburn and insomnia. Please take some precautionary measures when using this choline supplement as a cognitive enhancer.


rhosalie cruz
Huperzine A: A powerful brain boosting nootropic agent Thu, 19 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only.

What is huperzine A?

Huperzine A is an element that is extracted from Huperzia Serrata also known as Chinese club moss. Huperzia Serrata has been used by ancient Chinese as a very potent remedy. Huperzine A is the byproduct of a series of laboratory processes, hence, it is considered as a synthetic or a highly purified drug that is unlike herbal supplements which are normally comprised of chemical compounds. It would be wrong to say that huperzine A is a natural supplement when all it really was - is a synthetic drug.

Huperzine A is one of the most common ingredients of some powerful stacks and a potent nootropic agent itself. It offers a wide array of cognitive benefits. As such, it is being used both by students and adults who wants to enhance their brain power and keep their memories sharp. Recent and ongoing studies shows that it may be an effective supplementary treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of memory deterioration due to aging.

This nootropic drug is also known as selagine, please do not confuse it with other medications  that sounds the same, specifically selegiline (Elpedryl).

How does huperzine A works?

One mechanism associated with huperzine A is its ability to improve brain plasticity. Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to create new connections between different brain synapses that can help in increasing your memory formation and recall. It also enables you to learn faster. Huperzine A is also known for its neuroprotective properties whereas it protects your brain against the decline caused by aging whilst promote brain health at all costs. Just recently, studies have shown that it is able to counteract some symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

Theorists reveal that huperzine A works through influencing the cholinergic system through promoting increased production of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter critical for many basic mental processes. Through increasing the levels of acetylcholine in the brain, focus, learning, memory and reasoning is enhanced. Huperzine A acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor wherein it prevents the enzyme acetylcholinesterase in breaking down acetylcholine in the brain. Due to this, there is an increased amount and reuptake of acetylcholine leading to improved memory consolidation and formation. Essentially, huperzine A enhances the ability of your brain cells to communicate and connect leading to better neural activity.

Other mechanism of action associated with huperzine A is its ability to work as a NDMA receptor agonist whereas it is able to help in increasing the production of Nerve Growth Factor – a protein essential for nerve cell growth. Through promoting release of NGF, huperzine A is indirectly helping with healthy maintenance and formation of neurites and existing neurons. Although this effect is yet to be studied more carefully, this promising beneficial effect is critical in finding an effective and a relatively safe treatment for brain injury and cognitive decline.

What are the benefits of Huperzine A use?

  • Neuroplasticity

With its ability to enhance cholinergic activity, huperzine A helps in improving your brain plasticity. As such, your brain is able to store, learn, retrieve and adapt memories and information.

  • Improved intelligence

Huperzine A acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor increasing the levels of acetylcholine in your brain. Enhanced levels of acetylcholine are directly related with improved working memory ability and intelligence fluidity. It also offers an efficient way of reversing cognitive decline due to aging.

  • Treat Alzheimer’s disease

Studies have shown that huperzine A supplementation can help in improving mental function as well as increased memory capacity. It can also help in decreasing the symptoms of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One study involving individuals suffering from AD revealed that this nootropic drug can improve AD patients’ memory and cognitive abilities. Another study showed that individuals suffering from senile dementia saw significant improvement after a month of huperzine A intake. Huperzine A is being combined with other drugs (e.g. tacrine, donepezil) to treat AD. Healthy adolescents and anecdotal evidence also show that huperzine A is effective in boosting memory formation and recall.

  • Other uses

Some studies have shown that huperzine A may be effective in treating myasthenia gravis. It might also be effective in promoting energy and alertness as well as in protecting nerves from damage.

What are the side effects of huperzine A supplementation?

When used appropriately and in recommended dosafes, huperzine A has low toxicity and is considered as relatively safe with minimal risks for side effects. Mild side effects associated with huperzine A supplementation include:

  • Hypertension or high blood pressure
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Decreased appetite
  • Increased perspiration
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Slurred speech

Lactating or expecting mother, epileptics and individuals suffering from heart problems, gastrointestinal and urinary tract blockages must not use huperzine A. If you are on other medications, it is recommended that you consult your doctor before taking this nootropic agent.


rhosalie cruz
The best noopept stacks Thu, 19 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not endorse intake of noopept or any nootropic drugs. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic agent are sole responsibility of the user.

If you ever ask any expert noot user out there about the best nootropic agent, their answers would probably not be consisted of one smart drug. Just like the fact that there’s no single pill to excellent health, there’s no single nootropic substance to be considered as the best. Therefore, your best alternative would be to combine various nootropic agents. One way to come up with an excellent nootropic stack is to combine potent neuro-enhancing drugs.

What is stacking?

Nootropic agents come in varying forms and varying types. We have eugeroics, racetams, B vitamin derivatives, and others. Trying different combinations to evaluate which mixes are most effective is known as stacking. The right combination of these different types almost always gives the greatest results compared to taking a powerful racetam alone. Put it simply, when two or more of these nootropic substances are mixed or combined together, expect that your “stack” is twice more potent and effective than consuming one nootropic agent.

  Buy Noopept To Build A Stack

The best Noopept Stacks to Buy
Noopept: One of the best stack foundation

Noopept, one of the most powerful nootropic drug sold in the market today has been of interest for so many nootropic users.  It has competitive advantage over other smart enhancing drugs for its ability to improve memory whilst promote overall brain health. Preclinical studies and anecdotal evidence also reveal  that it can increase your perceptual awareness, memory, learning capacity,  critical thinking skills, concentration, focus and reasoning. It does so through activating certain neurotransmitters in the brain which leads to increased neuronal activity and cognitive abilities. Using noopept as a part of your stack ensures better results. We will begin with identifying the best noopept stacks available today.

Best noopept stacks

Noopept – Piracetam – Alpha GPC Stack

Piracetam and noopept are usually stacked together to potentiate or synergize each other’s effects. These drugs work differently. Piracetam stimulates the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine while noopept activates glutamatergic activities in the brain. Through this combination, piracetam is able to enhance the beneficial effects of noopept. Alha GPC – one of the best sources of choline then helps in meeting the increased need for acetylcoline of the brain. Moreover, it helps in decreasing the headache associated with piracetam intake. This combination produces significant improvements in memory retention, memory recall, attention, focus, reasoning, mathematical abilities and critical thinking skills. Subjective reports from users of this stack identify this combination as one of the best. We recommend this stack for aiding your study or if you have a big brainstorming activity coming up.

Noopept – Huperzine A stack

Another great noopept stack that may help you on your cognitive needs include combining noopept and huperzine A. Huperzine A is being extracted from the Huperzia plant. Although many claim that huperzine A is a natural nootropic, we would like to reiterate that this substance have undergone numerous chemical processes already, hence, it is a synthetic noootropic agent just like the rest. Huperzine A is known to act as an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. This particular synthetic nootropic works through preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine in the brain. Therefore, it helps in potentiating and increasing the amounts of acetylcholine in the brain allowing greater stimulation of choline and improving acetylcholine pre-synaptic uptake. As a result, your brain cells are able to transmit signals more efficiently and rapidly. This is a good study aide as well. You might want to use it before you deliver a speech or talk in front of other people. Its ability to increase synaptic transmission makes it a great nootropic when delivering impromptu speeches. However, we highly recommend that you take it on doses not higher than 50 mcg a day.

Things to remember

Before taking these stacks, we recommend that you perform the following precautions:

  1. When starting out with these stacks, you might want to mix small doses of nootropic agents. It is a must that you first assess and evaluate if one or both these noopept stacks are effective or if you can tolerate some of its mild side effects (if there is any).

  2. Please take these stacks on recommended dosages to avoid unnecessary side effects.

  3. If you are on any medication or if you are suffering from any medical conditions, we suggest that you consult your doctor before taking any nootropic stacks or any single nootropic agent at that.

  4. The effects of nootropic agents on lactating and expecting mothers are unknown, hence, we do not suggest that you take these stacks if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

  5. If you experience any side effects from taking these stacks, immediately stop your dosing.

We recommend that you cycle your noopept stacks.

Citicoline: Nootropic and novel benefits Thu, 19 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for information purposes only. We do not endorse intake of citicoline unless otherwise stated by your primary healthcare provider. Any undesirable effects from citicoline intake are sole responsibility of the user.

Citicoline was first synthesized in 1956 by a group of researchers. It was initially developed in Japan to treat stroke patients. Marketing and manufacturing license was obtained by Interneuron for Canada and US in 1992. These rights was obtained by Takeda in 1999. Today, citicoline is available as a supplement for cognitive problems in the US and a prescription drug in Europe.

What is citicoline?

Citicoline is nutrient that is created within the body. It is an important element in the phosphatidylcholine synthesis and a critical element of the grey matter. It is a water soluble substance that directly affects the release of choline. It is also being converted into phosphatidylserine in the brain. Together with choline, both are important compounds in repairing and developing brain cells.

Chemical name: 5'-O-[hydroxy ({hydroxy[2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy] phosphoryl}oxy)phosphoryl]cytidine

Usage: neuroprotection and nootropic

How does citicoline works?

Citcoline has several mechanisms of action. One mechanism that has been associated with citicoline is its ability to reduce ischemic events through decreasing the accumulation of free fatty acid in the lesion. Note that after an ischemic event, there is a significant increase of pro-inflammatory glycerols, arachidonic acid and free fatty acids due to breakdown of neuronal membranes. Harmful substance including thromboxane, free radicals and prostaglandins may accumulate whilst lead to complications. However, citicoline supplementation prior to an ischemic event may reduce the accumulation of free fatty acid, arachidonic acid and other toxic substances in the brain. Citicoline will further help in invigorating membrane reaction and decreasing damage from free radicals.

Citicoline also appears to increase the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in the brain. Phosphatidylcholine is a critical component of cell integrity and repair. Most recent study shows that both uridine and choline stimulate the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine after citicoline supplementation.

Another important mechanism associated with citcoline is its ability to increase the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine during a cerebral ischemic attack. After stroke and ischemia, the brain’s ability to synthesize phospholipid is negatively influenced. Citicoline however increases choline and cytidine – building blocks of neuronal restoration.  Other than these modes of action, there are some studies indicating the citicoline may help in normalizing neurotransmitter release pattern. Other studies even reveal that citicoline inhibits impairment of neurotransmitter release during hypoxic conditions. Citicoline has been associated with blood vessel dilatation which increases delivery of oxygen and nutrients in the brain.

Supplementation of citicoline has been associated with increased synthesis of dopamine in the brain. It is able to exert its action through enhancing dopaminergic pathways. It does so through increasing the levels of acetylcholine in the brain which is closely linked with phospholipid synthesis enhancement. It also tends to increase activities of serotonin and norepinephrine – neurotransmitters that help with learning and memory.

Other mechanisms linked to citicoline supplementation include antioxidant, neuroprotective effects and lipid peroxidation reduction. Citicoline helps in stimulating the synthesis of glutathione whilst aides in facilitating glutathione reduction activities. It also helps in maintaining and preserving cardiolipin – an element critical for mitochondrial functioning. Citicoline also helps in decreasing lipid peroxidation through preventing the conversion of phospholipase A2 that leads to reduced neural tissue inflammation.

What are the benefits of citicoline?

Upon discovery, citicoline is among the most researched novel drug for cognitive enhancement. Some of the benefits associated with citicoline supplementation include:

Treatment for acute ischemic stroke

Numerous studies involving stroke patients has been carried out to assess citicoline’s effects on post-stroke cases. Although there is some conflicting evidence, most studies have shown that citicoline supplementation can help in inducing full recovery amongst users. It has been shown to improve neurological symptoms amongst this particular population as well. Studies further show that individuals who have moderate to severe acute ischemic stroke symptoms are more likely to benefit from citicoline use.

Cognitive decline reversal

Supplementation with citicoline has been strongly linked with synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Numerous studies also revealed that a 6 week citicoline supplementation can increase levels of phosphodiesters – substances that helps in cognitive decline reversal amongst elderlies.

Methamphetamine dependence and depression symptoms alleviation

Recent data has shown that citicoline may have positive effects on patients diagnosed with cocaine dependence mania. Evidence points out that citicoline can significantly improve auditory skills, verbal skills, depressive symptoms and cognition amongst this population. This shows that citicoline might help in treating depression and substance dependence.

Treatment of glaucoma

One study has demonstrated that citicoline might be effective in alleviating the effects of glaucoma. Patients suffering from glaucoma may have their retinal and cortical responses improved with citicoline supplementation. It was further revealed that citicoline can help in decreasing high blood pressure amongst this population.


Benefits of caffeine supplementation Fri, 13 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage caffeine supplementation. Any undesirable effects from caffeine supplementation are sole responsibility of the user.

Caffeine has long been considered as the most commonly used and exploited drug across the globe. Individuals from Sweden, Germany, Norway, Netherlands, and Denmark are recorded to have the greatest caffeine intake across the globe in as much as 300 mgs a day.

As a nootropic agent, caffeine works through exciting the central nervous system (CNS). It has been associated with alertness for short periods while studies have shown that it can help in increasing reaction time, energy, working memory, physical performance and delay fatigue.

Other names

Cafeina, Koffein, Mateina, Theine, Methylltheobromine, Alert-pep

What are the sources of caffeine?

Caffeine is found on leaves and seeds of different plants. Some of the most common natural resources of caffeine include coffee beans, tea leaves, yerba mate, cocoa beans, kola nuts and guarana (Paullinia Cupana). It can also be found on some carbonated beverages (e.g. sodas, colas), energy drinks and some drug products.

How much caffeine should you take?

Individuals aged 19 or more are suggested to take no more than 400 mgs of caffeine a day. Expecting and lactating mothers however are restricted to take no more than 300 mgs a day. These caffeine dosages are considered safe. Note that too much caffeine intake is not recommended as it can increase the levels of cortisol.  Cortisol is a hormone that inhibits caffeine’s beneficial effects when present in significant levels.

What is the chemical structure of caffeine?

Caffeine’s chemical name is 1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine. It is actually a xanthine compound that is composed of 3 methyl groups attached to the xanthine carbons. Pure caffeine appears colorless. It is soluble in boiling water.

Metabolism of caffeine

Caffeine is soluble in water. It is also absorbed thoroughly on the GI tract after oral ingestion. Peak effects of caffeine occurs an approximate of 45 minutes after intake. When caffeine is absorbed in the form of coffee however, it is not taken completely.

Caffeine easily crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB) and placenta. Hence, fetus of pregnant women and infants absorbs caffeine through breast milk. It is rapidly distributed to body tissues as well. Caffeine elimination occurs through the kidneys, some of which are unchanged on urine. In infants however, elimination of caffeine is slower compared to adults due to immature kidney functions.

What are the beneficial effects of caffeine?

Better cognition and memory

Numerous studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of caffeine on cognition and memory. Findings revealed that it increases task attention and reaction time. It is said to help in improving attention, alertness and skill performance as well. One study even revealed that it helps in improving a person’s performance on explicit information related tasks.

Enhanced alertness

Caffeine is a well-known stimulant. It helps in improving performance and alertness to individuals who are sleep deprived. Numerous studies have also shown that this particular stimulant is helpful in enhancing performance, wakefulness and alertness even during sleep loss. A study even shows that performance deterioration due to sleep deprivation is reduced by caffeine. These studies prove the efficaciousness of caffeine against sleep deprivation amongst others.

Promotes greater affect

Caffeine intake helps in improving vigilance and arousal. It also demonstrates desirable effects on an individual’s cognitive performance. An interesting study also shows that caffeine ingestion affects affect. Positive affect can improve exercise performance and adherence. This particular study revealed that caffeine can improve moods, affect and experience amongst the research participants.

Increases reaction time

There are conflicting data regarding the ability of caffeine to increase reactions time. Some studies have shown that it can help in improving stimulus identification and processing accuracy, increase reaction time, and decrease inattention. Other studies however revealed that caffeine has little to no effect on an individual’s reaction time. Despite these conflicting results, more recent researches revealed that caffeine might help in increasing attention and reaction time on individuals with moderate sleep.

Improved physical performance

Another benefit that has been associated with caffeine supplementation or intake includes improved physical performance. Caffeine is said to hell in decreasing accumulated fatigue resulting to improved physical performance amongst athletes. Caffeine intake leads to decreased cortisol levels and increased testosterone levels – both of which are associated with decrease in experience of fatigue. Some studies have shown that it is also effective in improving physical abilities of athletes who had limited sleep. Nonetheless, these beneficial effects disappear shortly after its peak effect subsides.

Is caffeine supplementation safe?

Caffeine is considered as a psychoactive drug, however, it is generally safe when taken on recommended amounts or dosages. Caffeine toxicity may occur with excessive intake leading to symptoms of irritability, palpitations, anxiety, slurred speech, muscle twitching, insomnia, and unexplained excitement. Larger overdose may cause psychosis, judgment lapses, mania, delusions or depression.




rhosalie cruz
Bacopa monnieri: Medicinal and nootropic uses Fri, 13 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. We do not encourage intake of Bacopa monnieri or any nootropig drugs. Any undesirable effects from intake of this nootropic agent are sole responsibility of the user.

Also known as

Brahmi, water hyssop, Indian penny wort, thyme-leafed gratiola, herb of grace

Bacopa monnieri is known as “brahmi” in Ayurvedic  medicine tradition after “Brahma,” the creator in Hindu religion.

What is bacopa monnieri?

Bacopa monnieri, more commonly known as brahmi, is an herb that has been used in Ayurveda for longevity and for treating a host of conditions such as memory problems and anxiety. It has been used as an intellectual augmenting agent and is currently being studied for its potential neuroprotective and neuropsychological enhancing properties. Numerous studies have shown that brahmi is comprised of many active components including a fair number of saponins and alkaloids. Its major components however include Bacosides A and B and steroidal saponins.

What does bacopa monnieri looks like?

Brahmi is a perennial, creeping herb that is native to the swamplands of Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, South America and southern India. It has white, small flowers and its leaves are described as oblong, juicy organized oppositely on its stems. Brahmi is able to live on water, swamplands and slightly briny waters making it a popular aquarium decoration.

Bacopa monnieri as a nootropic agent

Bacopa monnieri is considered as a natural nootropic agent. Numerous studies have shown that it has the ability to improve cognitive functions, brain health and memory similar to all nootropic drugs. It is even considered as the natural herb counterpart of piracetam. Brahmi is more potentthan most natural nootropic agents. Although it might not yield the efficiency of other commercial nootropics when used alone, it makes a fantastic addition to your favorite nootropic stack. Bacopa monnieri can be bought as it is or stacked with some nootropic mixes.

Traditional uses of bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri was traditionally used  by Indians to treat a host of medical conditions including asthma, epilepsy, ulcers, tumors, inflamed spleen, inflammations, skin problems, leprosy, anemia, indigestion and many other diseases. It has been used to increase intelligence and memory as well as treat anxiety.

Nootropic effects of bacopa monnieri

Memory enhancement

Studies have shown that bacopa monnieri may enhance the formation of memory through improving neuronal transmission (via proliferation of dendrites) and through serotonergic transmission that influences neurotransmission of acetylcholine. Improved dendritic proliferation and neuronal transmission are associated with greater memory map formation. More importantly, these memory enhancing effects encompasses individuals on all walks of life. Alongside gotu kola and milk, bacopa is said to be very effective in boosting brain powers of children.

Administration of bacopa monnieri on healthy individuals positively influences retention of learned information. This nootropic drug is able to decrease the rate of short term memory while increases recall speed. Daily supplementation of 300 mgs bacopa can enhance verbal learning, delayed recall and memory. It has also been implicated to decrease memory loss or amnesia through a specific collective mechanism. Indeed, there are a great number of clinical studies that have shown positive and promising results regarding the ability of bacopa as a memory enhancer.

Epilepsy treatment

Several studies have shown that bacopa can help in decreasing the symptoms of epilepsy (e.g. reduction in convulsion prevalence). It prevents epileptic tendencies through decreasing peripheral nervous system activity (PNS), altering GABA receptor sites in the striatal and hippocampal area, and upregulate release of the glutamate receptor, mGluR8 and serotonin receptors which are usually reversed or downregulated during epilepsy.

Stress reduction

Bacopa monnieri is categorized as an adaptogen. It can decrease physiological stress effects with daily supplementation. Studies have shown that bacopa decreases expression of some stress biomarker in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. It works through modulating the body’s response to stress rather than simply suppressing it. Some researchers also hypothesized that bacopa allows stress gene expression preparing the body for the upcoming stress thereby decreasing its potency. It is also discovered to be effective in decreasing the levels of adrenaline, serotonin and dopamine in the brain producing anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects similar to that of the American ginseng.

Neuroprotective properties

It has been noted that bacopa is effective in decreasing the adverse and oxidative effects of certain minerals in the brain (specifically, excessive iron and aluminum). It appears that bacopa is effective  in protecting the brain from mercury induced brain damage as well.

Increases blood flow to the brain

Some studies have shown that bacopa can increase cerebral blood flow increasing the circulation of oxygen and nutrients in the brain. It also appears that it can help in decreasing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure through vasodilation.

Other than the abovementioned positive effects, minimal evidence shows that it is effective in treating anxiety, depression and Alzheimer’s disease.



rhosalie cruz
Serotonin for weight loss? Fri, 13 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of serotonin supplements unless otherwise advised by your physician. Any undesirable effects from intake of serotonin are sole responsibility of the user.

Other names

5-HT, 5-hydroxyltrytamine

What is serotonin?

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is created through a biochemical conversion process combining tryptophan hydroxlase and tryptophan. Combining this chemical reactor and protein component forms 5-hydroxyltrytamine or what we commonly known as serotonin. Despite being known as a neurotransmitter, many individuals consider that serotonin is also a hormone. It is popularly thought that serotonin contributes to feelings of happiness and overall well-being.

Where is serotonin produced?

Serotonin is found on the platelets, central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. It is however produced on the intestine and brain. The majority of serotonin, approximately 80 to 90% are primarily found on the gastrointestinal tract.

Serotonin production is dependent on the levels of vitamin B6 and tryptophan. It also requires vitamin D to  function correctly in the brain. Its production is also reliant on levels of both sleep hormones (melatonin) and stress hormones (cortisol). When the levels of melatonin are increased during sleep or winter season, levels of serotonin will drop. Same goes when the levels of cortisol increases, levels of serotonin drop.

Hormones are not the only factor that affects the production of serotonin. Dieting, calorie restriction, multitasking, digestive tract disorders all contributes to decreasing serotonin production. Although carbohydrate intake increases production of serotonin, it has negative effects on weight management because of its influence on insulin production, inflammatory potential and high calorie content.

What are the effects of serotonin in the body?

Since majority of the body’s overall serotonin count is found on the gastrointestinal tract, it is being used to regulate numerous intestinal activities. The rest of serotonin is being synthesized on serotonergic neurons in the brain because it is not able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). It also plays numerous functions including appetite, mood and sleep regulation as well as some cognitive activities such as learning and memory. Serotonin modulation on neuronal synapses is thought to influence the pharmacological activities of some classes of antidepressants.

When serotonin is released from the gastrointestinal tract, it will eventually find its way to the blood. Blood platelets will actively take the serotonin and store it thereafter. Once the blood platelets bind to a clot, they will discharge the serotonin. The serotonin will then act as a vasoconstrictor helping blood clotting and hemostasis regulation. Serotonin also serves as a growth factor for some cell types; hence, there is a possibility that it plays a role in wound healing.

Nootropic activities of serotonin

Along with norepinephrine and dopamine, serotonin is one of our body’s natural feel good neurotransmitter. Hence, when you have low levels of serotonin, you might likely experience symptoms of depression and anxiety. These emotions negatively contribute to our self-esteem, motivation, commitment and drive. This may even affect our will and drive to learn.

Other than affecting our overall motivation, serotonin is said to influence neurogenesis, memory and learning. Some studies have shown that serotonin promotes neurogenesis through 5-HT1a receptors stimulation. Neurogenesis is the creation of new neuronal cells that plays a critical role in memory formation, memory recall and learning. Enhancing neurotransmission of serotonin in the brain can help in improving memory consolidation and learning acquisition. It can also help in improving short-term and long-term memory.

Relationship of low serotonin levels and weight gain

When your brain detects that its serotonin reserves are less than adequate, it will send powerful signals to your body asking for carbohydrates. When your body is able to get the carbohydrates it requires to extract glucose for fueling and speeding up synthesis of serotonin, it will stop sending signals for additional carbs. This particular process is what dictates your body to crave for carbohydrate enriched foods. However, if your serotonin levels are unnaturally low because of lifestyle, diet or any other factors, your brain will command your body to overeat. Overeating, particularly of carbs are clinically proven to cause obesity.

The depression that often leads to low levels of serotonin leads to increased cortisol levels and inflammation which makes it difficult for your body to burn fat causing increased weight gain. It also leads to mood problems  which may cause you to crave foods rich in carbohydrates.

Ways on how to increase levels of serotonin in your body

Since most serotonin are produced on your gastrointestinal tract, the best way to increase serotonin levels in your body is to eat a healthy diet  composed of whole foods (not processed), vegetables, fruits, beans and nuts. Ensuring proper digestion, decreasing inflammation on your digestive tract and preventing food sensitivities are excellent ways to support production of serotonin. You can also opt to undertake serotonin supplementation including eating foods rich in vitamin B and vitamin D. You can also take 5-HTP, Rhodiola Rosea, inositol and St. John’s wort and adrafinil.

What are the cheapest nootropics? Tue, 10 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. We do not encourage intake of any nootropic drugs. Any undesirable effects from nootropic use are sole responsibility of the user. All products are for lab purposes only!

If you’re on a tight budget or if you’re just a newbie noob who wants to know if nootropics are effective and you don’t wanna spend your precious dollars only to know that what you’re getting is not what they say it is, well, you are on the right place! Well, using nootropics can be really expensive. Still, there are some ways to make your tight cash work. For one, you can create your own potent stacks from inexpensive ones. You can also opt to buy in bulk powder online as these are relatively cost effective.

Effective and cheap nootropics

The following nootropics can serve as your base for your potent inexpensive stack. These nootropic agents have lasting and varying cognitive benefits. These have synergistic or potentiating effects when used together and relatively light to your pocket.


Piracetam is on the top of our list primarily because it has the most extensive history of research. It is actually the very first synthetic nootropic agent that has been created by humans. If you are just starting out with nootropic supplementation, piracetam should be your initial bet. Piracetam is well-known for its ability to improve learning, memory, focus, attention and synaptic plasticity. Although it is considered as the least concentrated amongst all racetams and you may need to take in as much as 4 g a day, buying piracetam in bulk powder form is very cost effective and efficient in producing the aforementioned beneficial effects.


Citicoline or CDP choline is another inexpensive nootropic drug with proven effects to enhance memory and learning in healthy individuals as well as on the elderlies. Some studies even suggest that it can help in increasing rate of recovery amongst individuals who have suffered brain trauma. Early research even shows that citicoline is effective in improving muscle strength for patients who have suffered cerebral hemorrhage due to stroke. Stacking citicoline and piracetam is recommended as the latter increases choline uptake potentiating the effects of citicoline.

Oxiracetam powder

Buy Cheap OxiracetamOxiracetam is considered as the more potent counterpart of piracetam. It is more effective in increasing mental energy, memory, focus, attention and cognitive abilities and is five times more powerful compared to piracetam. Although it appears not to have any anxiolytic properties, it has a stimulatory ability whereas it is able to improve focus and alertness. For less than a dollar per dose, oxiracetam is a fairly inexpensive nootropic agent useful in increasing your memory and critical thinking skills.


Buy Cheap AniracetamAniracetam has similar potency with oxiracetam. Nonetheless, it shows dissimilar benefits. This particular nootropic drug is able to improve cognitive functioning, increases levels of BDNF or brain derived neurotrophic factors, decreases impulsive behaviors and improves symptoms of depression. It also has neuroprotective and anxiolytic properties. What makes it unique over other racetams is its ability to improve verbal abilities in social setting whilst decrease social anxiety. User reports revealed that it helps them speak and think fluidly in front of other people. Aniracetam’s cost per dose is slightly lower than that of oxiracetam.


Buy Cheap PramiracetamPramiracetam is considered as the most potent amongst all racetams. It is known as 30 times more potent than piracetam. Many noobs are using pramiracetam because it is easily absorbed immediately exerting its effects after intake. Students prefer this racetam because it is one of the best study aid nootropics available in the market today. It increases motivation, decreases procrastination, improves both short and long term memory, enhances alertness, focus perception as well as an individual’s logical thinking abilities. Pramiracetam’s cost per dosage is slightly lower than aniracetam nonetheless; you may need to take divided doses daily as its effects easily wears off.


One common source of theanine is tea. Theanine is effective in promoting relaxation and focus amongst others. If you are not fond of teas, you may opt to take L-theanine – another good source of theanine. L-theanine is best paired with caffeine. Combining these nootropics can help in increasing your focus and attention without the unnecessary jitters and palpitations when using caffeine alone.


Noopept is a derivative of piracetam. It is also considered as a thousand times more powerful and effective than its parent compound. It is highly efficient in enhancing memory recall and memory formation. It also helps in promoting neuroplasticity whilst improves communication between the right and left hemispheres of your brain. Studies also suggest that it helps in preventing neuronal damage caused by aging. Suggested average daily dosage for noopept is 40 mgs – this would give you a cost much lower than that of piracetam.

The verdict

Of all the aforementioned nootropic agents, noopept should be your best bet. It is highly potent, efficient and just plain inexpensive. However, it you want to go on the safe side and use a neuro enhancing drug with lesser potency, we vouch the efficiency of piracetam.

The Nootropic Effects of Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) Tue, 10 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not encourage intake of DMAE or any nootropic drugs. Any undesirable effects from intake of DMAE are sole responsibility of the user.

Other names

Beta-dimethylaminoethyl alcohol



Dimethylethanolamine (DMEA)

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What is DMAE?

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) is a compound known to help in improving brain health. It has been the focus if numerous study since the early 1970s for its various uses. Many researchers have identified DMAE as a potent treatment for numerous medical conditions such as tardive dyskinesia, Alzheimer’s disease, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Anecdotal evidences and some studies have shown that it is also effective in improving athletic abilities, muscle reflexes, oxygen efficiency and physical energy. DMAE is also known as an anti-aging drug. It is said to prevent liver spots, extend one’s lifespan and inhibit skin aging (e.g. sagging of the skin). Though not commonly known, deanol has some nootropic properties. It has been used by noobs to increase their intelligence quotient, critical thinking skills, memory and mood.

Where can you get deanol?

Deanol is abundant on natural resources including fishes. Sardines and anchovies have high levels of DMAE. You can also supplement wioth synthetic DMAE.

How much DMAE should you take?

Studies report different dosages ranging from 400 mgs to 1800 mgs a day.

What does DMAE looks like?

Liquid DMAE appears transparent, almost yellowish in color. Its chemical structure is similar to that of a choline molecule minus one methyl group.

How does DMAE work?

Cholinergic mechanism

As a precursor of choline, DMAE increases acetylcholine levels in the brain. Acetylcholine is a brain chemical responsible for learning, memory formation and numerous other bodily functions. It also plays a critical role in stimulating activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), respiratory system, urinary tract system as well as muscle contraction.

Deanol is converted into choline (precursor of acethylcholine) in the brain. It works by inhibiting breakdown of choline in the peripheral tissues prompting free choline accumulation in the blood. After which, it enters the brain and stimulate the rest of other choline receptots. DMAE also helps in building and repairing cell membranes, specifically on the nervous system. Through stimulating brain neurons, working memory is also increased.

Cellular protein linking and free radical scavenging mechanisms  

Many experts believe that deanol exhibits free radical scavenging mechanism. Free radicals are naturally occurring substances in the brain that works as a mediator of degeneration or death of neurons. These substances, although naturally present in the brain and other parts of the body, can cause neurodegenerative diseases if in excessive amounts.

DMAE will undergo phosphorylation in the brain and will stay on the cell membranes of neurons as phosphatidyl-DMAE. Phosphatidyl-DMAE will then aide in membrane fluidity protecting the cell membranes’ proteins through inhibiting cellular linking of proteins. Cellular linking of proteins occurs from free radical formation that results to deterioration of membrane functions. Thus, DMAE helps in alleviating the biomembrane of the brain. It also serves as the foundation of the brain’s neuronal circle fixation that is thought to be the main organic structure of memory.

What are the benefits of DMAE?

Treatment for some medical conditions

Preclinical and some case studies report that deanol might be an effective treatment for tardive dyskinesia – a medical condition that is characterized by spontaneous movements of the face, lips, trunk, tongue and extremities usually exhibited by individuals who have been undergoing dopamine antagonist treatment. DMAE might be effective in decreasing these symptoms. Although some long-term studies showed negative results, it is quite possible that some patients might respond positively to DMAE.

Other studies have shown that deanol may be effective in decreasing inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity of individuals diagnosed with ADHD. Earlier literature revealed that children who were administered with DME have significant concentration and skills improvement as compared to children who were administered with placebo.

One other notable DMAE benefit includes Huntington chorea treatment. Similar to  tardive dyskinesia, this degenerative disorder is characterized by spontaneous jerking possibly due to inadequate cholinergic activities in the brain. As a drug that fuels cholinergic mechanism, it is possible that DMAE may treat Huntington’s chorea.

Prevents signs of aging

DMAE has been associated to preventing signs of aging including liver spots. It has also been deemed to prevent skin aging. Deanol is added to some facial cream brands where it is thought to improve appearance promoting skin firmness and preventing skin sagging.

Nootropic effects

DMAE is thought to improve memory through decreasing the accumulation of age pigments in the brain and through increasing the acetylcholine levels in the brain. These pigmentations impair cognitive functioning. It has been associated with cognitive deterioration amongst aging individuals as well.

It also protects brain cells through acting as an antioxidant. Moreover, it helps in maintaining and supporting various metabolic body processes through methylation.

Is DMAE safe to use?

Generally, deanol is well tolerated, safe to use and has low toxicity to humans if used appropriately and accordingly. Associated side effects include irritability, headaches, hypertension, hypomania/depression, confusion, urticarial and constipation.





Studies show efficiency of Phenibut in treating anxiety and stress Mon, 09 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. We do not encourage intake of phenibut or any nootropic drugs. Any undesirable effects caused from nootropic use are sole responsibility of the user.

Other names/Chemical names



Beta-phenyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid or beta-phenyl GABA

3-phenyl-4-aminobutyric acid

4-amino-3-phenyl-butanoic acid

Buy Phenibut for Anxiety And StressWhat is phenibut?

Phenibut is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid). It is first used in Russia and has been studied there extensively. It is also available as a non-prescription drug in many countries. This particular drug has been used in Russia for over five decades to treat a host of neuropsychological conditions including anxiety, stress and insomnia. It has also been used as a therapeutic agent for individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.

Phenibut is also classified under nootropic drugs for its ability to influence brain functioning and improve cognition. It easily crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB) exerting its effects efficiently and effectively.

How does phenibut works?

Phenibut works through mimicking the action of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. As a potent GABA-mimetic drug, it potentiates the activity of GABA at the site of GABA receptors. This mechanism then leads to a host of benefits such as promotion of sleep, elimination of anxiety symptoms as well as improvement of cognition.  Phenibut also facilitate dopamine receptors and antagonizes the activitiesof beta-phenylethylamine.

What is GABA?

Gamma aminobutyric acid or GABA is the most important neurotransmitters in the brain. It is classified as an inhibitory neurotransmitter responsible for decreasing neuronal activities in the brain. It is the neurotransmitter responsible for the anxiolytic mechanisms of most drugs that are used to treat anxiety disorders. For example, benzodiazepines – a popular anxiolytic agent, works through potentiating the actions of GABA on specific areas in the brain leading to anxiety relief. Similarly, phenibut is a non-selective agonist of both GABA-A and GABA-B resulting to its anxiolytic capabilities.

What are the beneficial effects of phenibut?

Well-known benefits from phenibut use include the following:

Cognitive enhancement




Studies showing anti-stress and anxiolytic effects of phenibut

Phenibut as a tranquilizer and a nootropic drug

This study is a literature review regarding the neurospychotropic agent, phenibut. According to this study, phenibut has cognitive enhancing and anxiolytic effects. It mimics the activities of GABA, stimulates dopamine receptions and antagonizes the effects of PEA – a substance that induces anxiety in humans. The anxiolytic ability of phenibut is further compared to the actions of baclofen. This review also revealed that phenibut has similar clinical and pharmacological effects (in some ways) with diazepam and piracetam. It has been shown that Russians use phenibut to relieve anxiety, fear, tension and improve sleep amongst individuals suffering from neurosis and psychosomatic disorders. It is also used as an adjunct therapy for depression, stuttering, asthenia, vestibular problems and as a pre and post-operative drug.

Stress protection ability of phenibut

In an animal study, rats that underwent forced swimming stress had significant increases on benzodiazepine binding sites (central type) in their hippocampal and cortical areas. The amount of benzodiazepine binding sites (peripheral type) is also increased on blood platelets. It was also revealed that the affinity of neither peripheral nor central type benzodiazepine binding sites was altered considered after the forced swimming stress. Rats that underwent phenibut or beta-phenyl GABA treatment had minimal changes on both their central and peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites from the swimming stress. Phenibut was rendered inactive on an increased plus maze anxiety model. Similar to diazepam however, phenibut was able to neutralize the behavioral effects of DMCM – a substance with anxiolytic properties. This study has shown that phenibut is an effective substance against stress and anxiety.

Efficiency of GABA derivatives for stress correction

Mg2+-ATPase acts on the limbic system, medulla oblongata and cortex mitochondrial fraction when the organism is under chronic stress. It is also affected by administration of some psychotropic drugs. In this study, it was revealed that chronic stress sharply prevents phosphorylation and respiration in animals. It also decreases brain macroergs content. The Mg2+-ATPase located in the cortex mitochondrial fractions is also decreased. The administration of GABA derivatives such as phenibut, lithonite and nicogamol, as well as nicotinic acid on therapeutic dosages has been shown to restore control level when rats are experiencing stress. This study shows that psychotropic drugs, including phenibut can act as a stress-protective agent through normalizing energy metabolism in the brain neurons.


The effects of phenibut are primarily geared to its neuroprotective, anxiolytic, cognitive and cardioprotective effects. First off, phenibut is well known for its anxiolytic effects. It can help in alleviating symptoms of anxiety and stress caused by overactive neuronal activities. Phenibut alleviates stress through decreasing some types of communication happening between your neurons. Users report that phenibut helpsin decreasing over-thinking making them feel more serene, composed and less likely worry. Click here to buy phenibut


Legal status of nootropics in the UK Mon, 09 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. It is not legal advice, nootropics are not entended or recommended for human consumption.


Nootropics is a term used for supplements, nutraceuticals, and herbal drugs (either prescribed or over the counter) used to boost memory, learning and other brain activities. The term was first used by Dr. Cornelius Gieurgia. Gieurgia derived it from two Greek words “nuos” and “trepein” which means to bend or turn the mind. These supplements are widely used for a variety of purposes. Many individuals in the UK and across the globe are taking these supplements. Nonetheless, some people are doubtful whether or not to use these brain enhancing agents because the legal status of nootropics are vague.

As mentioned above, nootropics is an umbrella term for a wide array of nutrients that fits its purpose. More than 100 substances falls under the nootropic drug class and it can be perplexing for UK residents to know what compound is permissible to possess, import, use, or buy. Considering this situation, it would be near impossible for one country to organize and categorize the entire gamut of nootropic agents that are available nowadays.  More importantly, United Kingdom, along with many countries, does not recognize or approve nootropics as a formal drug classification leaving many nootropic agents widely unregulated.

Legality of racetams in UK

Nootropic drugs under the racetam class as well as other nootropic brain stimulants are considered as medications that require prescription. In short, you need to get a doctor’s prescription before you are able to buy any racetam drugs (aniracetam, oxiracetam, piracetam, pramiracetam, and noopept). It is interesting to know however that this restriction is only applicable on actual drugstores in the United Kingdom. You can easily buy racetams online and have it imported in UK so long as it is for personal use. You can buy a supply for 3 months or less. An exception is given to piracetam wherein you would still need to obtain a prescription before you are allowed to import it from outside UK. Piracetam is a prescribed medication for treating a form of myoclonal spasms. The best and most cost-efficient way of purchasing racetams online is ordering in bulk and powdered form as buying encapsulated ones can increase its price.

Legality of herbal nootropic agents

Herbal supplements with potential nootropic capabilities can be sold over the counter in the UK. However, it is important that these herbs are accurately labeled and not misrepresented. These herbal nootropics can be bought from online health stores or actual food stores. Note that these particular drugs needs to accumulate in your body taking its time (approximately 2 to 6 weeks) before you will be able to see your desired results. Most herbal supplements are safe to use. Some have been studied plentifully, hence, their benefits are already established.

Some common herbal drugs with cognitive enhancing effects are best stacked with other synthetic nootropics include vinpocetine, Bacopa Monnieri, ginkgo biloba and Huperzine A – all of which can be bought over the counter. UkK residents can easily obtain these supplements without a prescription.

Vitamins and mineral supplements

Most vitamins and minerals with nootropic capabilities can be bought by UK residents without a prescription. These drugs are easily obtainable from online or actual health stores. Although these supplements have low toxicity and are fairly safe to use, you should be aware that it can cause mild to serious health problems if you consume too much than what was recommended. Therefore, it is advisable that you take vitamins and minerals on its recommended dosage.

Most common vitamins and minerals helpful in potentiating the effects of other nootropic supplements include choline, krill oil, fish oil, vitamin D and B vitamins. Many of these supplements are inexpensive. You may opt to import vitamins and minerals from online sources if you wish to save money.

Prescription nootropics in the UK

Other than piracetam, some prescription nootropics in the UK include ones that are classified under “smart drugs.” Some of these smart drugs include modafinil, armodafinil, Adderall, Ritalin, donepezil, DHEA and citalopram. These drugs are very potent, nonetheless, it has moderate to serious side effects that makes it somewhat undesirable for use. You can import these drugs however, there is a high possibility that you will be asked to provide a prescription (even if you buy it online). There is a chance that customs may seize it as well. Hence, it is advisable that you steer away from these prescribed drugs.

You can opt to use adrafinil as an alternative for modafinil, however, some studies have shown that this modafinil precursor can cause liver problems. Hence, it is not recommended that you use adrafinil consistently or for a prolonged period.

Difference between prescribed drugs and scheduled drugs

Prescribed drugs are those that need prescription in the UK. However, you may be able to import them from other countries. Scheduled drugs on the other hand are “regulated/controlled” substances that need prescription. Note that controlled substances are illegal to import and to use for nootropic purposes. Importing controlled drugs such as methylphenidate may lead to jail time or costly fines.

Bottom line: Is it legal to use nootropics in the UK?

In most ways, the answer is a YES. It is legal to use and possess nootropics in the UK so long as you know where and how to purchase it.

Again, we reiterate that you AVOID scheduled substances to avoid jail time and fines. More importantly, ensure that you always look for updates regarding the legality of nootropics in your state.


Physical properties of alpha GPC Thu, 05 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. We do not endorse intake of alpha GPC or any nootropic drug. ANy undesirable effects from nootropic use is sole responsbility of the user.

Alpha GPC is one of the most effective and reliable synthetic source of choline. It easily crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB) enabling direct delivery of choline to the brain. It is a potent nootropic drug and an excellent addition to your nootropic stack for the improvement of brain health, memory and learning.

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Why do we need choline?

Choline is a critical element of numerous body processes, particularly brain related functioning. It is an acetylcholine (ACTH) precursor whereas ACTH is a powerful neurotransmitter responsible for memory, learning and other brain functions. Most recent researches have also indicated that it may be a useful treatment for degenerative conditions including Alzheimer’s disease. Alpha GPC is one of the best and most effective synthetic sources of choline.

Drug classification of alpha GPC

Alpha GPC is classified as a nootropic drug. It is also described as a choline supplement.

Chemical name of alpha GPC


Where does alpha GPC come from?

Similar to most nootropic drugs, alpha GPC is developed in laboratories. It is enzymatically created from lecithin soy or eggs. It is primarily used as a choline supplement. Choine can be derived readily from dietary resources such as milk, eggs, beef liver, red meat and other organ tissues. Nonetheless, it does not easily cross the BBB, as such, taking choline supplement is important.

What is the structure of alpha GPC?

Alpha GPC is a phospholipid comprised of choline. The choline molecule is bound to glycerol through a phosphate group. Generally, it is a phosphatidylcholine minus its usual 2 fatty acids.

What does alpha GPC taste like?

If you are wondering how alpha GPC tastes like, well, it is noticeably sweet. Unlike other nootropic agents that are either bitter, tasteless, or just plain foul tasting. Alpha GPC in powder form tastes sweet because it contains maltose. Maltose (a form of sugar) is being incorporated with alpha GPC to prevent it from absorbing moisture which would turn the powder into a goopy mess.

How is alpha GPC metabolized in the body?

Alpha GPC is absorbed in the intestines. Initially, lecithin is metabolized by pancreatic phospholipids and is subjected to phospholipase B to become glycerophosphorylcholine or alpha GPC. In this form, it will be hydrolyzed to glycerophosphate and choline. This process can be manipulated when lecithin is exposed to phospholipase which converts lecithin to choline and glycerophosphate.

Alpha GPC can be converted as a byproduct of two lysocethin molecules reconfiguration to become a lecithin molecule.

How long do the effects of alpha GPC lasts?

Individual reports on how long alpha GPC’s effects last vary from one individual to another. Animal studies however have shown that it is absorbed by the body 1 hour after ingestion. Its peak effect occurs 3 to 4 hours after oral intake.

How should you store alpha GPC?

Your alpha GPC stock may last longer if you store it in a water resistant container.

What is alpha GPC used for?

Alpha GPC is helpful in:

Attention improvement

Several studies have shown that alpha GPC can help in increasing reaction time and attention in individuals suffering from acute stress.

Cognition and memory improvement

Alpha GPC promotes increase in protein kinase C (PKC) which is known to help in memory formation and long-term potentiation. Animal studies have also shown that it improves learning preventing avoidance learning behavior.

Alzheimer’s disease treatment

Alzheimer’s disease is caused by phospholipid degradation of choline. Through choline supplementation, there is an increase possibility that Alzheimer’s disease symptoms will improve.

Increased energy levels

One study revealed that alpha GPC increases power output for up to 14% amongst health individuals.

Increased lipolysis (fat breakdown)

In one study involving healthy men, it was reported that alpha GPC increases fat breakdown. As such, it may be an effective supplement for burning fats.

What are the side effects of alpha GPC use?

Alpha GPC has low toxicity and is generally safe for human use. However, it may cause unwarranted side effects such as headache, dizziness, insomnia, skin rash, confusion and heartburn. These side effects normally occur when alpha GPC is taken at large doses. Hence, it is important that this particular nootropic agent is taken at recommended dosages.

Important precautions

There is limited knowledge regarding use if alpha GPC on pregnant and lactating women, hence, intake of this nootropic agent should be avoided.

Drug interactions

Do not take alpha GPC with scopolamine. Scopalamine blocks the release of acetylcholine while alpha GPC increases its production.

Alpha GPC stacks

Stacking alpha GPC with other nootropic agents, particularly those under the racetam class can definitely help in boosting its effects and in preventing some side effects of noopept, piracetam, oxiracetam, aniracetam and pramiracetam. Adding alpha GPC to racetamic agents is important to prevent headaches. Adding an extra choline to your racetam stack can potentiate nootropics effects whilst increase all anticipated cognitive effects.

Best nootropics for better sexual performance Thu, 05 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. We do not encourage you to take nootropic agents or supplements discussed on our blogs. This article is for entertainment purposes only..

Since the 1950s, there has been an increased in interest on how to improve one’s intelligence. Neuroscience has afforded us with discoveries on ways to improve our alertness, memory, focus and overall cognitive capabilities. The inception of such discoveries led to the era of nootropics. Nootropics is a term coined by Dr. Corneliu Gieurgia from Romania in the early 1970s. Gieurgia has discovered a specific class of nootropics.

What is nootropic?

Nootropics, also known as intelligence enhancing drugs, cognitive enhancers, neuro enhancers, smart drugs or memory enhancers, are synthetic drugs, functional foods, nutraceuticals, natural supplements, supplements that are known to enhance several aspects of our cognitive functioning, particularly attention, focus, memory and motivation.

Nootropic history

Although it is a relatively new term, nootropics have been used since ancient times. Even with the absence of scientific knowledge and recent technology, herbs have been used to enhance cognitive abilities across continents. Traditional Chines medicine and Ayurvedic medicine from the Indian subcontinent have utilized herbs as intelligence enhancers for thousands of years. Tea was discovered in China while coffee has been popularized during the 13th to 14th century. Indeed, our interest on brain enhancing substances is primeval, but only recently are we able to catch up with our goals.

Nootropics and sexual performance

Nootropics are known to improve your memory, motivation, mood, ability to focus, and your overall cognitive abilities. Just recently however, several studies have shown that nootropic agent might be useful in enhancing libido. Yep! Nootropics might indeed be useful in improving your sexual performance.

What is libido?

Libido or what we commonly known as sex drive is the desire of an individual for sexual activity. Sex drive is governed by different factors including social, psychological and biological factors. Social factors include work and family, psychological factors include stress and personality while biological factors include hormones – all of these factors and subfactors play affect a person’s overall sex drive. It may also be influenced by some other factors such as relationship problems, medications, medical conditions, and lifestyle.

The concept of libido has been introduced by a famous theorist, Sigmund Freud. According to the Freudian theory, libido is the emotional and physiological energy that is related to one’s sex drive. He also associated it with life’s positive activity.

Can you increase libido and sex drive with nootropic supplements?

In some way, most of life’s joys are associated with libido. Remember that libido also refers to emotional and physiological energies rather than physical abilities alone. For instance, arousal, although it is commonly associated to a person’s sex drive, it also refers to one’s energies towards life. This difference is a significant one as it shows that libido is influenced by our mental and physical functioning.

The relationship of your brain and libido

Sexual arousal is influenced by your parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems on both males and females. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is in charge of sexual desire while parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) is responsible for ejaculation and erection in males as well as orgasms on both sexes. A healthy libido needs a balanced collaboration between SNS and PNS, this synergistic activity however is depended on some important brain chemicals including dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Acetylcholine is also useful in boosting libido as it affects both SNS and PNS. Low reserves of dopamine lead to decreased performance, sex drive and energy. Nootropic agents that are able to help in the production of the aforementioned neurotransmitters may help in improving an individual’s sex drive and libido.

Nootropics that can help in increasing libido

Nootropics that can aide in increasing one’s libido include the following:

Choline supplements

Choline supplements such as citicoline and Alpha GPC can help in increasing arousal. Arousal is instigated by acetylcholine, hence, adding quality choline sources to your nootropic stack or diet can help in establishing a healthy libido.

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Natural nootropics: Huperzine A and Galantamine

Natural nootropics such as Huperzine A and Galantamine can help in increasing acetylcholine in the brain. Both these natural supplements inhibit the function of acetylcholinesterase – an enzyme in charge of breaking down acetylcholine in the brain. Alongside the increase of acetylcholine, cognitive abilities and libido improves with supplementation of these natural nootropic agents.


Aniracetam is popular for its ability to enhance your cognitive abilities and decrease the symptoms of anxiety. Note that anxiety has a deteriorating effect to sexual performance and libido; hence, decreasing anxiety levels can help both your brain and body to experience pleasure easily.

Dopamine enhancers

As mentioned earlier, dopamine plays an important role in sustaining a healthy libido. One nootropic agent known to increase dopamine levels includes sulbutiamine. Research have shown that this particular nootropic agent has the ability to increase the amount of dopamine that are circulating in the brain, thereby promoting a healthy libido while decreasing anxiety and increasing well-being art the same time.


All about aniracetam Wed, 04 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. We do not endorse intake of aniracetam or any other nootropics. Any untoward effects from ingestion of aniracetam or any nootropic agents discussed in this site are sole responsibility of the user.


What is aniracetam?

Aniracetam is an ampakine nootropic agent classified under the racetam class. It  is purported to be more potent than its predecessor, piracetam. Similar to its kind, this particular nootropic agent is known for its ability to improve and increase numerous cognitive processes. Aniracetam also has anxiolytic properties and act as a memory, attention and focus enhancer. Numerous studies have shown that aniracetam is well tolerated and safe when taken by humans. Nonetheless, it is critical that you know more about this nootropic drug.


Also known as:

1(4-methoxybenzoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone, Ro 13-5057, 1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrilidinone, CAS 72432-10-1


How does aniracetam works?

To date, the exact mechanism of action of aniracetam remains to be incompletely understood. However, there are numerous theories about how it actually works. Aniracetam is known to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) easily influencing several important neurotransmitters.


Aniracetam is hypothesized to work through binding with acetylcholine receptors prompting this particular chemical to remain longer in the brain. Through this mechanism, focus, learning and memory is enhanced. Acetylcholine is a powerful neurotransmitter responsible for numerous cognitive processes.


Several experts also assume that aniracetam modulates additional brain chemicals, specifically dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin is a potent neurotransmitter responsible for sleep and wake cycles while dopamine is responsible for movement and mood. Through stimulating these specific chemical receptor sites, aniracetam is able to help in improving mood problems and anxiety.


How should you take aniracetam?

Aniracetam has low bioavailability, hence, it is recommended that you take it at a larger dose to receive its potential benefits. Animal studies have shown that 10 mg/kg to 100mg/kg body weight are efficient in producing its effects. Limited studies on humans also shows that 1000 to 1500 mgs. a day taken in divided doses (twice to thrice a day to be taken after meals) is also effective. Taking aniracetam in divided doses is important as it has a relatively short life.


Aniracetam has a bitter taste, so you might want to take encapsulated aniracetam powder if you prefer.


What are the benefits of aniracetam?

Aniracetam is known to have various effects on the human body. These benefits include:


Improvement on depression and anxiety symptoms

Animal studies have shown that intake of 100 mg/kg body weight aniracetam is effective in decreasing the symptoms of depression in aged animals. However, it is somewhat ineffective in treating younger ones. Research shows that it is able to decrease symptoms of expression through exerting its effects on the dopaminergic receptors.


Aniracetam has been shown to reduce anxiety amongst rats. Anecdotal evidence shows that this effect is replicated in humans as well. Theorists hypothesize that this effect is due to its cholinergic, serotonergic and dopaminergic interactions. Improvements in anxiety symptoms are seen with doses of 10 to 100 mg/kg of aniracetam supplementation.


Neuroprotective properties

Aniracetam seems to have the ability to decrease damage from learning and memory problems caused by traumas and agents such as cerebral ischemia, electro convulsive shock and cholinergic antagonists. It also has the ability to protect the brain from damage incidences by scopalamine to a greater degree than piracetam.


Memory and learning improvement

Researches have shown that aniracetam has the ability to decrease the receptor desensitization rate amongst animal hippocampal area (particularly the quisqualate receptors). This suggests that it might be helpful in promoting memory formation. It also encourages release of acetylcholine.

Moreover, aniracetam also increases the production of serotonin and dopamine through cholinergic transmissions in the prefrontal cortex. Increasing the release of the aforementioned brain chemicals actually promote improvement on one's judgement. This ability may also explain its anti-depression properties. Furthermore, aniracetam is shown to decrease impulsiveness on lab animals.


Alzheimer's disease and FAS treatment

Aniracetam has been shown to affect disease states including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive problems. This nootropic agent is able to alleviate symptoms or biologically reverse the changes caused by the aforementioned disorders.


What are the side effects of aniracetam?

Although aniracetam has low toxicity levels, you might still experience some side effects. However, you should not worry about it as symptoms are normally mild. The most common side effect of aniracetam includes headache. Taking aniracetam together with choline sources (e.g. Alpha GPC) will prevent headaches. Other potential side effects include anxiety, nausea, vomiting and other types of gastrointestinal distress. These side effects are generally caused by high dosages of aniracetam. Hence, you might want to decrease your aniracetam supplementation to recommended dosages.

rhosalie cruz
Top 10 Reasons Why You Need to Try Nootropics Wed, 04 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is for entertainment purposes only. We do not encourage you to take nootropic agents or supplements discussed on our blogs. Any side effects associated with intake of these supplements are sole responsibility of the user.

Nootropics are created for a purpose – that is to enhance intelligence. Today, many people are becoming hooked to including these supplements on their daily health regimen to focus better, to be more productive and to feel smarter. However, did you know that the effects of these smart drugs are not limited to boosting intelligence alone? Well, nootropics offer a host of many practical benefits that will surely help you on health goals and daily activities.

Why use nootropic agents?

Here are top 10 reasons why you need to buy these so called neuro enhancers:

1 - Boost your brain plasticity         

Neuroplasticity is the ability of your brain to learn new things such as new skills, language and memories. It also allows you to adapt to difficult situations, make new friends, and recover from brain trauma. The essential building blocks of basic neuroplasticity components (synaptic connections and brain cells) are fatty amino acids. Fatty amino acids can be provided by natural nootropic agents such as Krill oil, vitamin B12 and Omega 3-fish oil. Some example of synthetic supplements that can improve brain plasticity includes piracetam and modafinil

2 - Prevents aging of the brain

Aging is an inevitable occurrence to humans. It is caused by oxidative stress and sometimes, it results to  some degenerative brain conditions such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, geriatric cognitive problems and post-stroke aphasia. The good news is, the undesirable effects of aging and its associated conditions can be treated and sometimes, can be reversed through supplementing with nootropic agents. Nootropics has neuroprotective properties and can keep you brain healthy and young. Some smart drug that can help slow down brain aging includes niacin, bacopa, alpha GPC, piracetam, DMAE, L-Tyrosine, and L-Carnitine.


3 - Enhances sexual performance and libido

Note that libido and sexual performance is affected by social, psychological and biological factors. This means that the brain plays an important role in arousal and libido. As such, maintaining a healthy brain and taking nootropic agents that can otherwise increase sex drive may be useful in increasing libido. Libido enhancing nootropic drugs include Alpha GPC, ginseng, L-Tyrosine, aniracetam and ginkgo biloba. Read more about The Best nootropics for better sexual performance.

4 - Prevents some psychological disorder

Noots help in maintaining and balancing your brain chemicals resulting to a healthy psyche. Studies have shown that some nootropic drugs including alpha GPC, aniracetam, sulbutiamine, DMAE, DHA, Bacopa, 5-HTP, piracetam and many others can help in preventing, treating and sometimes curing psychological problems such as anxiety, depression andschizophrenia.

5 - Prevent and even fights cancer

Cancer is caused by free radicals that became cancerous in the long run. Many natural and synthetic nootropic agents are known to be effective in preventing and treating cancer including:

  • Vitamin C and niacinamide for cancer therapy
  • Vitamin d for tumor angiogenesis prevention
    • White tea extract against lung cancer
      • Green tea as a potent anti-cancer agent

Researches have also shown that cancer risk is increased for individuals with high levels of cortisol from continuous stress. Note that any synthetic nootropic agents (e.g. aniracetam, sulbutiamine, piracetam) are known to help in regulating cortisol and decreasing stress amongst users.

6 - Prevent obesity

Yep, you’ve read it! Nootropic agents can help in preventing obesity. Nootropic drugs such as green tea, 5-HTP and alpha GPC can fight off obesity. Some smart drugs help in increasing body energy, metabolism an even blocks certain chemicals that encourages us to overeat. Others act as lipolysis inducers wherein fats are broken down to prevent accumulation in the body.

7 - Promotes creativity

Nootropic agents also help in promoting creativity. Whether you need to finish a very important paper due in a few days or you need fresh ideas for your novel or blog, smart drugs can help in improving your writing dexterity, focus and creativity. Some nootropic drugs that can help in inducing these effects include L-theanine, piracetam, and green tea extract.

8 - Promotes good zzzzz’s

Although most nootropic drugs are known to induce wakefulness and alertness, some are able to help in promoting better sleep. For instance, nootropic precursors of acetylcholine help in promoting REM sleep. DMAE on the other hand induces lucid dreaming while 5-HTP helps in normalizing sleep patterns.

9 - Promote excellent mind and body coordination

Many nootropic substances are able to promote the levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter important in communicating your muscles and the grey matter of your brain. Several smart drugs that are able to promote good coordination between your body and mind includes choline, alpha GPC and DMAE.

10 - Increase your confidence

Nootropic agents help in increasing your brain chemicals. Neurotransmitters helps promote creativity, focus and will also make you feel more outgoing and confident in socializing and business endeavors.

Top 10 Reasons To Buy Nootropics




Aniracetam: A Potent Ampakine Nootropic Tue, 03 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is strictly for entertainment purposes only. Aniracetam is not for human consumption. It is intended for research purposes only. We do not endorse aniracetam or any drug use. Adverse effects and complications of this drug are sole responsibility of user.

Aniracetam has been introduced in the late 1970s as a drug supplement that is able to fuel the AMPA receptors of the brain. It was initially developed by pharmaceutical company Hoffman-La Roche as a more potent nootropic for piracetam. Due to its ability to stimulate AMPA receptors, aniracetam was later labeled as an “ampakinootropic.” Following this, numerous researches and clinical trials were undertaken to discover the effects of aniracetam on the human body.

Early and most recent trials have shown that this particular nootropic drug has numerous potentiating effects one of which includes its ability to treat symptoms of anxiety. It has been shown to treat Alzheimer’s disease as well as such, it has been approved in Europe as a prescribed treatment for this particular degenerative disease. For 8 years, it has also been approved in Japan as a treatment for a host of emotional problems including agitation, anxiety and depression. Despite such clinical claims, aniracetam was pulled out from the Japanese market and was not approved by the US FDA because of conflicting research results regarding its efficacy.

How does aniracetam work?

How does aniracetam work - buy nowTo date, there is no definitive mechanism of action to describe how aniracetam works. Nonetheless, reports have shown that aniracetam works through improving synaptic efficacy from potentiating energy production and activating energy metabolism. Theorists also suggest that it modulates cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission.

Glutamatergic neurotransmission

Aniracetam is known for its glutamatergic neurotransmission abilities. It has the capability to indirectly increase the production of acetylcholine and bind these to AMPA receptors leading to increased oxidation.

Cholinergic mechanisms

For cholinergic neurotransmission to occur, p-anisic acid, N-anisoyl-GABA and other metabolisms must be activated. Aniracetam activates the reticulothalamc cholinergic path thereby increasing choline acetyltransferase. As such, aniracetam is given the ability to rectify cholinergic neurotransmission system from cell apoptosis.

What are the benefits of aniracetam

Aniracetam is a novel treatment for several brain disorders. Animal studies have shown that this particular nootropic agent is able to effectively and safely treat emotional problems, cognitive disorders, some behavioral problems as well as sleep disturbances. To this light, numerous clinical studies were undertaken to evaluate its effects to humans.

Dementia treatment

 Today, many individuals across the globe are suffering from dementia. This cognitive problem has serious implications, requiring multiple treatment methods. Since aniracetam is known for its glutamatergic mechanisms and neuroprotective properties, several studies were undertaken to evaluate its effects to people suffering from dementia. In one study, aniracetam was administered to patients suffering from cognitive disorders. Results have shown that it is a promising treatment for those who are diagnosed with mild cognitive deficits. Findings of this particular study indicated that aniracetam can help in preserving neuropsychological parameters and improve emotional stability of the study participants. Another sdouble blind trial has shown that aniracetam can promote memory improvement amongst patients suffering from senile dementia Alzheimer’s type.

Visual hallucination treatment

Another benefit that has been associated with aniracetam is its ability to prevent visual hallucination. To study the effects of aniracetam, it was administered to elderly patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease and diffused Levy body disease. After aniracetam treatment, findings have shown that visual hallucination amongst these individuals has significantly improved. More importantly, there were no adverse effects associated with the treatment even after administering high doses of aniracetam.

Treatment for Alzheimer’s disease

Aniracetam’s purported benefits are extended to Alzheimer’s disease. In a study comparing acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors and aniracetam, it was revealed that the latter has the ability to enhance cognitive abilities of individuals suffering from Alzheimer’s.

Treatment for insomnia

Other than being able to treat Alzheimer’s disease, visual hallucination and dementia, aniracetam can help in treating insomnia as well. A study have shown that combining aniracetam and Zopiclone and administering it to patients diagnosed with insomnia (either cerebrovascular or non-cerebrovascular in origin) is effective in prolonging sleep. 78% of individuals who have undergone this combination treatment reported prolonged and improved sleep.

Progressive supranuclear palsy treatment

 Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, nuchal dystopia, vertical gaze palsy and dementa. Treatment includes noradrenaline precursors, tricyclic antidepressants, levodopa, anti-cholinergic agents and droid opt. Since aniracetam has anticholinergic capabilities, it was administered to some patients suffering from PSP. Results have shown that aniracetam was able to improve body balance, volition, intellectual abilities and motor function.

Despite numerous efforts to discover the pharmacodynamics properties of aniracetam, there remains to be vague knowledge regarding this nootropic agent. As such, usage should always be subjected to a doctor’s approval. Precautionary measures must be implemented before taking this drug.



How does oxiracetam work? Tue, 03 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is strictly for entertainment purposes only. Oxiracetam is not for human consumption. It is intended for research purposes only. We do not endorse oxiracetam or any drug use. Adverse effects and complications of this drug are sole responsibility of user.


Oxiracetam is a nootropic agent characterized to be more potent than its predecessor, piracetam, in enhancing memory and learning. It was developed by an Italian drug company and was marketed during the late 1970s. It was distributed throughout Europe even reaching the Japanese market after Ciba-Geigy licensed it. Despite gaining wider audience, the US Food and Drug Administration, has not recognized the use of oxiracetam as a drug supplement and as a treatment for any of its labeled uses.

Unlike other racetams (e.g. piracetam, aniracetam), oxiracetam is seldom prescribed by healthcare providers in treating various mental problems. Nonetheless, animal studies have shown that oxiracetam is quite effective a variety of problems involving brain health and cognitive decline. Some human clinical trials have also indicated that oxiracetam is effective in treating Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and organic solvent abuse. From herein, there has been an increase in interest with the use of oxiracetam as a supplement for improving brain function amongst the young and old who are seeking pharmacological aids.

How Does Oxiracetam Work - Buy NowWhat is oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is a nootropic agent under the racetam family. It has a similar chemical structure to piracetam containing a hydroxyl group on its four carbon. It is also known as a water soluble nootropic that is used to enhance cognitive functioning and memory. Oxiracetam acts as an AMPA receptor and neurotransmitter modulator and as  GABA analogue that is able to support phospholipid metabolism.

How does oxiracetam work?

Despite numerous clinical trials done to unearth how oxiracetam works, its exact mechanism remains to be clouded with mystery. Experts however suggest that it functions through facilitating the production of glutamate and acetylcholine. Acetylcholine assists helps in supporting attention in the central nervous system. It also plays a role in activating the muscles of the peripheral nervous system. Glutamate on the other hand plays a critical role in maintaining neuronal transmissions, memory formation and learning. Oxiracetam also functions as a neuromodulator influencing learning ability and short term memory formation.

Learning and memory enhancement mechanism

Oxiracetam  functions similarly with aniracetam. Both racetam noootropic agents improve long-term potentiation in the ippocampus. It also aids in enhancing signaling efficiency leading to improved glutamate release. Enhance glutamate release helps in stimulating the AMPA receptors. Upon activating AMPA receptors, influx of calcium leads to the stimulation of protein kinase C, a major intermediary protein for memory formation. It also potentiated brain’s acetylcholine release. Considering oxiracetam’s ability to improve memory and learning, it appears that his drug has the ability to facilitate cholinergic and glutaminergic neurotransmission.

Other mechanisms

Psychostimulatory properties

Other than the abovementioned mechanisms, oxiracetam is thought to have psychostimulatory properties. It has the ability to promote attention and arousal via its cholinergicproperties leading to improved memory. Its psychostimulatory properties prevent oxiracetam users to stay awake for prolonged periods of time.

Neuroprotective properties

Oxiracetam is thought to having nuroprotective properties. It is able to eliminate brain toxins decreasing toxicity in the brain that impairs memory formation. Experts suggest to take oxiracetam as a pre-treatment to obtain its neuroprotective capabilities.

Anti-amnesic properties

Another mechanism that has been associated with oxiracetam is its ability to prevent memory problems Although it is unable to directly affect dopamine production, oxiracetam has amnesiac properties through preventing dopamine antagonists.

What are the benefits of taking oxiracetam?

Oxiracetam is effective in improving cognition and memory. Anecdotal evidence and user reports shows that this particular nootropic agent has the ability to facilitate mood, increase memory capacity, improve concentration as well as memory. These benefits are further supported by numerous researches involving individuals diagnosed with cognitive disorders and healthy individuals.

Treatment of dementia and amnesia

Studies have shown that prolonged treatment with oxiracetam leads to decreased symptoms of dementia. In one study, elderly patients diagnosed with dementia of Alzheimer’s type and multi–infarct dementia are treated with oxiracetam and placebo for 6 months. Results revealed that study participants who were treated with oxiracetam demonstrate significant improvements on most neuropsychological tests compared to those who were under placebo. This study only shows that this particular racetam supplement can help in treating dementia. Other studies have also shown that oxiracetam has beneficial effects amongst animals and individuals suffering from amnesia and other memory problems

Memory enhancement

The ability of oxiracetam to improve memory is perhaps its most eminent beneficial effect. Numerous study involving oxiracetam have shown that it has the ability to significantly improve memory of both elderly and young patients suffering from memory problems due to old age, trauma and cognitive degenerative diseases. Several clinical trials have also purported that it has the ability to facilitate spontaneous and long-term memory formation.

Other than these benefits, oxiracetam is thought to improve attention, logical performance and general cognition. It also helps in enhancing behavioral and functional abilities. Indeed, oxiracetam is a novel nootropic drug that can possibly help patient suffering from memory and cognition disorders.




Beneficial effects of sulbutiamine Sat, 31 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: We do not endorse sulbutiamine or any nootropic drug use. Adverse effects and complications of this drug are sole responsibility of the user.


Sulbutiamine was discovered by Japanese researchers in search for a way to improve the absorption rate of thiamine. Thiamine is an essential vitamin needed to prevent vitamin deficiency and beriberi. Thiamine has the ability to improve your brain functioning. Nonetheless, it does not easily cross the blood brain barrier, which decreases its positive effects on your intelligence. Absorption is further decreased with folic deficiency. These difficulties are actually solved by sulbutiamine molecules making this essential nutrient easily absorbed by your brain. Being able to enter the blood brain barrier is a critical feature of cognitive enhancing drugs to receive its beneficial effects.

How does sulbutiamine works?

After oral ingestion of sulbutiamine, your intestines will absorb it. It will then circulate on your blood going to your brain tissues. After it penetrates your blood brain barrier, it will be broken down into different esters such as vitamin B1. Studies have shown that sulbutiamine will increase the levels of thiamine and its phosphate esters to your brain compared to taking a dose of thiamine itself. For this reason, sulbutiamine was dubbed as the enhanced or improved precursor of thiamine.

Sulbutiamine works through influencing the activity of your neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine has numerous factors acting towards your learning system, focus and executive function and pleasure sensation. It also helps in increasing the density of dopamine receptors on your brain’s prefrontal cortex. As a direct result, it helps in treating symptoms of asthenia, depression and even curbs behavior inhibitions (e.g. shyness).

What are the benefits of sulbutiamine?

Sulbutiamine is a very popular over the counter nootropic drug. It boasts a host of benefits that makes it an attractive option amongst users. Some studies have shown that it is able to improve memory functioning due to its glutamate and acetylcholine activity. Its ability to stimulate dopamine functioning further helps in aiding cognition improvement. Some benefits associated with sulbutiamine supplementation include:

Mood improvement

Sulbutiamine has been considered as a powerful anti-depressant. It has been shown to decrease inhibition including guardedness, avoidance, and fearfulness on individuals suffering from depression or shyness. This effect is prompted by the influence of sulbutiamine on dopamine and its receptors. Some studies and reports of users have shown that it is effective in regulating moods. However, its anti-depressant effects are normally seen for a short period of time. These effects commonly declines after repetitive use, hence despite its efficiency, healthcare providers do not recommend sulbutiamine as a primary treatment for depression and other mood disorders.

Memory improvement

Some studies have shown that sulbutiamine has the ability to improve memory through potentiating glutamatergic, dopaminergic and cholinergic transmission. It has been shown to improve memory of individuals suffering from schizophrenia. It can also improve the activities of daily living of individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease when used with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Anecdotal evidence shows that it can improve memory, decision-making capability, planning skills and overall intelligence of users. Reports also show that it can improve alertness, reflexes, attention and energy levels amongst others.

Asthenia treatment

Aside from treating thiamine deficiency, sulbutiamine is an indicated treatment for asthenia. Some clinical trials have shown that sulbutiamine is an effective treatment of asthenia. Other studies however have shown that its clinical efficacy for treating fatigue is inadequate. As such, additional research is needed to evaluate its usefulness in treating this particular medical condition.

Erectile dysfunction treatment

Another possible use of sulbutiamine is as an erectile dysfunction treatment. Its ability to treat some types of erectile dysfunction is still being studied. Many users have reported that this particular nootropic drug has aphrodisiac effects making it easier for men to achieve erection. A study involving 20 patients suffering from psychogenic erectile dysfunction shows that after 30 days of sulbutiamine supplementation, 16 patients were treated.

Off-label uses of sulbutiamine

Aside from its ability to improve mood, memory and energy levels, sulbutiamine is also known for its off-label uses. It is said to promote feelings of pleasure and euphoria amongst users. It has also been used to relieve anxiety, stress and depression. Bodybuilders and dieters also use sulbutiamine as a fat burner and an appetite suppressant.

Side effects

Generally, sulbutiamine is well tolerated by humans, with continuous use and repetitive usage however, you may build tolerance quickly. Hence, it is recommended that you take time off using this particular drug every now and then. Also, you must be mindful of some things. Some of the most common side effects related to sulbutiamine use include irritability and anxiety. These side effects however are likely to occur if you take doses of sulbutiamine higher than what was recommended. Some common side effects of sulbutiamine include:

  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Headache
  • Depression
  • Skin rash
  • Nausea

If you experience these side effects, it is highly recommended that you discontinue sulbutiamine use.




rhosalie cruz
Alpha GPC: The best source of choline Sat, 31 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is strictly for entertainment purposes only. Alpha GPC is not for human consumption. It is intended for research purposes only. We do not endorse alpha GPC or any nootropic drug use.

What are the functions of choline?

Choline is an essential vitamin that the human body needs to stay healthy. Women needs to 425 mgs while men needs 550 mgs daily. It is secreted by the body in small amounts, hence, it is critical that we take it from dietary resources for:

  • Methylation

Most signaling processes in our body need methyl – a chemical important in methylation. Methylation is one of the most basic processes in living. Simply put it, no cellular living thing would survive without methylation. Some important functions of methylation include liver detoxification, DNA building and exchanging of brain signals. Methylation problems have been linked with cardiovascular disease and memory loss.

The best source of choline to buy centrophenoxineDifferent nutrients are needed for the methylation processes to take place. Some of these nutrients involve folate and B vitamins (B6 and B12). In this process, choline plays an important role. For instance, choline assures that methylation process takes place even with inadequate amounts of folate. It acts as a methyl donor keeping the levels of homocysteine low.

 • Cell structure

Phosphatidylcholine is one of the most important building blocks of living cells and the most common form of choline found in foods. Choline on the other hand is an important nutrient in the production of phosphatidylcholine. Choline is present in numerous dietary resources.

 • Acetylcholine production

Choline can be considered as the ‘backbone’ of your nervous system. It is a critical component in the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is one of the most important neurotransmitter as the part of your nervous system facilitating your heart and your intestines are largely run by acetylcholine. Moreover, acetylcholine commands every voluntary muscle to move.

What are the sources of choline?

As mentioned earlier, choline is available in numerous dietary resources. It can also be gleaned from supplements. Sources of choline can be divided into two – natural and synthetic sources.

Natural sources of choline

 • Chocolate, eggs and milk

Eggs are one of the highest choline containing natural sources of foods. One egg yolk boasts an estimate of 120 mgs of choline. Dried egg yolk on the other hand contains 1400 mgs in a 100 g serving. A sweet way to take choline involves chocolate and milk. A 1.5 oz. milk chocolate bar contains 20 mg of choline while a 100 g serving of chocolate cake has 130 mg.

 • Herbs, veggies and spices

Some herbs, veggies and spices contain choline. A cup of cooked broccoli and Brussels sprouts contain 60 mgs of choline. Chili powder, coriander leaves, dried flakes of celery, dried coriander leaves, dried parsley, dried tomatoes, garlic and mustard seeds adds a dash of flavor and choline on your foods as well.

 • Nuts, seeds and soy

If you want to eat foods rich in choline, you might want to add flax seeds, nuts and soy on your diet. Meat substitutes made up from soy are good source of choline. Tofu is made up of soybeans containing about 100 mgs in 3 oz. of tofu. 3 oz. of low fat tofu flour on the other hand contains 190 mgs of choline. Pistachio and flax seeds also contain in as much as 70 to 80 mgs of choline per 3 oz. serving. Two tablespoons peanut butter delivers an estimate of 20 mgs of choline.

Synthetic sources of choline

The abovementioned foods are good natural choline sources. These foods however are inefficient sources because these are not able to penetrate the blood brain barrier, which means that you are not able to get it where your body needs it most. There are certain ways to increase your choline intake one of which includes buying synthetic choline.

 • Choline bitartrate

Choline bitartrate is one source of choline. It is easy to use and cheap as well. This has higher concentrations of choline as compared to natural sources. Similar to the latter however, it does not easily cross the blood brain barrier.

 • Centrophenoxine

Centrophenoxine is derived from DMAE. It is powerful and helps in producing greater levels of acetylcholine because of its ability to promote phospholipid transformation.

 • Citicoline

Another good source of choline is citicoline. It undergoes double conversion wherein it is being converted as choline in the intestines and reverts to choline in the brain.

 • Alpha GPC

Compared to all natural sources and other good sources of choline, many users consider Alpha GPC as the best source. It effectively increases the levels of acetylcholine in the brain and is more concentrated than its competitor, citicoline. It is more effective than citicoline at lower doses.

The Best Source Of Choline To Buy Alpha GPC

Alpha GPC: The most effective synthetic choline source Sat, 31 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is strictly for entertainment purposes only. Alpha GPC is not for human consumption. It is intended for research purposes only. We do not endorse alpha GPC or any nootropic drug use. Adverse effects and complications of this drug are sole responsibility of the user.

If you are interested in using choline supplements to improve your brain health, you might have come across Alpha GPC already. Alpha GPC is one of the best sources of choline and despite the availability of numerous products out there, it is one of the most popular. There are reasons behind its fame and reputation one of which includes its compatibility with other categories of brain supplements particularly that of nootropic agents.

ALPHA GPC: THE MOST EFFECTIVE SYNTHETIC CHOLINE SOURCE to buyAlpha GPC is a popular ingredient in many brain supplements including Alpha Brain. It is also available as an independent product and you can purchase it from different online brain supplement shops. Alpha GPC is best stacked with nootropics such as piracetam, aniracetam and noopept.

What are the benefits of choline in the body?

Adolf Strecker first discovered choline in 1864. It was then synthesized into a chemical two years thereafter. In 1998, US Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board classified choline as an essential nutrient. Early on, choline was also identified as a necessary nutrient to prevent fatty liver conditions and regulate cholesterol levels in the body.

The human body can create choline however; it is able to do so in small amounts only. Hence, we must be able to consume it from different dietary resources to ensure that we are able to get choline in proper levels. It can be found in several foods such as liver and eggs. Still, the amounts available in these dietary sources are inadequate. Therefore, you must take it in supplement forms.

Choline is an essential nutrient to all people particularly amongst pregnant women. Insufficient choline intake leads to memory problems amongst children and neural tube defects amongst infants. An animal study even shows that choline supplementation in conception produces offspring with greater intelligence scores. Alpha GPC has also been shown to help brain recovery after trauma, injury and surgery. It is also documented to improve cognitive performance and memory amongst patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease whilst increase dopamine levels amongst patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease. Studies have also shown that it counteracts loss of nerve fibers and neurons in the brain and prevent accumulation of toxins in the brain and other anatomic parts of the body. Moreover, it has been shown to help patients recover from brain ischemic attacks.

Other than its beneficial effects on the brain, choline also helps in the secretion of growth hormones amongst all walks of life. It also prevents atherosclerosis and liver problems.  It also increases the levels of some liver enzymes such as ALT helping the body promote healthy liver functioning.

Alpha GPC, choline and nootropic stacking

As reflected above, it is of no doubt that choline and its resources are beneficial to your body functioning. Still, the primary reason of taking Alpha GPC is its obvious effects on brain functioning and health. Alpha GPC is particularly effective when used with piracetam and other cholinergic nootropic agents. Anecdotal evidence and some research have shown that Alpha GPC and other sources of choline augments the beneficial effects of some cognitive enhancers.

When stacked with other nootropics such as piracetam, you will surely experience a rather significant boost on your overall mental capacity such as recall fluidity, brain energy, learning, memory, abstract thinking and analytical reasoning. Alpha GPC and other choline sources create a synergistic effecs with nootropic agents such as piracetam increasing the demand of acetylcholine on some brain receptors. More importantly, choline sources can help prevent some undesirable effects of piracetam including headaches.

Synthetic choline sources

There are numerous synthetic source of choline. The most popular ones include Alpha GPC, Centrophenoxine and CDO choline. These synthetic sources do an effective job in producing nootropic beneficial effects because of their ability to cross the blood brain barrier. All of these synthetic sources are being stacked with other racetam supplements. However, they can also be used as a standalone supplements for cognitive enhancement.

Of the abovementioned options, many people think that Alpha GPC is the best choline supplement. This is because this particular drug acts a little differently in increasing the levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Studies have shown that it is able to provide the best transportation of effects in the brain. It is also more concentrated that CDP choline having the same amount of choline even at a dosage of less than 54%.Per weight basis, it has also been shown to be more effective in numerous clinical trials.

For these reasons, it is to no doubt that, Alpha GPC is one of the best and most effective synthetic sources of choline. Click here to buy Alpha GPC


Sulbutiamine: A peek on its historical discovery Thu, 29 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: This article is strictly for entertainment purpses only. We do not endorse sulbutiamine or any nootropic drug use. Adverse effects and complications of this drug are sole responsibility of the user.

Discovery and history of sulbutiamine

The discovery of sulbutiamine can be traced back to the history of the debilitating vitamin deficiency disease known as beriberi. A Japanese doctor, Takaki Kanehiro first studied beriberi during the late 19th century. During these years, beriberi was a serious disease amongst Japanese sailors. In 1883, Kanehiro discovered that the prevalence of beriberi is unbelievably high amongst navy who travels on a training mission from Japan to Hawaii. With the sustenance and provision of the Japanese Navy, Kanehiro studied beriberi.

On his attempt, he first observed a group of Japanese sailors who took a journey that lasted for more than 9 months traversing along New Zealand and America before arriving to Hawaii. This journey of 376 men led to 169 cases of morbidity and 25 cases of mortality. Another ship was deployed using the same route, except that this crew was fed with a healthier diet of barley, beans, fish, meant and rice. At the end of the second voyage, it was revealed that only 14 got sick during the entire journey and there were no case of mortality.

The results of this rather simple experiment led the Japanese navy and Kanehiro to believe that beriberi is caused by poor diet. Kanehiro also learned that low ranking crew who are only provided rice for their sustenance are at increased risk for contracting beriberi as compared to Japanese naval officers and Western navies who are able to consume a varied diet. Later on, additional studies were conducted on beriberi revealing that it is deficiency syndrome. It was further discovered that it is caused by inadequate intake of vitamin B1 (thiamine) from ingestion of polished rice. Rice bran is one of the primary dietary resources of thiamine.

Amongst others, beriberi was endemic in Asian countries such as Japan because they are dependent on polished white rice for their staple food. As such, Japan took a huge step forward and established a Vitamin B Research Committee to perform scientific investigations regarding thiamine and its derivatives. Thiamine derivatives were of high interest in hopes of synthesizing one that has better pharmacokinetic properties than thiamine itself.

The very first lipophilic thiamine derivative that was discovered was allithiamine. Allithiamine is isolated from garlic. Interest for thiamine derivatives was high because it is unable to diffuse across plasma membranes (blood brain barrier primarily) due to its positive electric thiazole moiety. This now requires thiamine to be carried by high affinity carriers across plasma membranes leading to low transportation. Through further efforts, sulbutiamine  came to life.

Sulbutiamine was created through reducing its compound polarity to help it pass the blood brain barrier and reach the brain. Thiamine was oxidized alone which has created a non-polar dimer of two bonded thiamine molecules resulting to sulbutiamine. Through the conversion of thiamine to sulbutiamine, thiamine can now easily sneak into the brain.

Benefits of sulbutiamine

Activity potentiation

Numerous studies have shown that sulbutiamine can help in boosting intelligence. It has been shown to improve decision-making ability, learning capacity, problem-solving capability, planning skills and synaptic plasticity. These benefits are possible primarily due to the ability of sulbutiamine to modulate glutamate leading to activity potentiation.

Sulbutiamine has the ability to facilitate stimulation of the neurotransmitter glutamate, as such, pairing this smart drug with aniracetam and noopept might increase its potency. A lot of evidence also suggests that sulbutiamine can treat individuals suffering from severe degenerative problems such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. One study even shows that combining sulbutiamine with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (donepezil) can help in improving day life activities and episodic memories of patients with Alzheimer’s.

Asthenia treatment

Sulbutiamine has been considered as a treatment of asthenia – a type of chronic fatigue that is cerebral in origin. Several studies have shown that this drug is clinically effective in reducing asthenic symptoms. Some studies have shown that it has the ability to eliminate all symptoms of asthenia while some have demonstrated that it is able to relieve asthenic symptoms for individuals who suffered mild craniocerebral trauma. Hence, more study needs to be done to assess the efficiency of this thiamine derivative in treating asthenia.

Increased neuronal communication

Some studies have shown that sulbutiamine has the ability to promote efficient communication between the neurons in our brain. This increased neuronal communication leads to faster and more fluid brain transmissions that embody your perceptions and thoughts. For instance, some users will see an enhancement on their mental alertness, overall attention and reflexes. Anecdotal evidence also shows that it can lead to increased motivation and energy levels.

Before taking sulbutiamine however, it is critical that certain level of precautions are done to avoid unwarranted side effects.

rhosalie cruz
All about PRL-8-53 Thu, 22 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: PRL-8-53 is not for human consumption. It is intended for research purposes only. We do not endorse PRL-8-53 use. This article is strictly for entertainment purposes only.

PRL-8-53 has been categorized as a nootropic compound. Unlike most nootropics however, there are minimal research studies that has been conducted to assess its effects on both humans and animals. These studies are even conducted by its previous patent holder. Anecdotal evidence from users showed that this chemical is effective in improving sense of well-being, productivity and motivation to work. Still, we suggest that you take extreme precautions when taking this drug. To help you in learning more about this novel agent, a review on PRL-8-53 is discussed below.

What is PRL-8-53?

PRL-8-53 is a nootropic compound that is primarily intended as a research chemical. It was initially synthesized by Dr. Nikolaus Hansl during the 1970s while he was working in Creighton University. This chemical has been named after Hansl’s company – that is Pacific Research Lab which stands for PRL.

Hansl have created PRL-8-53 as a part of his study on amino ethyl meta benzoic acid esters. He created PRL-8-53 from phenylmethylamine and benzoic acid. As such, it is named as methyl 3-(2-(benzyl(methyl)amino)ethyl)benzoate. Similar to most nootropic drugs, this chemical is not present on any dietary resources available. Therefore, if you would like to personally experience its purported beneficial effects, you must take this laboratory synthesized drug.

How does PRL-8-53 work?

With very minimal studies (one human study and several other animal studies) conducted to evaluate the effects of PRL-8-53, its mechanism of action remains unknown. In creating its patent however, Dr. Hansl stated that it functions through enhancing the response of the brain towards acetylcholine. In his study, he suggested that it has cholinergic mechanisms. To some extent, it has been said to act as a dopamine agonist. It is also said to potentiate the release of dopamine whilst partially inhibit the release of serotonin – all of which helps in improving learning motivation amongst users.

What are the benefits of PRL-8-53?

Memory improvement

In a lone study conducted on humans, participants were given a dose (5 mg) of PRL-8-53 approximately 120 to 150 minutes prior to cognitive testing. Participants were made to recollect certain monosyllabic words to test for memory improvement. Results of this study have shown that there are relatively large improvement in short-term memory with a single dose of this drug. This only shows that PRL-8-53 has potent effects in enhancing recall and memory.

Anxiolytic properties

Despite absence of published studies, there is an anecdotal evidence that PRL-8-53 can improve anxiety. Many users claimed that this particular chemical decreases their anxiety, improve their mood and make them feel better. These purported benefits now requires further inquiry and study.

Improved social abilities

Subjective reports from users reveal that PRL-8-53 is able to increase their ability to socialize. Some people report that they felt less anxious and nervous when presenting projects/proposals to their clients/employees after ingesting this drug. Some also claimed that they are able to make small talks and extend conversation with others which they are normally unable to do. Again, this benefit warrants further study.

Enhanced geometric pattern and math tests

Although it remains unsupported by published studies, users and online reviews have revealed that PRL-8-53 can help in enhancing geometric pattern and improve math test results. The study conducted by the creator himself has shown that users have stronger ability to recall geometric patterns on their mind and draw it afterwards. Notably, it is also able to improve arithmetic abilities of some users. In one review, an abstract painter even reported that he is able to produce one of his best paintings after intake of PRL-8-53. In his subjective report, he stated that he was able to finish his painting with clear and sharp focus.

Improved verbal fluency

Dr. Hansl also claims that PRL-8-53 can improve once verbal fluency. Results of his study have shown that verbal fluency amongst participants was significantly improved after intake. Despite this lone study, many users and online reviewers have vouched that PRL-8-53 can improve verbal fluency. This is actually evidenced by the increased sociability and ability to spark conversations amongst others.


In taking PRL-8-53, there are certain precautions that you must always bear in mind. These precautions include:

   •  Take PRL-8-53 on recommended dosage. Do not attempt to overdose.

   •  If you are suffering from any medical condition, lactating, pregnant or is taking other medication, consult your doctor immediately.

   •  There are no information as to what stack is PRL-8-53 compatible, hence, we suggest that you take it without combining to other nootropic agents.

   •  Take a lower dose (than recommended) when you are about to start taking this nootropic to assess and evaluate how your body reacts to it.

rhosalie cruz
The different types of nootropics Wed, 21 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: We do not encourage intake of any nootropic agents. Use of these compounds is not for human consumption. Nootropics are intended for research purposes only. This article is for entertainment purposes only.

The different types of nootropics

All information that we gain are being stored and registered within our brain. However, this information naturally deteriorates as time passes by. In a couple of days, weeks and years, our memories, even the most cherished ones, fades and are simply erased from its storage. Memory decline be it due to certain medical conditions (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease) or normal wear and tear can greatly influence your daily life. As such, it is to no surprise that the search for methods in memory enhancement begun hundreds of years ago and has continuously flourished during this day.

Numerous strategies to enhance memories have been implemented throughout the years.  These strategies range from simplistic cognitive exercises to actual drug supplementations known to influence certain memory processes. Many of these strategies are unsuccessful in producing the desired effects, however, some substances have produced interesting and promising results. One of these effective strategies includes nootropic supplementation. There are different types of nootropics, all of which will be discussed below.

Natural nootropics

All-natural and organic products are currently the rage today. Hence, if you are interested in enhancing your cognitive abilities naturally, then herbal nootropics are the best type nootropic drug for you. Natural nootropics are herbs or plants that are able to help in improving your brain’s health and ability. Some of the best natural nootropics out there include Huperzine A, Bacopa Monnieri and vinpocetine. Natural nootropics are thought to be less effective as compared to their synthetic counterparts. Nonetheless, these are quite effective and powerful when stacked with synthetic nootropics. Some are even used for their ability to reduce the effects of artificial memory enhancers.

Best Adaptogens To Add To Your Nootropic Stack

Smart drugs

Numerous smart drugs are available on the market today. Nonetheless, many drugs that fall under this category may not be considered as nootropics. For instance, smart drugs that are derived from amphetamines including Adderall are classified as stimulants, hence, they are technically not a nootropic agent. However, eugeroics such as modafinil and adrafinil are smart drugs and nootropics at the same time.

Adrafinil Vs Popular Smart Drug Modafinil


Racetams are the most popular amongst all types of nootropics. Moreover, it is the very first nootropic ever invented by humans. There are different types of racetams; well-known ones include piracetam, oxiracetam, pramiracetam and aniracetam.

Racetams share a standard pyrrolidone nucleus chemical structure. They also act similarly through stimulating brain receptors responsible for the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine on the other hand, is one of the most important neurotransmitter found in the brain. It functions by transmitting nerve impulses and signals across your neuronal synapses. It also plays a role in awareness, concentration, memory, productivity and motivation. Racetams also intersect with ampakines, another type of nootropics. They do so as some racetams stimulate the activities of glutamic receptors – the main mechanism of action of ampakines.

The untold benefits of Noopept the most popular racetam
Noopept: A potent neuroprotective agent


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Ampakines belong to the most powerful and potent nootropics that has ever been created. It is relatively new in the market as well as in the field of memory enhancing pharmaceutical products. This particular nootropic type acts as a strong glutamate receptor agonist which leads to increased levels of glutamate.

Similar to acetylcholine, glutamate is an important neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity. It is important in memory and learning processes. Ampakines also help in improving alertness and attention span. More importantly, ampakines does not cause any amphetamine like effects including insomnia, anxiety and restlessness.

Properties of Adrafinil A Powerful Ampakine


Buy Ampakine Adrafinil Like Modafinil



Peptide nootropics is one of the most interesting types of nootropic drugs. Currently, noopept, a peptide nootropic, has gained so much attention not only from recreational users but also amongst brain researchers. Noopept is known as a very potent and powerful nootropic agent and has been dubbed as a thousand times more powerful than its parent compound, piracetam. This peptide has high bioavailability and easily crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB) causing immediate beneficial effects to users.

Synthetic vitamin B derivatives

Synthetic vitamin b derivatives are nootropics that are created through altering B-vitamins. For instance, sulbutimine are derived from vitamin B1 while pyritinol is modified from vitamin B6. These nootropic agents are great in promoting energy, mood and memory. Synthetic vitamin B derivatives are also excellent when stacked with other types of nootropics. However, research have shown that these derivatives tend to lose its effects overtime. Hence, it is critical that vitamin B derivatives are cycled to maintain its potency.


Buy Choline source CentrophenoxineCholine nootropics are best used with other nootropic agents, particularly with racetams. Doing so is important as it is considered to be less effective compared to other nootropic agents. Stacking choline with other nootropics increases both nootropics’ potency yielding to a better result. Good examples of choline include citicholine, Alpha GPC and centrophenoxine. Choline nootropics are generally safe and non-toxic to human when taken on recommended dosages.

Nootropics: A healthy way to promote brain health and fight ageing Tue, 06 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: We do not encourage intake of any nootropic agents. Use of these compounds is not for human consumption. Nootropics are intended for research purposes only. Adverse effects and complications of these drugs due to abuse and unwarranted intake are sole responsibility of the user.

When people think about staying healthy and fit, most focus from the neck to down. Less attention was given on the important role played by the brain on most of our daily activities. Well, you must know that every second of the day, your brain is continuously working and aging at the same time and that a healthy brain is foremost in maintaining important activities such as remembering, focusing, feeling, working, thinking, sleeping, and even feeling!

While we age, different toxins (e.g. lipofuscin) accumulate in the brain cells. The neurons will become less responsive while losing their fluidity. Numerous environmental factors such as excessive alcohol intake, smoking, unhealthy diet and other unhealthy activities lead to oxidative stress all of which contributes to premature neuronal apoptosis or cell death.

Similar to most parts of your body, your brain will eventually lose its agility as you grow older. Evidence of brain deterioration however may be harder to see. As such, it is critical that you take several steps to reverse and slow down brain aging. One popular strategy to slow down brain deterioration includes ingestion of brain supplements. Such supplements are known as nootropics. Nootropics are drugs that enhance brain health, improve cognitive performance and increase memory capacity.

As research on nootropics expand, many are currently being studied as treatments for several cognitive problems associated with aging and other disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Nootropic combinations are now being used to improve cognitive health and delay the commencement of age related problems of the brain. Some nootropics actually functions to form synapses and neurons that improve intellect and cognitive performance overtime. To help you in choosing the right nootropic supplements, we have provided a list below. The best nootropic drugs that can help in maintaining a healthy brain as it ages are discussed.

The aging brain and nootropic supplementation

Free radical damage

Free radicals are molecules that are disengaged from their parent compounds. These molecules damage cells and even cause certain types of cancer. Free radical formation is induced by oxidative stress that increases in our brain as we age. If left unrestrained, free radicals will eventually cause cognitive deterioration through interfering with the activities of your neurons. Antioxidants reduce free radicals. As such, it is critical that you add antioxidants on your daily health regimen. Fortunately, many nootropic agents such as melatonin, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ashwagandha and some racetams functions as antioxidant that helps in decreasing the levels of free radicals in the brain.

Decreasing brain plasticity

Your brain has the ability to adapt and alter/modify itself when exposed to new environment, learning and settings. This ability is known as brain plasticity whereas it continuously rewires itself as you gain knowledge and experiences, form and store memories and learn. This is how the brain creates, weakens, strengthens and destroys neuronal connections formed from our memories. However, as the brain ages, this ability is diminished – this is also the primary reason why it is harder for elderlies to learn new things.

Through proper supplementation and exercise, we can help our aging brain to develop new neuronal connections. Neuronal plasticity can be increased through supplementing with powerful and potent nootropic agents such as noopept, piracetam, oxiracetam, aniracetam and pramiracetam. These agents help in increasing the acitivities of acetylcholine in the brain. Moreover, noopept helps in increasing Nerve Growth Factor that regulates the growth of neurons and neurites.

Chemical changes

As we age, our gray matter declines. Degradation of this brain component is problematic as it plays a critical role in the brain’s chemical composition. Aging also causes the decrease in the levels of neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers of our brain cells. These are being utilized by the brain to perform most of our though and memory functions.

 Important neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and glutamate decrease as we age. Dopamine is responsible to motor activities and moods. Serotonin on the other hand helps regulate learning, sleep, mood and memory while glutamate prevents the occurrence of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. Acetylcholine plays a critical role with all memory processes – collection, formation, encoding, recall and consolidation.

To help fight back against these undesirable chemical changes, a number of nootropic drugs can supplement and promote healthy gray matter whilst promote increased levels of neurotransmitters. These nootropic drugs include Huperzine A, vinpocetine, aniracetam, piracetam, choline, centrophenoxine and alpha GPC. Stacking or combining these nootropic drugs to some other nootropics will potentiate its effects on the brain.

Toxin accumulation

The accumulation of toxins in the brain is another concern that occurs as we age. One problematic toxin that accumulates in the body and in the brain is lipofuscin. Lipofuscin or liver spots are detectable on the skin of elderly individual. It might surprise you to know that even your brain develops these spots due to lipofuscin.

It is critical that lipofuscin is immediately and properly removed from the brain. Lipofuscin can actually deter cell maintenance processes resulting to neuronal premature death. One nootropic agent known to decrease lipofuscin build-up on the brain and skin includes Centrophenoxine.

In taking these supplements, we suggest that you first consult your doctor.

Properties of Adrafinil Thu, 01 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Adrafinil is not for human consumption. It is intended for research purposes only. We do not endorse adrafinil or consumption of any nootropic. Adverse effects and complications of this chemical are sole responsibility of the user.This information is for entertainment purposes only.



Louis Lafon Laboratories developed adrafinil in France during the 70’s. It is one of the most popular nootropic agents that have been used due to its behavioural stimulating effects. Despite producing these stimulating effects, adrafinil is very interesting as it does not caused any undesirable side effects that is normally seen on most stimulants. It is classified under the drug classification eugregoric. Eugregoric drugs are unique stimulating agents that are primarily defined as “good arousal” drugs.


Many users have sworn that adrafinil has numerous potential benefits. These benefits include improved memory, increased vigilance, enhanced productivity, immediate recall, increased stamina, and better mental capacity amongst others. These benefits make adrafinil a wonder drug that you might want to use. You might be interested in learning more about this drug, hence, here are some few answers to some of your questions to provide you an overview on what to expect in buying and ingesting this nootropic drug.

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Drug classification of adrafinil

Eugregoric drug

Alpha adrenergic agonist

Chemical name of adrafinil

(diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl-2 acetohydroxamic acid


Where does adrafinil comes from?

Adrafinil is a synthetic drug that can only be developed from laboratories. It is not present on any dietary source hence; it must be taken as a supplement.


10g Adrafinil imageWhat is the structure of adrafinil?

Adrafinil has a similar structure to its bioactive metabolite and chemical cousin MODAFINIL. The only difference is that adrafinil’s amide hydroxyl group is acetohydroxamic acid instead of acetamide.



What does adrafinil looks and smells like?

If you want to ensure that you were able to buy authentic adrafinil, you can do so through determining its physical properties. Firstly, it has an off-white color which makes it appear almost “orangish”. Some describes it as pinkish orange. Adrafinil is sold as a crystalline powder under the brand name Olmifon.


Akin to other nootropic agents, adrafinil is fluffy similar to your average flour. It has larger granules, which is similar to confectioner’s sugar. Adrafinil is lightly soluble in water wherein some adrafinil powder will dissolve in water while the rest stays afloat or undissolved. Its smell is described as lightly sulfurous. It has been compared to stale marijuana smoke or burning rubber as well.  


How does adrafinil tastes like?

Users, particularly first time users of adrafinil describe its taste as “awful.” It has a sulfuric taste to it primarily due to the sulfur compound on its chemical structure. It is recommended that you ingest adrafinil in the morning on an empty stomach or an hour before going to work or school.


How is adrafinil metabolized in the body?

Adrafinil is metabolized as modafinil in the liver. Research however has shown that it can also be metabolized to modafinil sulfone or modafinilic acid. It can also be directly metabolized into modafinilic acid without producing any modafinil compound.


How long do the effects of adrafinil lasts?

The half-life of adrafinil is 1 hour until it is metabolized by the body to modafinil. Since it needs to be converted into modafinil in the liver, reports from users reveal that adrafinil lasts within 12 to 15 hours.


How is adrafinil eliminated from the body?

Similar to modafinil, adrafinil is eliminated from the body through urination. This might explain the sulfur like smell of your urine after intake of adrafinil. In addition, some users report that their sweat smells like light sulfur. Hence, it might be possible that adrafinil is being eliminated through your sweat glands as well.


How should you store adrafinil powder?

You should store adrafinil in a water-resistant container. Store it at -20 degree Celsius.  


What is adrafinil used for?

Adrafinil is primarily used in increasing vigilance amongst users. It is being used by individuals who need to work on varying shifts (e.g. nurses, doctors, truck drivers, stewardess) as it decreases the need of sleep and fatigue that is normally experienced by people who are working on the aforementioned professions/jobs.


Clinical studies however have shown that it can be used in improving memory, attention and vigilance. It also has neuroprotective properties making it an ideal supplement for elderlies with deteriorating mental capacity. Other clinical trials have shown that it can also be utilized by individuals with mild cognitive disorders. Some possible clinical use warranting further research includes adrafinil’s use in treating the following:

      • Parkinson’s disease

      • Alzheimer’s disease

      • Age related memory impairment (AAMI)



Despite these potential beneficial effects, it is critical that you consult your doctor before taking any nootropic agent or supplements. Special precautions should be considered if you are suffering from liver problems, taking hepatotoxic drugs, lactating or pregnant.



The most potent nootropics to fight depression Sun, 28 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: We do not encourage intake of any nootropic agents. Use of these compounds is not for human consumption. Nootropics are intended for research purposes only. Adverse effects and complications of these drugs due to abuse and unwarranted intake are sole responsibility of the user.



Different cognitive disorders such as depression, anxiety and mood problems are increasingly becoming prevalent nowadays. Depression itself is affecting millions of individuals across the globe. This serious cognitive disorder makes the sufferer feels hopeless, sad, and unimportant making him/her unable to live normally. In some cases, depression can be treated through psychotherapy. Oftentimes however, anxiety and depression arises from chemical problems in the brain requiring a different therapeutic regimen.

Fortunately, numerous drugs and medications are now available to treat the symptoms of depression whilst help in augmenting the mood of the sufferers. One of these possible supplements includes nootropic agents. Nootropic drugs are primarily used to enhance cognitive abilities. Somehow, as pharmaceutical researches have expanded, it was discovered that some of these cognitive enhancers can help in alleviating depression and other mood problems. Although not all individuals suffering from mood problems and depression can benefit from nootropic supplementation, adding or combining this drug with other medications or therapy can benefit the sufferers.

To help with these issues, we have identified the three most potent and effective nootropics to fight depression. These include:



Aniracetam belongs to the racetam nootropic family. Racetams promotes stimulation and positive mental energy. This positive energy helps in increasing motivation, focus and concentration amongst users. As such, many recreational users recognize aniracetam due to its mood boosting capabilities. These capabilities can definitely help alleviate the symptoms experienced by individuals suffering from depression.


The anti-depressive effects of aniracetam were further supported in a literature review. In this review, it was identified that aniracetam can help in decreasing the symptoms of depression amongst animal models. This study only shows that aniracetam can be a potent anti-depression drug.

Other than the abovementioned benefits, aniracetam can help increase brain oxygenation. It is thought to increase the flow of blood to the brain delivering increased levels of oxygen. Additionally, it facilitates the functions of neurotransmitters which now increases communication between the brain’s hemispheres. Subjective reports also reflect that aniracetam can spark creativity and critical thinking.



Noopept is one of the most powerful and potent nootropic agents available in the market today. It is able to exert its effects on the human body minutes after ingestion because of its increased bioavailability. Moreover, it is easily absorbed and metabolized by the body easily crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB). Similar to aniracetam, it has the ability to boost the moods of users. Brain research experts believe that it works on the receptor sites of serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters play a critical role in the regulation of mode.

Despite being likened to aniracetam, noopept has been described to be more potent. Anecdotal evidence has shown that it promotes an individual’s overall well-being. Moreover, it is said to increase productivity, motivation and the desire to get things done. Other than these purported beneficial effects, one study have shown that noopept can help in treating individuals with mild cognitive problems induced by organic brain disorders of traumatic and vascular origins.

Several other studies have also shown that noopept has neuroprotective properties to which it is able to maintain brain cells healthy. Some studies even demonstrated that it could reverse existing brain damage and build neuronal linkages within the brain. To which these mechanisms might explain noopept’s ability to enhance mood and alleviate anxiety, stress and depression in the end.   
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Another great nootropic agent that can help in improving mood includes sulbutiamine. Sulbutiamine is a derivative of B vitamins, however, it acts similarly with nootropic agents. This compound is the modified version of thiamine – a chemical known for its anti-depressant and anxiolytic properties. Due to its purported benefits, many foreign countries prescribe this drug as a treatment for depression, anxiety and other related conditions.

Subjective reports from users demonstrated that sulbutiamine’s effects is comparable to the qualities of the anti-depressant MMDA without the amphetamine-like side effects. Although such claims are considered as bold, it only shows that sulbutiamine can be quite effective in treating depression. Notwithstanding, conflicting evidences on its efficiency as an anti-depressant remains. In one study, a group of researchers found out that sulbutiamine has no anti-depressant properties. However, this same study have shown that it facilitates and increases the rehabilitation of individuals suffering from depression in their familial, professional and social functioning. Hence, we can conclude that sulbutiamine can indirectly help with the treatment of depressed individuals.


Other nootropics

Other than our top three picks, some nootropic agents have been shown to improve mood and decrease symptoms of depression and anxiety amongst sufferers. These nootropics include adrafinil and inositol. Inositol can be a great choice as it is categorized as a vitamin B nootropic agent. It easily crosses the BBB to help increase the levels of GABA in the brain. More importantly, it enhances the efficiency of other drugs, as such, it might be an excellent nootropic agent for stacking.

Adrafinil is another good choice as well. It is an unregulated drug that can help in improving your mood. However, we suggest that you take extreme precautions in taking this particular nootropic as it can damage your liver and is considered to be mildly toxic. We highly recommend that you ask your primary health care provider’s advice before taking adrafinil or any of the abovementioned nootropic agents.


Best Adaptogens For Your Nootropic Stacks Sat, 27 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: We do not encourage intake of Nootropics. Nootropics are intended for research purposes only. Any side effects or adverse events with the intake of this nootropic agent are the sole responsibility of the user. This article is for entertainment purposes only.


Best adaptogens for your nootropic stacks

In our search for better results from nootropic use, we have come up with the word “stacking” whereas numerous nootropic agents compatible with each other are combined. Nootropic stacking has been very helpful in improving the beneficial effects that we do not usually experience when we take one nootropic alone. Today, nootropic stacks has become prevalent amongst most nootropic users.

The improved potency of your nootropic stacks however comes with a price – that is the unavoidable stress from ingesting these combinations. Fortunately, supplemental aids such as adaptogens have been discovered to combat the internal stress you usually experience with nootropic stacking. In this article, we will discuss more about adaptogens and its role in nootropic stacking.

What Are Nootropics ?
What Is The Most Potent Nootropic?


What are adaptogens?

Adaptogens are traditional herbal medicines that have been used hundreds of decades ago to support your body in responding to anxiety, fatigue and stress without causing overstimulation or crash after its effects have subsided. It has also been categorized as a lesser-known type of nootropic drug because of its effects on cognitive health and performance.

Adaptogens are all natural compounds that work through continuously maintaining your body and brain cells’ balance. It exerts its efforts through decreasing our body’s sensitivity to environmental stressors that may otherwise damage numerous cellular systems. Examples of adaptogens include ginseng, kava-kava, bacopa monnieri and St. John’s wort.


Why should you use adaptogens on your  nootropic stack?

Including an adaptogen to your nootropic stack is important to help your body rid of the stress caused by external stress. Increased stress levels can also increase the production of a hormone known as cortisol. Increased cortisol levels are undesirable primarily because it can render even the most advanced nootropic stacks as useless.

High levels of cortisol can lead to a host of symptoms including memory lapses, depression, sleep disturbance, further stress, weight gain, restlessness, irritability, anxiety, increased heart rate, hypertension, hot flashes, night sweats, uterine fibroids, decreased muscle size, rapid aging , infertility, bone loss, and unclear thinking. Through including adaptogens on your nootropic stacks, you may be able to skip these unwanted side effects. In addition, you may even potentiate or increase the beneficial effects of your primary nootropic drugs.


What are the best adaptogens to include on your stack?

Numerous adaptogens are now available in the market for your use. However, we’ve made a list of the four best adaptogens that you can use in your journey to attain excellent cognitive health.



Ashwagandha is an adaptogen and a nootropic agent at the same time. It has been used for decades for cell rejuvenation and a treatment for specific problems. The compounds responsible for its beneficial effects on the body include alkaloids, anolides and choline. Ashwagandha is a popular treatment for anxiety and stress. Some anecdotal evidence also shows that it can improve sleep, memory and focus. It is also thought to increase reaction time, promote learning abilities and improve memory formation.

For enhanced results, you can take ashwagandha with other adaptogens. Please use it as recommended: 2 to 6 grams daily for two weeks to experience effects.


Panax ginseng

The red Korean ginseng, popularly known as Panax is another well-known adaptogen. Panax is thought to indirectly influence cortisol levels in the body. In addition to this, it is a popular treatment to increase brain circulation, memory formation, increased productivity and enhanced memory. It is also known to increase energy and productivity amongst users.

Generally, Panax is well-tolerated by humans. However, ashwagandha remains much safer to use than Panax. In taking this Korean ginseng, please be advised to take a dosage of 500 to 600 mgs daily.


Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri is a traditional treatment for a host of disease including epilepsy, asthma and memory enhancement. It has been classified as an adaptogen to help alleviate the effects of stress. Bacopa contains the compounds known as “bacosides” which are thought to be accountable for its pharmacological effets.

Other than decreasing the symptoms of stress and anxiety, bacopa is useful in enhancing attention, concentration and memory function. It is also thought to improve blood pressure, liver function and general cognitive health. Subjective reports from users have also shown that bacopa has calming effects. A safe starting dose for bacopa is 300 mgs daily.


Rhodiola rosea

Rhodiola rosea or the golden root is a potent adaptogen that grows in some areas in Europe and Asia. It has been used by Scandinavians and Russians for hundreds of years to treat certain medical conditions. This particular nootropic agent is a great adaptogen for its role in increasing motivation and focus. It affects cortisol levels and interacts with several brain chemicals such as serotonin and dopamine – all of which leads to improved mood and enhanced sleep quality.

In addition, rhodiola rosea is highly synergestic – meaning, it can be combined with other adaptogens. In using this adaptogen however, you need to ensure that you stack it with other nootropics as it could cause tolerance. Recommended dosage is 250 to 750 mgs daily for two weeks.



Please note: We do not encourage intake of Noopept. This chemical is intended for research purposes only. Any side effects or adverse events with the intake of this nootropic agent are the sole responsibility of the user. - See more at:
Please note: We do not encourage intake of Noopept. This chemical is intended for research purposes only. Any side effects or adverse events with the intake of this nootropic agent are the sole responsibility of the user. - See more at:
Please note: We do not encourage intake of Noopept. This chemical is intended for research purposes only. Any side effects or adverse events with the intake of this nootropic agent are the sole responsibility of the user. - See more at:
Physical properties of noopept Fri, 19 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: We do not encourage intake of Noopept. This chemical is intended for research purposes only. Any side effects or adverse events with the intake of this nootropic agent are the sole responsibility of the user.

The discovery of piracetam paved the way for many researches on drugs that can improve one’s cognitive abilities without causing any serious side effects. Following piracetam, numerous nootropic agents including noopept were identified. Despite the unprecedented discovery of other nootropic agents, noopept remains to be very popular due to potency and effectiveness.

The overwhelming positive feedbacks and raves regarding this supplement make it one of the “hall of famers” when it comes to nootropic compounds. People across the globe are fast to include it on their daily health and wellness regimen after learning its potency.

You may be very excited by now to use noopept, however, we suggest that you learn more about it. Hence, in this report, we will give light on the physical properties of noopept. We will try to answer most of your questions regarding this novel nootropic drug.


Drug classification of noopept

Noopept has been classified as a nootropic drug. It is primarily used as a neuroprotective drug particularly in Russia and its neighboring countries.


Chemical name of noopept

N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester


Where does noopept comes from?

Similar to most nootropic drugs such as adrafinil and piracetam, noopept is a synthetic compound that can only be developed from laboratories. It was first synthesized in Russia and 1996. Noopept cannot be derived from any dietary source; hence, if you are interested in you must take it as a supplement.


What is the structure of noopept?

Despite not having the same 2-oxo-pyrollidine nucleus as the rest of drugs under the racetam class, it is classified as one because of its psychostimulatory, anxiolytic and cognitive promoting effects. Noopept is a water soluble drug having a proline (cycloprolyglycine) and a dipeptide structure. It is also considered as a dipeptide conjugate of its predecessor, piracetam.


What does noopept looks and taste like?

If you want to ensure that you are able to buy authentic noopept powder, you can do so through determining its physical properties. Firstly, noopept powder is white or colorless rather. Users report that it tastes like “a very bitter grapefruit.” Nonetheless, the taste is tolerable, as you will only need to take a pinch. 10 to 30 mgs of noopept per day is enough for you to experience its benefits. Noopept is available as an injectable, powder form and/or capsules/tablets.


How is noopept metabolized in the body?

Noopept is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in the body minutes after ingestion. The kinetics of its metabolites is still unknown nonetheless, researches have observed that it has the ability to easily cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) resulting to very rapid effects.


How long do the effects of Noopept lasts?

The half-life of noopept is quite short - about 30 to 60 minutes. Although individual reports from users vary widely, this particular half-life is a good estimation. Its short lasting effects are the primary reason why it is important to take divided doses of noopept within a day. For most of you, this makes noopept a less attractive cognitive enhancer. However, bear in mind that the effects (though it will only be just half as effective earlier) will last for another hour after the 60 minutes limit.

In addition, some theorists argue that being metabolized and absorbed as it is (to produce its cognitive enhancing effects), is just the tip of the iceberg. They argue that once noopept is metabolized into other compounds (e.g. cycloprolyglycine), it also produces beneficial cognitive enhancement on the brain making its effects lasting.  This might be the reason why many users report experiencing noopept’s beneficial effects even after its determined half-life.


How should you store noopept powder?

You should store noopeptpowder and tablets/capsules on a water-resistant container.


What is noopept used for?

Noopept is primarily used for its purported beneficial effects on cognitive enhancement. A number of studies have shown that noopept has the ability to improve immediate recall, increase learning capacity and enhance overall mental capability. The intensity of these beneficial effects varies from one individual to another. Some people experiences increased productivity and motivation while some are able to recall important information vividly. Many users report that noopept is very helpful in increasing their attention span, focus and concentration. Moreover, it is said to be quite effective in improving linguistic processing and verbal fluency - a very important effect for those who are always dealing on social settings.


Other than the abovementioned short-term effects, there are numerous potential long-term effects that can be gleaned from noopept use. Noopept is thought to have a strong affinity on the latter stages of memory consolidation and retrieval. It helps enable the development of long-term memory which is considered more important than short-term memory.

Noopept is also acts similarly to an antioxidant. It rids your brain from unwanted toxins (e.g. calcium). It also prevents the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of your brain cells while protects it from poisons that can otherwise contribute to the deterioration of your brain health. Some studies have even shown that noopept has potent ability to reverse the damage that has been done to the brain due to excessive intake of alcohol.

Lastly, noopept is able to increase the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) – both of which are critical in the survival and growth of some neurons as well as on the development of new synapses and neurons. The activities of BDNF and NGF are critical in the development of long-term memory, cognitive health and general intelligence. Furthermore, noopept has the ability to improve the communication between the hemispheres of your brain. These benefits make noopept an excellent addition on your daily health and wellness regimen.



Despite these potential beneficial effects, it is critical that you consult your doctor before taking any nootropic agent or supplements. Special precautions should be considered if you are suffering certain health condition, lactating or pregnant.


The untold benefits of noopept Wed, 26 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The untold benefits of noopept

Please note: We don’t encourage intake of Noopept. Noopept is intended for research purposes only. This article is for entertainment purposes only. Any side effects or adverse events with the misuse of this nootropic agent are the sole responsibility of the user.

N-phenylacetyl-L-prolyglycine ethyl ester or what we commonly known as NOOPEPT is a nootropic agent under the racetam family. It produces cunningly similar effects to piracetam, but at a much lower dose. It is a highly potent nootropic agent that helps in stimulating increased cognitive abilities such as:


•Better learning capacity

•Improved memory

•Enhanced attention span

•Increased focus

•Immediate recall – even long lost memories are immediately recalled vividly.


Noopept is also associated with an overall improvement with moods and has long been considered as an anxiolytic. In addition, it holds promising effects in treating Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.



What is noopept’s mechanism of action?

Noopept is said to exert its beneficial effects through different mechanisms of action. Possible mechanisms in its ability to improve overall cognitive capabilities include its sensitizing effects on the processes of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine as well as its aptitude in inducing production of neurotrophin. Theoretically, both these mechanisms are thought to improve memory formation.

In addition, clinical studies using both animal and human models have shown that it has an overall neuroprotective capability. It is able to protect and treat the brain from oxidative stress and cognitive trauma similar to what antioxidants can do in our bodies. Noopept is said to help in eliminating toxins that might cause cognitive decline.

Its anxiolytic effects on the other hand are attributed to noopept’s ability to increase tonic inhibition within the hippocampus. It also helps in decreasing cytotoxicity in the brain leading to its ability to treat Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.


Untold benefits of noopept

A mixture of studies and chronic user revealed the following benefits of noopept.


Anti-depression effects

One novel benefit that has been associated with noopept is its ability to alleviate the symptoms of depression. In animal studies using rat models, noopept is said to decrease learned helplessness. One study also revealed that noopept supplementation amongst individuals suffering from cognitive trauma led to decreased symptoms of depression. This particular benefit will need further investigations.


Psychostimulatory effects

Another benefit that can be gleaned from noopept includes its psychostimulatory effects. Researches have shown that this specific nootropic drug is able to stimulate neuronal stimulation which may explain its psychostimulatory effects. Individual reports have shown that its stimulating properties are similar to that of caffeine. This effect also requires additional studies.


Increased immunity

One study have shown that noopept has the ability to improve immunity through increasing the proliferation of T-cells as well as the phagocytic ability of the macrophages. Another study has also shown that it is able to decrease immunosuppression amongst stroke patients. Again, it is important that further research using human models be done to validate these findings.


Increased sensation of pleasure

Some users have reported that chronic supplementation of noopept can lead to a sensation that is very similar to euphoria. Moreover, it is said to increase feelings of pleasure. Hearing music for instance becomes more enjoyable and pleasurable.


Improved senses

Improvement in visual and olfactory senses is most noticeable amongst users. Many users report that noopept is able to make their visual ability better. Images become sharper and details are stronger. Peripheral vision is much improved whereas it appear like the mind is able to keep track on the motions happening on one’s periphery while focusing on what was in the line of sight. To a greater degree, users are also able to distinguish specific scents.


Improved spatial memory and ability

Chronic noopept users also experienced improved spatial memory and ability. One’s ability to keep track on how he/she solved a difficult problem or how he/she arrived on a certain place has become easier to remember and identify.


Easier interaction with others

Well, some individuals do not have the ability or the patience to come along, talk to, negotiate or deal with other people. However, some individuals have reported that they find it easier to deal with people after intake of noopept. Noopept supplementation have somehow decreased this problem, still, further study is required to validate such report.



Generally, nootropic agents including noopept is safe to use and has very low toxicity levels in humans. However, one should always take precautionary measures when taking this particular smart drug. Precautionary measures include:


•Take noopept on recommended dosages. Adverse effects associated with acute high dosage intake of this nootropic agent may lead to visual distortion, irritability, anxiety, gastrointestinal problems and nausea.

•In case of gastrointestinal symptoms, immediately lower your noopept dosage. It is recommended that you take this drug with food.

•You should not ingest noopept if you are pregnant or lactating unless otherwise stated by your obstetrician.

•Always consult your doctor if you are taking other medications, supplement or nootropic drugs.


Noopept: A potent neuroprotective agent Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note:Noopept is not for human consumption. It is intended for research purposes only. We do not endorse personal consumption of noopept. This article is for entertainment purposes only. Adverse effects and complications of consuming noopept is the responsibility of the user.


What is noopept?



Noopept is a form of nootropic that closely resembles the structure of most racetams. Technically, noopept is not a racetam for it has no 2-oxypyrrolidine skeleton. However, ithas been grouped under this class primarily because it shares similar functions as to most racetams. Today, the US FDA and other countries do not approve noopept use. Some other countries however have patented this drug as a general nootropic.

 Noopept is one of the most potent nootropicagent. It has been dubbed as 1000 times more powerful than piracetam. As such, it is able to exert its effects even at lower doses. Moreover, it is easily absorbed and metabolized by the body more than any other nootropics under the racetam family. This means that its beneficial effects are palpable minutes after ingestion. Nonetheless, it also requires users to be very careful on their dosing practices.



Mechanism of action


The mechanism of action of noopept is similar to most racetams. It works through stimulating or facilitating the functions of the NMDA and AMPA receptor sites. Some studies have also discovered that it has an affinity to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine – all of which contributes to the benefits gleaned from noopept use.

Clinical trials on both human and animal models  have shown that administration of noopept promotes ananxiolytic response. It exerts this effect through stimulating Ach nicotinic, serotonin as well as dopamine receptor siteswhich leads to mood improvements. Moreover, earlier and recent studies have shown promising results regarding noopept’s role in increasing the nerve-growth factor (NGF) in the brain. Increased NGF in the brain actually helps in repairing damaged neurons which is particularly beneficial amongst Alzheimer’s disease patients.



Uses and benefits of noopept

Noopeptis used as a general nootropic agent in most countries. It is available by prescription for intellectual enhancement. It may be bought online even without a prescription. However, current and prospective users must take precautions in using this nootropic agent.

Common benefits with noopept use includes mild psychostimulatory effect, improved cognitive ability, increased learning capability, boosts mood (anxiolytic and anti-depressive response), promotes advanced logical thinking ability, heightened memory, easy recall, better perception, decreased lability and enhanced reflexes.



Noopept as a neuroprotective agent

Noopepthas been recognized as a potent neuroprotective agent. Numerous trials conducted to identify its effects revealed that it can prevent the development of Alzheimer’s disease amongst individuals suffering from mild cognitive problems. One study provided evidence regarding noopept’s ability to prevent Alzheimer’s disease. In this particular trial, rat models were used to study the effects of long-term and single administration of noopept. Results of this study revealed that acute administration doesn’t increase levels of NGF and BDNF. NGF and BDNF are neurotrophic factors critical for memory retrieval and cognitive functioning. Long-term administration on the other hand leads to increased levels of the aforementioned neurotrophic factors in the brain. Prolonged administration even potentiated the increased of BDNF and NGF instead of causing tolerance to noopept’s effects. This findings suggest that noopept has the ability to protect numerous cognitive functions whilst protect the brain from damages.

A more recent study conducted in Russia supports the aforementioned positive results of noopept on the brain. In this study, noopeptwas administered to rat models for 28 days. Analysis of data gathered revealed that chronic administration of this nootropic agent decreases the activity of the stress-induced kinases (SAPK) located on the hippocampus whilst increase the levels of BDNF genes on both the hippocampus and hypothalamus of the models. Presence of SAPK and BDNF deficiency increases brain cell degeneration. Hence, decreasing SAPK levels and increases in BDNF gene production would prevent neurodegenerative processes. Through noopept supplementation, such pathogenetic mechanisms involved on the development of Alzheimer’s disease are inhibited.

Experimental studies done using noopept have shown its ability to prevent neurotoxicity from excessive amounts of glutamate and calcium as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It functions through protecting the brain from neuronal damages, neuroprotective properties and treatment for cognitive problems induced by neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, noopept is a promising drug for the treatment of cognitive problems (e.g.stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease) induced by post-traumatic and cerebrovascular origins.



Precautions, safety and side effects

Generally, noopept is said to be well-tolerated by humans as compared to piracetam. No dangerous drug interactions has been documented to date. Despite this, users must take precautions as it may cause immunosuppression. Common side effects include gastrointestinal problems, nausea, insomnia, headache and fatigue. Other important precautions include:

  • Take noopept on lower or recommended dosages as it is a very potent chemical and overdosing is highly possible.
  • Consult your doctor before taking noopept especially if you are suffering from any medical condition or taking other supplements or medications.

If you are pregnant or lactating seek your doctor’s advice before using noopept.


Click Here To Buy Noopept

Memantine: A drug with possible nootropic effects Fri, 24 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: We do not endorse the consumption of Memantine as it is strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, this article is strictly for entertainment purposes only. We are not responsible for any side effects due to inappropriate use of Memantine or any other nootropic agent.

Elli and Co. originally developed memantine in 1968 as a novel class of Alzheimer’s disease treatment medication. This disease is a condition involving neuronal loss on the areas of the brain responsible for important cognitive functions such as behaviour, language, memory and learning abilities. However, despite decades of research on this drug’s efficacy, there is little evidence proving that it can help in treating mild Alzheimer’s disease. Numerous studies also revealed that it has modest effects on moderate to severe Alzheimer’s.


Other names/Brand names

Memantine’s brand names differ on the manufacturer of the drug. Most common ones include:

  • Abixa, Akatinol, Axura, Ebixa, Memox, Namenda


What is memantine?

Memantine is the first Alzheimer’s disease medication that acts on the glutamatergic system through blocking the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor. It is therefore labeled as a NMDA receptor agonist. Memantine primarily functions by blocking the activity of glutamate, thereby reducing the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. It is critical for you to bear in mind that this compound will only slow the rate of Alzheimer’s symptom severity and not cure it.


How does memantine works?

As an amantadine derivative, memantine works by blocking the receptor channel of NMDA which is similar to what magnesium does. It inhibits calcium influx through binding near the magnesium binding site and dwell in this area for a long period of time. It is also dependent on glutamate receptor activation, hence, considered as an uncompetitive antagonist.

Memantine blocks the NMDA channel on resting and pathological receptor activation rendering it more efficient than magnesium. Its low affinity on NMDA receptors and rapid kinetics ensure inhibition of calcium entry while permitting normal learning and physiological signal transmission. Moreover, it helps in the release of messenger RNA (mRNA), tyrosine kinase B receptor MRNA and protein which adds on its positive cognitive benefits.


Benefits of memantine

Alzheimer’s disease treatment

Memantine is primarily used in treating Alzheimer’s disease. It alleviates symptoms associated with this medical condition through stopping the action of glutamate – a brain chemical that is damaging and toxic to brain cells in increased levels. This compound helps in stopping glutamate from damaging the brain leading to prevention of learning problems and memory loss.

Numerous studies have shown that memantine is helpful in reducing clinical deterioration amongst patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Memantine treatment reduced eating problems, irritability and aggression amongst patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s. Positive effects are also seen on mood, behaviours, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and cognition amongst those with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s. However, this drug appeared ineffective on individuals with mild Alzheimer’s disease.


Neuroprotective effects

Memantine has neuroprotective characteristics. It exerts this benefit through preventing neuronal cell death induced by NMDA and increased levels of glutamate in the brain. As such, it helps in maintaining brain health preventing the consequences of neuronal damage such as memory loss, learning difficulties and behavioural problems.


Possible nootropic effects

As a compound that blocks the undesirable effects of high levels of glutamate, memantine can help in preventing neuronal problems particularly if paired with AMPA agonist. AMPA agonists also acts as a glutamate blocker and combining this compounds may produce nootropic effects such as increased intellectual performance and stimulation. Using memantine as a nootropic stack may be effective. However, you must be aware that you may feel confused and dizzy after initial dose. This effect however will go away once your body is able to adjust with its use.

Ongoing research is being done to assess memantine’s effect on several medical condition such as autism, Down’s syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, nystagmus, obsessive compulsive disorder, ADHD, anxiety disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, depression and other cognitive problems.


Memantine side effects

Generally, humans tolerate memantine. Common side effects include agitation, anxiety, irritability, headache, dizziness, confusion, sleeping problems and drowsiness. Uncommon reported side effects on the other hand includes increased libido, cystitis, vomiting and spasticity. Extremely rare side effects include extrapyramidal side effects such as the inability to initiate actions/movements and inability to remain still. This is particular amongst younger individuals.

Some studies report that memantine may also cause reversible neurological problems amongst patient diagnosed with multiple sclerosis as well as cognitive flexibility disruption. Despite isolated reports of these side effects and limited availability however, memantine remains to be rarely used by recreational users.



 • Do not attempt to use memantine if you have allergies to any of its components

 • Inform your doctor if you are using any other medication (e.g. herbal supplement, non-prescribed drug, dietary supplements). Drug interactions with some medications may occur.

 • Tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following medications – dextromethorphan, amantadine, potassium citrate & citric acid, sodium citrate & citric acid, sodium bicarbonate, acetazolamide as these might increase memantine’s side effects

 • Inform your doctor if you are lactating, pregnant or planning to have a baby before taking memantine.

 • Immediately inform your doctor if you are suffering from any medical condition such as bladder problems, kidney problems, seizure or urinary tract infection.

 • In taking memantine, you must ensure that you take sufficient precautions. Additional precautions include:

 • Avoid driving or performing activities that require mental effort after taking memantine.

 • Take memantine as prescribed by your doctor or with food to avoid gastrointestinal problems.

 • If you miss a dose, skip it and go back to your regular memantine intake.

 • Do not take more than what your doctor has prescribed.

 • Extreme precautionary measures must be undertaken if this drug is given to children.


Where can you buy memantine?

Memantine is currently being sold in US and Europe as a prescription drug for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. There is a possibility that recreational users may find this drug even without prescription on online stores offering nootropics and cognitive drug enhancers.




Ethylphenidate: Physical and intellectual effects Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Ethylphenidate is not a supplement (food extract) or an approved drug it cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of Ethylphenidate as it is strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, this article is strictly for entertainment purposes only. We are not responsible for any side effects due to inappropriate use of Ethylphenidate or any other nootropic agent.


Ethylphenidate is a recently discovered psychostimulant that is very much similar to methylphenidate (Ritalin) – a drug that is frequently used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Not much is known about this compound. Nonetheless, experts in the field agree that methylphenidate and ethylphenidate share some similar characteristics particularly on their mechanisms of action.

What is ethylphenidate?

Ethylphenidate may be categorized as a psychostimulant having a racemic mixture property. Anecdotal evidence show that it functions as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and a dopamine reuptake inhibitor as well. Despite having similar pharmacological properties to methyphenidate, users report that it significantly causes euphoria as compared to the latter compount. This shows that the subjective effects of these similar chemicals are distinctive from each other.

Furthermore, one study has shown that this metabolite is formed after coingestion of ethanol (alcohol) and methyphenidate – a similar process that results to cocaethylene when both alcohol and cocaine are ingested together. At higher levels of consumption or abuse of both ethanol and methylphenidate, it was revealed that the resulting ethylphenidate in the blood might contribute to drug effects. Still, only a few part of the ingested methylphenidate will be converted to ethylphenidate and would not lead to significant doses.

Today, ethylphenidate remains an internationally uncontrolled substance. Nonetheless, it is banned on certain jurisdictions including Australia, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Jersey, Sweden and USA since it is considered as an analogue of methylphenidate.

How does ethylphenidate works?

Ethylphenidate has a structural similarity to methylphenidate. As reuptake inhibitors of both norepinephrine and dopamine, it significantly increases the levels of these important neurotransmitters in the brain. It functions through partially blocking or binding with transporter proteins – proteins that eliminates these monoamines from the brain’s synaptic cleft. In so doing, dopamine and norepinephrine are allowed to accumulate in the brain exerting its euphoric effects.

Researches further revealed that ethylphenidate works better as a dopamine transporter exhibiting same efficiency as to that of methylphenidate. Nonetheless, it has lesser activity on the dopamine transporter compared to its parent compound. This dopaminergic activity is primarily accountable for its reinforcing and euphoric effects on humans and study samples (e.g. rodents).

Benefits of ethylphenidate

Benefits of ethylphenidate are mostly subjective accounts from users. These purported benefits are as follows:

Physical effects

Physical benefits of ethylphenidate primarily include stimulation. It increases energy levels of users that have been described as utterly unique – weaker than methamphetamine but stronger than modafinil and caffeine. At meager to moderate doses, ethylphenidate promotes increased productivity. At higher doses, it promotes easy performance of activities such as dancing, cleaning, running, socializing and other types of sports. Some users describe this type of stimulation and reinforcement as “forced.” It also increases wakefulness, alertness and suppresses appetite.

Intellectual effects

The intellectual effects of ethylphenidate intensify with increased dosage intake. Many users describe improved stimulation, potent euphoria, better abstract thinking, and increased focus. At low to moderate doses, these cognitive effects include increased focus, improved sociability, enhanced memory and recall, accelerated thought and motivation enhancement. It also induces a transient feeling of euphoria through inhibiting reuptake of the neurotransmitter, dopamine. It may act as a memory enhances through mimicking the function of its parent compound, methylphenidate.

Ethylphenidate side effects

Ethylphenidate is licensed for research use only and has little history regarding human use. Hence, its long-term and undesirable effects are unknown. Subjective reports from frequents users however reflected that this potent psychostimulant has no identified negative effects on health if used very sparingly. Probable side effects on ethylphenidate abuse include involuntary jerking, general lack of motor control, anxiety, depression, psychosis, dehydration and vasoconstriction. Its side effects may be similar to other ampethamine-like drugs such as increased or irregular heartbeat. Nasal use of this compound may also lead to irritation of mucous membranes.

One study further revealed that unusual high doses of ethylphenidate could cause mortality as in the case of a 32 year old man. This man was a chronic drug user, autopsy however revealed that on all analyzed matrices, high amounts of ethylphenidate was found. This study only shows that abuse of this drug may yield to highly undesirable results.


Never attempt to take ethylphenidate at higher doses as it can lead to involuntary body jerking, jaw clenching, unsteady hands, general body shaking and vibration, lack of motor control and even death.

If you have sensitive mucous membranes, avoid using ethylphenidate that is administered via the nasal route, as it is caustic and abrasive. However, if you prefer to administer this compound nasally, you may perform routine maintenance (e.g., soaking your sinus cavity with water). You can administer ethylphenidate via other routes either orally or intramuscularly.

If you feel jittery after use, it may help that you eat food before and after ingesting ethylphenidate.

It is advisable that you take this chemical sparingly during initial intake to assess your body’s reaction.

Do not attempt to take this drug together with ethanol or any alcoholic substance.

If you are suffering from any medical condition, particularly cardiovascular problem, do not take this drug as it may result to serious consequences.

Recommended ethylphenidate dosage

Because of lack of evidence and scientific research on ethylphenidate, its toxic dosage remains to be unknown. Recreational users are therefore recommended to use this compound sparingly not only to avoid its side effects but also to prevent abuse or dependence. Since it has similar chemical structure to methylphenidate, it was thought to be addicting amongst users.

Where can you buy ethylphenidate?

Despite its illegal status on numerous developed countries, ethylphenidate may be bought in a pre-made or pure form amongst online shops that market chemicals. In many countries, it remains to be legal and a freely available marketable chemical.

Adrafinil - Modafinil: An intellectual and energy booster nootropic Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Adrafinil is not a supplement (food extract) or an approved drug it cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of Adrafinil as it is strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, this article is strictly for entertainment purposes only. We are not responsible for any side effects due to inappropriate use of Adrafinil or any other nootropic agent.


A French drug company (Lafon) originally developed adrafinil during the 1970s. This nootropic is a synthetic compound and a prodrug of modafinil. Intake of adrafinil increases the amount of modafinil in the body. Supplementation of modafinil and adrafinil is said to promote wakefulness and alertness amongst users. Because of this characteristic, adrafinil is considered as a stimulant and has been categorized under “eurgeroic” class. Today, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) bans adrafinil and modafinil on competitives sports for having non-specific stimulatory effects.

Before usage and as noted above, it is pertinent that you learn more about adrafinil. This article will discuss about adrafinil and modafinil, its mechanisms, benefits and side effects. It will also cover important precautions and recommended drug dosages.





What is adrafinil?

Adrafinil is classified as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, which is structurally similar to modafinil. Unlike modafinil, adrafinil has a hydroxyl group that distinctly identifies each chemical. Moreover, these nootropic agents have no amphetamine-like properties making it an ideal treatment for narcolepsy and other related sleep problems.

Aside from treating conditions that prevents humans to sleep soundly at night, users report several benefits including razor-like focus, increased motivation and alertness. It is also said to enhance your mental power and energy. With these potential beneficial effects, it is of no wonder why athletes are using this nootropic compound in boosting their abilities.


How does adrafinil works?

Similar to most nootropic drugs, the mechanism of action for adrafinil is yet to be uncovered. Experts however identified theories on how adrafinil and modafinil works. One popular theory includes the ability of these drugs to stimulate certain neuron receptors in the brain stem and hypothalamus. These parts of the brain are involved in facilitating alertness and wakefulness and accessible to the important neurotransmitter. Researchers suggest that adrafinil helps in increasing the production of a neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus known as hypocretin. Increased hypocretin levels stimulate the production of other neurotransmitter including histamine, dopamine and most importantly, norepinephrine.

Nopepinephrine is a neurotransmitter associated with memory, alertness, and learning. It works by stimulating alpha-1 adrenergic. Most recent studies have shown that norepinephrine even plays a role in neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, alertness, attention, memory and learning. Despite its functions, adrafinil and modafinil lacks unwanted side effects unlike other nootropic agents. Users need not to catch on their sleep or experience rebound sleep with adrafinil supplementation.

A less common theory regarding adrafinil’s mechanism of action includes its ability to stimulate the glutamate pathways. Activating these pathways helps in preventing the passage of GABA that leads to heightened wakefulness and alertness.


Benefits of adrafinil and modafinil

Despite claims that adrafinil is weaker than modafinil, both has similar effects. This is because, essentially, adrafinil is metabolized as modafinil later on. The following benefits may be gleaned from these nootropic drugs.



Adrafinil and modafinil has long been considered as a general stimulant. It provides users with focus, endurance and increased energy making it a popular treatment of sleep disorders. Students, shift workers such as nurses and doctors and truck drivers are increasingly using adrafinil .


Increase motivation

One interesting benefit of adrafinil is its ability to increase the motivation felt by users. This supplement is said to help in increasing an individual’s productivity, vigilance and drive to perform tasks. Moreover, it promotes pleasure enhancement, stress reduction and an overall improvement of well-being. Experts agree that this might be caused by adrafinil’s ability to stimulate the receptors of dopamine.


Nootropic effects

Other than the abovementioned benefits, adrafinil also offers nootropic effects. Users report that it increases learning ability and capacity as well as memory enhancement. It appears to increase immediate recall of stored information and speed of thought which are useful in better written and verbal communication. Adrafinil reviews often shows that it helps in increasing attention without distraction further improving one’s studying/learning abilities. A review of studies regarding modafinil also shows that it has neuroprotective properties.

To further showcase the beneficial effects of modafinil, a human study involving six Army helicopter pilots were undertaken. The study participants were treated with placebo and modafinil before performing simulation flights. Results have shown that modafinil helped in decreasing alertness and mood, improved CNS stimulation and increased cognitive skills. This study shows that modafinil and adrafinil may be effective in improving your cognitive and physical performance.


Adrafinil side effects

Theorists claim that an individual is able to stay awake for the next hundred hours without a wink. As aforementioned, it does not cause any ampethamine-like side effects such as increased heart rate, blood pressure and anxiety. Despite this, adrafinil users may experience nausea, gastrointestinal problems, headache and dizziness. Long-term usage of this nootropic drug may also cause dangerous adverse effects on your body particularly on the liver.



  Avoid using adrafinil and modafinil for long periods of time

  Consult your doctor regarding use of adrafinil

  Consult your doctor before using adrafinil if you have any liver problem

  Report use of other medications aside from adrafinil


Recommended dosage

Experts recommend users to take between 150 to 300 mgs of adrafinil daily. It might be better that you start with smaller dose to give your body a chance to adjust and assess whether you don’t have any allergic reaction on its contents. It is not advisable that you take this drug for a long time particularly if you are suffering with liver problems, nonetheless, you can always consult your doctor regarding prolonged usage.


Where can you buy adrafinil?

Adrafinil was previously sold under the brand name “Olmifon.” Its manufacturer, Cephalon, discontinued this brand just recently. However, you can buy adrafinil online for use in non-clinical scientific research and adrafinil can be purchased with prescription in Europe for patient suffering from narcolepsy and other types of sleeping disorder. Adrafinil is an unregulated substance in the US and can be bought privately by users. Similarly, this drug is unregulated in Canada, however, it can be legally bought as a research material or imported privately.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of USA approved the use of modafinil in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), narcolepsy, severe daytime sleepiness and sleep disorders associated with shift jobs. This specific nootropic drug is currently being sold under different brand names such as Provigil, Alertec and Modavigil.

Tianeptine (Stablon): A nootropic for depression and memory enhancement Mon, 20 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Researches undertaken to determine the effects of tianeptine are mostly performed using experimental models. Hence, tianeptine is not intended for human consumption. We are not responsible for any side effects or irresponsible use of this nootropic agent.

Tianeptine, more commonly known by its brand name Stablon, was developed by French researchers Michael Spedding and Antoine Deslandes during the 1960s. Since late 1980s, it has been marketed and manufactured as an antidepressant. This antidepressant and potent nootropic is currently being sold in Asia, Europe and Latin America.


Brand names:

Stablon, Tianeurax, Coaxil, Tatinol


What is tianeptine?

Tianeptine is an atypical tricyclic antidepressant drug that is primarily used to treat major depression, social anxiety and oftentimes irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and asthma. Despite the fact that it is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), it has unique pharmacological properties similar to selective serotonin reuptake enhancers (SSRE). Its chemical structure contains three atom rings that enhance re-absorption of serotonin in the brain.

Stablon is known to have nootropic properties that enhances an individual’s cognitive abilities. It has nootropic tendencies enabling increase of thought clarity and improvement of memory, abstract relationships comprehension and learning. It also appears to exert neuroprotective properties to which it prevents pathological changes and glutamate toxicity in the amygdala and hippocampus.


How does tianeptine works

The exact mechanism of tianeptine is yet to be established. Nonetheless, it is thought to cross over the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) directly entering the brain and wielding its effects. Users report that it helps in improving sleep quality, induce relaxation and regulate moods. The following mechanisms explain how tianeptine exerts its effects on humans.



Numerous researches have shown that it exerts its anti-depressant effects through central neuroplasticity and several cellular and neurochemical mechanisms. Stablon acts by reversing stress-induced pathological damage on certain parts of the brain. It protects the brain when an individual or any organism encounters stress. Stressful situations prompt the hypothalamus to produce corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) or corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH). This hormone will increase the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on the anterior pituitary gland which in turn promotes glucocorticoid release. Unrestrained psychosocial and physical stress promotes increased secretion of cortisol from the adrenal glands causing pathological changes on both hippocampus and lateral amygdala. These changes lead to decreased mood and clinical depression.

Stablon reverse and prevents neural damage whilst promotes synaptic plasticity and neuronal health. It also appears that long-term use of this drug normalizes the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) system. It actually decreases the stress and basal induced activity of the HPA system thus helping tianeptine users to cope on stressful situations. It also helps in decreasing corticosterone, ACTH and CRF thereby decreasing stress and depression.


Other mechanisms

Extended Stablon use decreases apoptosis or programmed cell death in the hippocampus. It also exerts significant effects on the amino acid glutamate – the principal excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain. Through preventing overstimulation of glutamate receptors, entry of Ca2+ is inhibited. Entry Ca2+ into the nerve cells is toxic. It also alters NMDA glutamate receptors resulting to mediation of intracellular and functional effects of stress. Increased sensitivity of glutamate receptors is the primary mechanism of intellect, memory and concentration enhancement amongst its users. This mechanism makes Stablon relatively similar to other nootropic agents such as Sunifiram, Aniracetam and Noopept.

The most recent research on tianeptine on the other hand revealed that it serves as an agonist of delta and mu opioid receptors. Mu opioid agonists promote euphoria which might explain tianeptine’s anxiolytic and mood enhancing properties. This new research prompts extensive research on the mechanisms of action of tianeptine.


Benefits of Stablon


Major depression treatment

Stablon is mainly used to treat mild to severe depression. Its mechanism however differs from tricyclic antidepressants and SSRI to which it was categorized with. Unlike these types of antidepressants that work by preventing serotonin re-absorption, Stablon works by restoring neuroplasticity. Its actions helps in relieving symptoms of depression including suicidal thoughts, concentration problems, insomnia or sleep problems, anxiety, changes in appetite, feelings of worthlessness, anhedonia, fatigue and loss of interest with usual activities.

One meta-analytic study undertaken in 2003 that compared SSRI and tianeptine use in depression treatment revealed positive results. Based on clinical global impression (CGI), tianeptine is as effective in treating depression as SSRIs. As such, Stablon and tianeptine products are acceptable treatments for major depression.


Cognitive enhancement

Studies further show that tianeptin helps in improving learning and memory through preventing programmed cell death and enhancement of behavior against discriminative tasks. It enhances spatial memory and prevents unwanted changes on the hippocampus – the seat of memory and learning. An animal study revealed that tianeptine protects memory thereby promoting long-term recall.

Another study which included 20 patients diagnosed with depression revealed affirmative results. Study participants were treated with tianeptine for three months and underwent cognitive function testing. Results of cognitive tests showed overall improvement in attention, learning processes, immediate memory and reaction time. This study has shown that it enhances not only symptoms of depression but cognitive functions amongst depressed individuals as well.


Tianeptin side effects

In reasonable doses, tianeptine lacks psychotomimetic side effects. Most common side effects reported by users include dry mouth, dizziness, diarrhea, nausea, headache, constipation, fatigue, joint pain, palpitations and hepatitis in rare cases.



Aside from avoiding excessive dosages of tianeptin, precautions must be undertaken if:

  Allergic to tianeptine

  Pregnant or lactating

 Suffering from kidney problems

 • Taking other medications including tetracyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and SSRIs

 • Before using Stablon or any tianeptin products, it is sensible to ask for a doctor’s advice.


Recommended dosage for tianeptin

Generally, recommended dosage for tianeptin is 12.5 mg taken 2 or 3 times a day. Dividing this dosage is important as it exerts its effects on shorter duration. Individuals who plan to take Stablon must start out with a single or half tablet to initially assess its effects. For more accurate dosing instructions, consulting a doctor is important.


Where to buy tianeptin

In most countries, tianeptin (Stablon) is considered as a controlled substance requiring prescription. Online shops (please check here to buy tianeptin online) sell tianeptin as a nootropic agent and is available even without a prescription.

Five Effects of Poor Nutrition in the Elderly Tue, 12 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Malnutrition or poor dietary habits are harmful for everyone, but the elderly are especially vulnerable to its negative consequences. Malnutrition involves a deficiency of the main nutritional components, such as protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. Eating low amounts of fat rarely causes malnutrition because it can be produced from carbohydrates. In critical situations or as a result of diseases that cause a diminished appetite or make food ingestion difficult, even carbohydrates can be produced from amino acids, which are the main constituents of protein. However, it involves consuming muscle protein to sustain normal blood sugar levels required for normal brain function when carbohydrates are deficient. It is the reason why many of the elderly who have a poor appetite exhibit some degree of muscle atrophy. Protein and carbohydrate deficiencies generally occur only in severe cases of malnutrition in the elderly, when they are not able to eat due to a medical problem that affects the digestive system or brain damage. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are more frequent, milder types of malnutrition among older individuals. Here are five effects and consequences of malnutrition in the elderly. 

1) Nutritional Deficiencies Weaken the Bones and the Joints in the Elderly

Most elderly already have low bone density and poor bone architecture even when they don’t experience malnutrition or a deficit of certain nutrients. A low intake of calcium and protein may weaken the bones and the joints, and lead to osteoporosis and arthritis. Osteoporosis is a low bone density due to a poor incorporation of calcium in the bones and a deficient production of bone proteins, such as collagen. It dramatically increases the chances of bone fractures in the elderly. Older women are especially susceptible to osteoporosis because their levels of estrogen (the main female sexual hormone) are dramatically reduced after menopause. Estrogen exerts a protective and stimulatory effect on the metabolism of bones and directly improves the incorporation of calcium and phosphorus into the bone architecture. This nutritional deficiency can be corrected by taking supplements that contain minerals, especially calcium, and vitamin D3, which is a biochemically active substance that directly influences the absorption of calcium by intestinal cells and the incorporation of calcium into bones. The collagen production, which makes joints flexible and strong, can be influenced positively through an additional intake of vitamin C; this vitamin can be obtained through a diet abundant in fresh fruits, or through regularly taken vitamin supplements. If you are responsible for the care of an older person in your household, it is important to understand that bone fractures heal slower in the elderly compared to younger individuals, so the best strategy to avoid any negative consequences is to prevent bone weakness through an adequately adjusted nutrition. Taking care of the elderly who suffered fractures is very difficult, time consuming and may generate unnecessary medical costs, so don’t hesitate to monitor their nutrition properly, especially if they have a poor appetite or may skip meals from time to time. An adequate intake of calcium can be ensured through a daily consumption of milk, fresh cheese or yogurt. Be aware that aged cheese, which some find as more flavourable than fresh cheese, can trigger migraine headaches or episodes of high blood pressure in the elderly since it may contain certain biochemically active ingredients, such as tyramine, created during the cheese or wine aging process.

2) Malnutrition Can Increase the Vulnerability of the Elderly to Viral or Bacterial Infections

Malnutrition hits the immune system of the elderly hard. The creation of white blood cells in the bone marrow, which are responsible for identifying harmful bacteria and viruses, decreases dramatically when the individual has a low intake of protein, vitamins or minerals. The elderly who experience nutritional deficiencies may suffer from severe infections that may be difficult to treat with antibiotics. In fact, since the production of immune cells in the bone marrow slows down considerably in older people, they may suffer from more varieties of infections compared to younger adults. They may also need higher doses of antibiotics and special care during infections. If someone in your family has a persistently diminished appetite, especially the elderly, then seeking professional medical help before their immune system loses its effectiveness is vital. Correcting the appetite through a smart choice of foods and adopting the habit of frequent meals consisting of small food quantities rather than large meals served two or three times per day can help address this bothersome problem. Complications of infections in the elderly can be very severe, especially since many older individuals already take medications for blood pressure, chest pains or neurological disorders.

3) Malnutrition May Lead to Vision Loss Caused By Common Disorders Affecting the Eyes

A low intake of vitamin A, lutein, antioxidants and protein may accelerate and aggravate eye diseases that are frequently affecting the elderly. Malnutrition speeds up vision loss caused by glaucoma, age related macular degeneration, cataracts or diabetic retinopathy, among other vision “threats.” Antioxidants are especially important for vision health since they prevent the “aggression” exerted by free radicals that are created during sustained exposure to light. Antioxidants also protect healthy cells in the retina from degeneration and ensure their rejuvenation and timely repair after damage caused by stress or intensive light. Green vegetables and fresh tomatoes are especially abundant in various antioxidants, especially lutein, which is essential for vision health. Vitamin A, which helps with a healthy metabolism in the cells of the retina, is found in sufficient quantities in egg yolk, carrots and fish. Vitamin C is also important for preserving sharp vision since it also acts as an antioxidant and promotes an adequate synthesis of collagen. It is a protein that facilitates the smoothness and elasticity of the connective tissue, its ability to support organs and protect them from physical shock (skin smoothness and flexibility, for example, are a result of collagen fiber presence in the deeper skin layers.) Vision problems usually create additional impairments in the elderly, such as a disturbed mood, irritability or poor movement control. This is why delaying age related vision impairment through an adequate intake of eye-protective antioxidants (lutein) and vitamins (especially vitamin A and C) is the easiest and most convenient strategy for proper elderly care.

4) A Poor Nutrition Makes the Elderly Susceptible to Degenerative Disorders Affecting the Brain

Nobody knows exactly what is the precise cause of Alzheimer’s disease. Generalised inflammation in certain brain areas due to amyloid accumulations and loss of acetylcholine neurons have been implicated, but no single clear mechanism has been formulated yet. Although poor nutrition may not cause it directly, it may accelerate the loss of neurons in the brain and impair memory, coordination and speech. Malnutrition is also detrimental for the elderly who have a genetic predisposition to Parkinson’s disease. A proper intake of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, but also supplements like Gingko Biloba may help delay and even prevent degenerative brain alterations. Besides an adequate nutrition, nootropic supplements can facilitate the preservation of mental capacities and memory in the elderly who are in the high risk group for Alzheimer’s disease. Nootropics are safe supplements that work gently in the central nervous system to protect and enhance memory, improve the metabolic status of brain cells and stimulate several neurotransmission paths. There is a large variety of nootropic supplements, ranging from substances with mild stimulation properties like L-Theanine to powerful mental boosters like Noopept. Many of them can protect against brain degeneration by supporting brain cell metabolism and keeping the nervous pathways active, especially when the elderly are engaged in some form of intellectual activity or cognitive exercise. Racetam group nootropics, which may work through the modulation of glutamate driven nervous pathways, or the reversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, which work by increasing the availability of acetylcholine in memory processing synapses, are just some of the best choices of nootropics for the elderly. However, the best stack of nootropics for the elderly has to be carefully chosen and elaborated only after gradually trying low doses since many older individuals are affected by hypertension and take medication to correct their blood pressure on a regular basis. Discuss the benefits of nootropics as a brain protective strategy for the elderly with their doctor who monitors their cardiovascular risk.

5) Cancer is More Frequently Encountered in the Elderly Suffering from Poor Nutrition 


Cancer develops when the immune system fails to recognize and destroy abnormal cells that grow faster than normal cells. Malnutrition lowers the activity and the number of immune cells that are used to detect tumor cells and kill them, which is why cancer is not uncommon in the elderly who have a poor nutrition. Cancer is preventable through an adequate support of the immune system, which may include healthier foods choices, diminishing the impact of chronic stress on the body and limiting the exposure to pollutants and toxic foods preservatives.

Malnutrition may have severe and unpredictable consequences in the elderly. Almost all body systems and organs can be affected by the low protein, vitamin, mineral or antioxidant intake that may be a result of a diminished appetite. It is important that the families of the elderly pay special attention to their nutrition and consider introducing nutritional supplements if their loved ones have a poor appetite due to digestive problems or brain damage. The elderly who are in relatively good health should adopt a diet abundant in lean meat cuts, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fish, fresh vegetables and fruits, which should be more than enough to ensure a proper intake of protein and vitamins.

New Studies Confirm : Healthy Lifestyle Delay the Onset of Alzheimer’s Tue, 12 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Modern medicine is still puzzled by Alzheimer’s disease, and once the diagnosis is clearly formulated and established, doctors can do very little to stop its progression. Alzheimer’s disease is a manifestation of brain degeneration. There are several kinds of neurological diseases that are a result of degenerative processes in the central nervous system, the most prominent being Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. While both conditions cause considerably disability, especially among the elderly, their symptoms are quite different. Parkinson’s disease is caused by degeneration of dopamine mediated pathways, which is the loss of neurons that utilize dopamine for neurotransmission in a brain region called substantia nigra. Shaking (medically known as tremor) and poor movement control are the most obvious signs of Parkinson’s. Although also caused by degeneration of functional nervous pathways, Alzheimer’s disease is slightly different in its manifestations. It is, at least partially, caused by a gradual loss of neurons that utilize acetylcholine for neurotransmission, which translates into progressive memory impairment and deficiencies in social communication. Besides the degeneration of acetylcholine pathways, other mechanisms can be implicated in Alzheimer’s, but this pathological process seems the most important since acetylcholine enhancing drugs can, at least in less severe cases, provide some degree of relief. Nonetheless, the pathology of Alzheimer’s is considerably more complicated, and involves the formation of abnormal amyloid plaques, widespread inflammation and a reduced volume of several brain regions. No cure and no solid treatment strategy that would stop Alzheimer’s disease from advancing have been found yet, so delaying the onset of the disease or preventing rapid mental decline are the only effective methods to manage this medical disorder.


A team of Swedish medical researchers from the Karolinska Institut have found solid evidence that the progression of Alzheimer’s disease can be slowed significantly through several lifestyle changes and cognitive interventions. These lifestyle adjustments include engaging in regular physical exercise, performing mental exercises aimed at preserving mental sharpness, engaging in social interaction and meaningful communication with peers, changing the diet to include more vegetables and fruits, and managing the risk factors that can lead to cardiovascular problems. Researchers found that reducing the impact of risk factors that may cause cardiovascular disease is also beneficial in delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s. Making these lifestyle adjustments creates favourable conditions to prevent mental decline for years, and may delay Alzheimer’s disease by preserving brain health and limiting the negative influence of poor habits.


What Are the Physiologic Abnormalities That Cause Alzheimer’s Disease?


The abnormal physiological processes that lead to the appearance of typical Alzheimer’s symptoms are still investigated extensively. The processes that cause extensive brain degeneration appear to be very complex and numerous factors are implicated. Genetics seem to play a significant role since individuals who have one or both parents affected by Alzheimer’s are statistically more vulnerable to this neurological disorder. However, the probabilities and risk factors are far more complex, and numerous other external factors may be implicated, such as an infection with the herpes simplex virus, persistent exposure to stress or lack of sufficient mental stimulation over many years. Scientists have observed that individuals who perform tasks that are intellectually challenging suffer from mental decline less frequently or the symptoms occur later in their lives when compared to individuals who do not engage in mentally demanding activities. Therefore, even if one has some genetic influences that may make him or her vulnerable to brain degenerative processes in general and Alzheimer’s disease in particular, these influences can be diminished considerably through regularly practiced mental exercise or intellectual work.


Here are some of the most important brain abnormalities found by researchers through brain imaging techniques in Alzheimer’s patients:


* A general atrophy of the brain is observed in advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease, which correlates relatively well with the experienced mental decline, loss of memory and physical impairment. The cortex of the brain is reduced, which negatively impacts numerous functions of the central nervous system, such as the quality of long term memory, the ability to communicate verbally with peers and emotional control.  


* A specific loss of neurons that use acetylcholine for communication has been proposed as a mechanism for this disease, but this abnormality does not explain all aspects of Alzheimer’s disease. While acetylcholine enhancing medication is slightly effective in ameliorating some of the symptoms temporarily, it does not have a dramatic effect on the course of the disease. Therefore, the degeneration of neuronal pathways may be generalised rather than specific for cholinergic neurons.


* Amyloid plaques in the brain are consistently found in Alzheimer’s sufferers. Amyloid is a type of insoluble protein that tends to accumulate in the spaces between neurons. It may also contain cellular structures that are abnormally deposited outside brain cells along with the insoluble protein. This amyloid accumulation may disrupt the normal function of neurons or may cause widespread neuro-inflammation. Medical researchers have not yet formulated the precise connection between the formation of amyloid plaques and brain degeneration, but it is certain that they exert a negative effect on the function of neurons and play a role in the progression of this neurological disorder. 


Finnish Study Evaluates Long Term Effects of Preventive Interventions for Alzheimer’s Disease


A special program developed by Finnish medical researchers was aimed at monitoring the cognitive performance and general health of individuals who were at risk for Alzheimer’s disease and age related dementia. The study was unique since the effects of various interventions were observed long enough to formulate valid conclusions.  For two years, 1260 patients who were included in the risk group of developing dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease were monitored to identify signs of mental decline progression or a positive protective effect exerted by several interventions aimed at preserving their overall health and cognitive abilities. The cognitive performance of the monitored individuals was accurately measured at the beginning of the study, and the selected patients showed average or lower cognitive capacities when compared to healthy individuals in the same age group. These results indicated that the selected individuals were at a higher risk of brain degenerative processes, including Alzheimer’s induced dementia. The observed patients were divided into two groups. The first group of patients benefited from standard medical care consisting in the best available counseling and advice about Alzheimer’s disease, and was subjected to regular tests of their cognitive performance. The second group benefited from several additional interventions that were aimed at improving their overall physical health, but also at preserving their brain health and mental sharpness specifically.


Here are the interventions that were consistently applied to the second group of high risk individuals over the course of two years.

* Group and individual sessions focused on providing solid nutrition advice for the observed patients. The sessions included recommendations on the necessity to incorporate more fruits and vegetables into their daily diet, the benefits of eating more fish and limiting the consumption of high-cholesterol foods and saturated fats. There were seven group sessions and three additional individual sessions that were aimed at positively influencing the dietary choices of the observed individuals.


* Exercise sessions were also included among the implemented interventions. Three months after the start of the study, the second group of observed patients was involved in strength training performed once or twice per week. This form of training was aimed at building muscle strength and training muscular endurance in individuals who are at high risk for mental decline. Cardiovascular training was also incorporated, and it consisted in cardio exercise sessions practiced two, three or four times per week as the study progressed. The frequency of strength training sessions was kept the same throughout the entire duration of the study, while the frequency of cardiovascular training sessions was gradually increased to five or six times per week after fitness levels of the observed patients was considerably improved.


* Individuals were engaged in cognitive training sessions. Eleven group sessions during which the patients performed a variety of cognitive exercises aimed at maintaining intellectual capacities and train reasoning abilities were supplemented with numerous individual sessions. Cognitive exercise may help with preserving adequate levels of mental sharpness in individuals who are at risk for age related cognitive decline and senile dementia, which are the main consequences of Alzheimer’s disease.


* The last intervention consisted in monitoring and correcting cardiovascular related health risks. Many researchers believe that these risks are closely connected to the risks associated with age related mental decline caused by Alzheimer’s disease. The intervention applied on group two members consisted in consulting with a qualified nurse once in three months to monitor the cholesterol levels and measure blood pressure in observed individuals. The nurse was able to detect abnormalities and formulate valid recommendations on how to correct the parameters in order to reduce the cardiovascular related risks to a minimum. Patients also were instructed to talk to a physician every year about any health changes related to their cardiovascular health they may have experienced during the period of the study. In other words, patients were instructed to reduce their risk of high blood pressure and atherosclerosis (also known as heart disease) by regularly checking their cardiovascular health during regular appointments with a nurse or a doctor.


After two years have passed, the researchers evaluated both groups on a variety of mental and overall health parameters. Their goal was to identify subtle changes between the groups and assess the effectiveness of the implemented interventions compared to regular medical care available to high risk individuals susceptible to Alzheimer’s disease. The cognitive performance, overall health of the central nervous system, memory and communication abilities was evaluated again to assess the impact of the applied interventions. Medical researchers observed that the second group, which benefited from the above mentioned interventions, performed better on average than patients from the first group. The improvements and the delay of cognitive decline observed in the second group were statistically significant. These findings have led medical experts to believe that a planned adjustment of one’s lifestyle through a better nutrition, regular physical and cognitive exercise, and management of risk factors related to cardiovascular health can considerably delay the onset of bothersome Alzheimer’s symptoms and preserve mental sharpness longer. Since medication and standard medical treatments have very little effect on the course of Alzheimer’s disease, individuals are encouraged to focus on adjusting their lifestyle to protect their brain from degenerative processes and cognitive decline for many years.



Caffeine: the World’s Most Popular Cognitive Enhancer Sat, 31 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Whether it be coffee, tea, energy drinks or caffeine tablets, there is no doubt that caffeine is the most widely available and most commonly used psychoactive stimulant in the world. In fact, it has been estimated that the global consumption of caffeine is in excess of 120,000 tonnes which is the equivalent of one cup of coffee per person every day! Although it does not strictly fit the definition of a nootropic supplement, caffeine’s cognitive enhancing effects are well documented with the ability to increase alertness, memory and reasoning skills, particularly in sleep deprived individuals. With all these benefits to offer it is no wonder that caffeine has been used for so many centuries and continues to be so prevalent in our lives today. It is found in over 60 different plant species that are commonly used in food production meaning that most people may be consuming and benefiting from caffeine without even realising it. Ingredients that include guarana berries, kola nuts, cocoa and Camillia sinensis all contain caffeine while it is also used extensively in weight loss supplements and analgesics. Yet despite how commonly used this supplement is, very few people are aware of how it works. This article aims to cover some of the benefits and mechanisms of caffeine.


The Benefits of Caffeine

Caffeine is a stimulant that is known to affect both the central nervous system and metabolism. It is most commonly used to counteract fatigue and drowsiness and has the ability to increase wakefulness, alertness, focus and the ability to think clearly. Studies suggest that caffeine can enhance memory performance while it also appears to have some beneficial effects on mood and indeed it does seem that most people feel more energised and lively after drinking a cup of coffee. With moderate doses, these effects are usually seen within an hour of consuming caffeine and usually diminish after around 5 hours.


These benefits make caffeine useful for a wide number of applications. For example, its ergogenic properties help shift workers and other individuals with unusual sleeping patterns to enhance mental performance and make fewer mistakes due to tiredness. It is also a favourite of students looking to study for longer, meet deadlines and maintain concentration in lectures. Some athletes are also known to use caffeine as a performance enhancer, particularly in competitive and team sports, although its efficacy in this field may be somewhat limited. Research carried out by Coso et al. (2012) does however observe that administrations of 3mg/kg of caffeine given to football players did increase enhance several performance parameters including running speed, high speed distance coverage, jump height and the upper limit of muscle power. There is also some limited evidence that suggests caffeine may be helpful in helping users to adjust to high-altitude environments.




As well as enhancing cognitive performance, caffeine may have other benefits that many people are not aware of. Some studies have actually linked coffee consumption to a reduced risk of certain types of cancers that include hepatocellular (liver) and endometrial (uterine) cancer while it also appears to have a modest effect on colorectal cancers. It should however be noted that caffeine does not significantly reduce the risk of other types of cancer and consuming excessive amounts of coffee may contribute to an increased risk of bladder cancer.

Although caffeine is known to increase both heart rate and blood pressure, there is nothing to suggest that this increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One study that produced some rather interesting results suggests that while individuals who consume around 4 cups of coffee a day are not at risk of developing hypertension when compared to those who drink little or no coffee, those drinking 3 cups of coffee did show an increased risk.


As well as being a stimulant for casual use, caffeine is also has several therapeutic applications.

Caffeine acts as a mild bronchodilator that helps to reduce resistance in respiratory airways by expanding bronchioles and bronchi making it useful for obstructive respiratory conditions. Clinical trials have shown increased lung function in sufferers of asthma while caffeine citrate is the primary treatment for apnea in premature children. While some have concerns about possible developmental side effects following caffeine use in infants, long-term follow up studies carried out several years into development showed quite the opposite. The caffeine appeared to have neuroprotective effects and children previously treated with caffeine showed a significantly reduced risk of developing cerebral palsy or other language and cognitive deficits.


Mechanisms of Caffeine

Caffeine works primarily as an antagonist to the neurotransmitter adenosine. Adenosine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that reduces neural activity and promotes feelings of sleepiness after prolonged periods of mental activity. A similar shape allows molecules of caffeine to bond to adenosine receptors without activating them. By occupying the active sites of such receptors, caffeine can negate the effects of fatigue and help you to feel more alert when deprived of sleep. Caffeine is also known to affect the action of several major neurotransmitters. For example, caffeine modulates dopamine activity that has been linked to regulating executive functions such as attention and concentration.




Caffeine’s physical performance enhancing properties are thought to be explained by increased utilisation of fats as a fuel in the body. Caffeine increases the level of epinephrine circulating in the body which mobilises free fatty acids from adipose tissue and intramuscular triglycerides. These fatty acids are oxidised as a fuel source, allowing the body to reserve muscle glycogen which contributes to greater stamina. Caffeine may also reduce the perceived effort needed to carry out physical activities. This is achieved by lowering the threshold required to activate neurons so muscles become easier to recruit for work.

Caffeine is also metabolised into several substances that contribute to its effects. For example it is broken down mostly into paraxanthine that aids in the process of lipolysis, increasing the amount of fatty acids and glycerol that can be used for fuel by muscles. Lesser amounts of theobromine and theophylline are also produced in the metabolism of caffeine. Theobromine acts as a vasodilator, increasing the amount of blood, nutrients and oxygen that are delivered to muscles and the brain. Theothylline meanwhile has the effect of increasing heart rate and the force of heart contractions which may further aid in increasing blood flow.


Dosage Guidance

The safe daily allowance for healthy adults is 300 to 400mg a day although realistically this may differ greatly between individuals depending on body weight, age and the users sensitive to caffeine. You should be aware that it is possible to build a tolerance to caffeine so using it only occasionally or on a cyclic basis is advised. 


Many people choose to use caffeine as part of a nootropic stack. One popular stack involves using caffeine with L-theanine. This combination of substances can be found naturally in green tea and is believed to work synergistically. Some of the short term side effects of caffeine may be nullified while benefits are enhanced with studies showing greater attention, memory, alertness and visual acuity when both of these supplements are used together. This stack is ideal for those that are already familiar with caffeine or new to stacks as it is both simple to use and cost-effective.


Potential Side Effects

Although caffeine is generally quite safe to use and well tolerated by most, there are some known side effects that may be seen with excessive doses or continuous long-term use. For example dosages exceeding 300mg may result in disruptions to sleep and a rapid or irregular heartbeat. Users may also experience headaches, anxiety and nausea in the short-term while long-term use may lead to tolerance issues and decreased supplement effectiveness.


Joss Earl
Phenylpiracetam for Mental and Physical Enhancement Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

First developed in Russia in the early 1980s, Phenylpiracetam is among the more potent and advanced supplements from the racetam family. This nootropic is essentially a phenylated version of the first developed nootropic from the racetam class, Piracetam. Yet despite relatively small structural differences, Phenylpiracetam is thought to be up to 60 times as potent as its predecessor. Not only does it improve cognitive performance to a greater degree than Piracetam, but Phenylpiracetam also offers additional benefits as a physical performance enhancing supplement; Phenylpiracetam is actually known to increase physical stamina as well as tolerance to both mental and physical stress. With all these benefits to mind and body it is no wonder that Phenylpiracetam is becoming increasingly more popular and available in the west. If you want to increase your ability to focus, learn and remember information, or need a supplement to improve your exercise routine Phenylpiracetam could be great supplement to add to your regimen. However, before using this supplement it is a good idea to learn a little about its benefits, mechanisms, potential side effects and usage guidelines, all of which will be covered in this article.


What are the Benefits of Phenylpiracetam?

‚Äčphenylpiracetam moleculeOwing to the fact that Phenylpiracetam and Piracetam have similar molecular structures, these supplements share a number of effects, particularly in regard to Phenylpiracetam’s ability to enhance cognition. Users are likely to experience improvements to memory performance, with a greater ability to both form and recall information. Learning capacity which is linked to memory is also likely to see improvements, while users may also benefit from increased levels of focus and concentration, making this nootropic just as useful in the classroom as it is out on the sports field.

Phenylpiracetam is also believed to work in a therapeutic capacity as well as enhancing cognition in healthy individuals. Research from a handful of small scale clinical studies has demonstrated an improvement in a number of encephalopathic conditions which include traumatic brain injury, lesions in blood pathways of the brain, and tumours that originate in the brain or spine (glioma). Other experimental evidence using animal models shows that this supplement is more effective than Piracetam in restoring cerebral blood flow following arterial occlusion.

Additionally, this supplement appears to have mood modulating properties. Through altering the levels of various transmitters that include NDMA, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine, this supplement is able to reduce stress and anxiety. This trait can be useful in helping to calm pre-test nerves or in reducing mental and physical stress.


phenylpiracetam gym

As mentioned earlier, Phenylpiracetam also appears to be a potent physical performance enhancer. One major benefit that this supplement offers is to increase the body’s resistance to environmental stress. Individuals using Phenylpiracetam for physical performance often report that they find it easier to cope with even intense workout sessions. These stress resistance properties also extend to other areas with the ability to increase the user’s tolerance to cold climatic conditions, a property which can be useful for athletes training all year round.  Athletes using this supplement also report an increase in endurance and stamina with improved recovery time. This supplement is so effective as a cold resistance and stamina enhancing supplement that it has actually been banned by the World Anti-doping Agency and you may remember the disqualification of Russian silver medallist Olga Pyleva during the 2006 Winter Olympics after the use of Phenylpiracetam. However, this ban does not mean that Phenylpiracetam is dangerous in any way, but simply attests to its efficacy as a performance enhancer that gives its users a definite advantage.

Phenylpiracetam may also be useful as an alertness promoting agent. It appears to have stimulatory effects on the central nervous system that can aid users in feeling more awake after periods of sleep deprivation. Reports suggest that this supplement can improve the clarity of thoughts while making you less susceptible to mental fatigue. The rush of energy experienced when using Phenylpiracetam has led to many individuals using this nootropic as an alternative to Modafinil and other stimulants. These properties of Phenylpiracetam make it a very useful supplement for shift workers and those with irregular work or sleep schedules alike.


How Does Phenylpiracetam Work?

Although Phenylpiracetam is very similar to Piracetam, the additional phenyl structure of this molecule means it has a higher bioavailability and absorption rate. As a result, relatively small amounts of Phenylpiracetam are required to achieve the same effect seen with large amounts of Piracetam. The underlying mechanisms however are not too dissimilar.

Though the mechanisms of racetams are not fully understood, there are a few generally accepted theories of how they work. Phenylpiracetam appears to modulate the action of several key neurotransmitters. For example, many of its cognition enhancing benefits can be partly attributed to increases in acetylcholine activity. This neurotransmitter is vital in the processes of learning and memory while increased acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal regions of the brain has also been linked to the generation of new neurons, and subsequent increases in synaptic plasticity.

phenylpiracetam smart drugsPhenylpiracetam like many other racetams is classed as an ampakine with the ability to affect AMPA receptors that correspond to glutamate. This action is thought to be responsible for some of the attention and focus enhancing benefits of this supplement, as well further improving upon learning and memory performance. Ampakines have a distinct advantage over other stimulants like caffeine and Ritalin in that they do not generally cause long-lasting negative side effects such as fatigue and sleepiness.



Phenylpiracetam is also classed a dopaminergic supplement meaning it modulates the activity of dopamine systems and this is achieved through increasing the number of dopamine receptors. Dopamine is linked to mood and movement, among other functions, which may explain this supplements effectiveness as a motion sickness aid, as well as some of the mood modulating effects it has. The stress and anxiety relieving properties of this supplement however are more likely to be attributable to the action it has on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This neurotransmitter is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the brain that generally has a calming effect. This can be useful in pacifying excessive stimulatory signals in the brain that are characteristic of anxious states of mind.


Recommended Dosage

phenylpiracetam dosageDue to the fact that this supplement is relatively potent, users are advised to begin with the lowest effective dosage of Phenylpiracetam. Some users notice effects with dosages as small as 100mg, although typical dosages range up to 300mg. As Phenylpiracetam has a half-life span of around 5 hours, this dosage should be divided into 2 or 3 equally sized administrations to be taken throughout the day in order to ensure a consistent level of effects. Due to this supplements stimulant like effects, you should avoid using this supplement late in the day as it may result in difficulty sleeping.

It is important to note that there is the potential to develop a tolerance to Phenylpiracetam making it less effective than previously. To avoid this, Phenylpiracetam should only be used occasionally, perhaps for a few days a week before taking a week or two off. Alternatively it can be used as needed, for example before an important meeting, exam, or sporting competition when physical or mental performance needs to be at its peak.

Potential Side Effects

Much like the other nootropic supplements, Phenylpiracetam is generally considered to be safe and well tolerated. It does not appear to exhibit any drug interactions, although certain individuals including nursing and pregnant women should not use this supplement due to a lack of research on side effects in these groups. Furthermore, Phenylpiracetam is not physiologically addictive although there are some reports of psychological addiction. It should be noted that in most instances, this has only occurred at dosages far in excess of the recommended level.

A majority of side effects seen with Phenylpiracetam are common to other racetam supplements. These side effects are usually quite rare and mild in nature and may include headaches, irritability, nausea and gastrointestinal distress. The most common of these are headaches, most likely caused by increased acetylcholine activity creating a greater demand for choline (the precursor of acetylcholine). Headaches can be easily overcome by taking an additional choline supplement like Citicoline or Centrophenoxine. Other side effects may be remedied by reducing your dosage, or discontinuing use for a while until symptoms no longer persist.

Picamilon : A Stimulating Feeling of Calm Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

First developed in Russia by the All-Union Vitamins Scientific Research Institute, Picamilon is considered to be among the best nootropic supplements for relieving anxiety, boosting cognitive performance and reducing the effects of aging. In Russia It is used for a variety of therapeutic purposes ranging from the treatment of strokes to depression, migraines, asthenia and glaucoma, however most people in the west use Picamilon for its anxiolytic and cognition boosting properties. This supplement is unique in that it provides, as users describe it, a stimulated feeling of calm, which makes sense when we look at the molecular structure of this supplement. So what exactly is Picamilon and how does it work? This article aims to describe some of the key features of this nootropic including its benefits, mechanisms, side effects and usage.


What are the Benefits of Picamilon?

picamilon brain

One of the primary benefits and most common reasons people use Picamilon is that it can help to modulate mood. Picamilon is classed as an anxiolytic supplement with the ability to significantly reduce stress and anxiety brought on by a number of factors. For example it appears to be useful for those suffering from various anxiety disorders, including general anxiety disorder and social anxiety. Concerning the latter, it can help individuals to overcome shyness, improve conversational skills and prevent the feelings of dread that many sufferers experience when engaging in social interactions. These anxiolytic effects can also be useful to those who work in competitive or stressful work environments. This is because it is able to provide relief from stress and anxiety, without reducing energy levels or productivity. In fact, it may do quite the opposite as some users report increased levels of motivation.


picamilon sleepDue to the fact that this supplement reduces stress, it can also indirectly help to promote better sleep. One of the most common reasons for not getting an adequate amount or quality of sleep is being unable to “switch off” at night. Many people’s minds are preoccupied with anxious thoughts and this high level of activity may prevent you from drifting off easily at night. By removing these thoughts and reducing stimulatory activity, Picamilon can help a user to fall asleep faster and thus attain a better quality of sleep. Getting a good night’s sleep not only makes you feel more well rested, but can ensure your brain is working at a higher capacity when compared to sleep deprived states.

Picamilon also appears to increase blood flow in the brain. This is significant as it delivers more glucose, oxygen and nutrients to the brain that are needed for neurons to function properly. Not only can this aid in increasing cognitive performance, but a higher rate of material transport also means that toxins and waste products can be removed more efficiently also. This may help to prevent the build-up of potentially damaging substances like lipofuscin which can lead to cognitive deficits if left unchecked, while also slowing the process of neurological aging. Picamilon can help to protect the brain by functioning as an antioxidant with the ability to neutralise damaging free radicals.

Picamilon has been used extensively in Russia for the treatment of certain conditions that include traumatic brain injuries, senile psychosis, vasoneurosis and stroke. Picamilon is effective in this regard because it aids in restoring blood flow which is disrupted by such conditions.


How Does Picamilon Work?

To understand how this supplement works, it is a good idea to consider its molecular structure. Picamilon is essentially a combination of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and vitamin B3, also known as niacin. The problem that limits the effectiveness of many brain supplements is that they must cross a type of biological filter between the bloodstream and brain known as the blood-brain barrier (BBB). GABA alone is not able to cross the BBB however the addition of niacin allows Picamilon to cross with relative ease.

Once Picamilon reaches the brain it is quickly hydrolysed into its constituents, GABA and niacin. GABA is the brain’s chief inhibitory neurotransmitter meaning that unlike most neurotransmitters that are excitatory and promote activity, GABA actually decreases the likelihood that neurons will fire. Under normal circumstances, excitatory signals are generated by overcoming the negative charge in a neuron known as its resting potential. GABA works by allowing negative chloride ions into the neuron, while allowing positive potassium ions out. The result is a much more negative charge than usual (hyperpolarisation) meaning excitatory signals are less likely to propagate as they will have to overcome this larger negative charge. This effect can be useful in helping to calm overactive pathways in the brain that are associated with excessive levels of anxiety. Through these mechanisms, supplements like Picamilon and other GABA derivatives can help a user feel calmer and more centred when exposed to anxiety provoking stimuli.

picamilon blood vesselsThe other component of Picamilon, niacin, provides this supplement with its stimulatory effects. Niacin is classed as an essential nutrient with the ability to improve blood flow in both the brain and body. This vitamin has numerous benefits that include reducing the risk of cardiovascular events, and raising the level of beneficial high-density lipoproteins. However, perhaps its most useful property is that it can increase blood flow in both the brain and body which is achieved through vasodilation (dilation of blood vessels). This increased blood flow brings with it greater amounts of oxygen and glucose, two substances that are needed to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a type of energy molecule that is used by all cells in the body, and more of this substance can improve the efficiency of neuronal function. For example, ATP is used to power the sodium-potassium pumps found in neurons that maintain the negative electrical charge in neurons that are not firing. Greater cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism also results in higher levels of concentration, alertness and mental stamina.

Picamilon’s neuroprotective properties also stem partly from this increased blood flow which not only improves transport of nutrients to the brain, but also increases the transport of toxins and waste products away from the brain. Picamilon also functions as an antioxidant. Normal cellular function produces a variety of by-product substances known as free-radicals. These free radicals are characterised by an unpaired electron in their outer atomic shell that makes them highly unstable and reactive. If these free radicals interact with biological structures they can cause oxidative damage and proliferate, creating additional free radicals. Antioxidants like Picamilon are able to neutralise these free radicals by donating an electron to the offending molecules without becoming free radicals themselves.  


Recommended Dosage

The recommended dosage level for Picamilon ranges between 50 to 300mg a day although this is highly dependent on the purposes for which you are using it. For energy and mood support, a dosage of 50 to 100mg is recommended while those using Picamilon for anxiety and stress will require around 100 to 200mg. Due to the short half-life span of this supplement (around 2 hours) users may require 1 to 3 administrations a day. Although it is considered to be safe to use on a daily basis, many users find it useful to cycle this supplement, or use it on an as-needed basis to avoid problems with developing a tolerance.


Potential Side Effects

Picamilon is known to have a good tolerance and safety profile although it should be noted that there have been a few rare cases of rashes on the skin or other types of allergic reaction. Users may experience a few side effects although these are generally quite mild and may include headaches, lightheadedness, nausea, low blood pressure, irritability and flushed skin. Though no overdoses have yet been reported, you should be sure to stick to the recommended dosage to reduce the possibility and severity of potential side effects. As with any supplement you are advised to consult a doctor before taking Picamilon, particularly if you are currently using other types of medications including anxiolytic supplements or other medications that affect GABA receptors.

Pramiracetam: A Great Study and Intelligence Nootropic Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

First developed in the 1970’s, Pramiracetam is among the more advanced nootropics from the racetam class that provides benefits to several areas of cognitive performance, most notably intelligence. While using Pramiracetam will not instantly make you a genius, it has been shown to improve memory, learning capacity, reasoning skills, energy and concentration levels, helping to accelerate progress on your way to becoming more intelligent. This has made it a favourite of students the world over who are looking to gain that mental edge in academia. If you think Pramiracetam could be the right supplement for you, there are a few things you should know about this supplement before trying it. This article covers many of these subject including how it works, what benefits it can offer, potential side effects and usage guidelines.


How Does Pramiracetam Work?

Although the specific mechanisms by which racetams and nootropics work are not yet fully understood, there are several generally accepted theories. Upon ingestion, Pramiracetam is absorbed by intestines, after which it is transported by lipids in the bloodstream. When the supplement builds to maximum concentration levels, which takes around half an hour, it is transported across the blood brain barrier that separates the bloodstream from the brain. Upon reaching the brain, Pramiracetam is thought to act on receptors that correspond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine and its associated pathways are linked to many functions, most notably the formation of memories and synaptic plasticity.

Pramiracetam is thought to increase high-affinity choline uptake (HACU). This process is the main factor that limits the rate at which acetylcholine is produced from its precursor, choline. By altering this process with the use of nootropics like Pramiracetam, we can effectively remove such limitations on the rate of acetylcholine production, resulting in higher levels of acetylcholine in the brain. This mechanism explains why some users experience headaches when using racetams on their own; acetylcholine production is increased which creates a greater demand for choline meaning most users will require an additional source of dietary choline to meet this higher production rate.

Pramiracetam’s effect in increasing the rate of HACU appears to be most prominent in the hippocampus region of the brain. This is significant as the hippocampus is associated with forming long-term memories. By increasing acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus, users will benefit from more efficient consolidation of information from short to long-term memory.

Pramiracetam also appears to work as a vasoldilator that helps to increase cerebral blood flow in the brain. Larger volumes of blood bring with it more oxygen and glucose, two substances that are required by cells to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a type of energy molecule that is used by all cells in the body, and neurons that are tasked with a high work load require a lot of ATP to function at an optimal level. Furthermore, increasing blood flow not only helps to deliver more nutrients to the brain, but can also help to more efficiently transport toxins and waste products away from the brain. This can help to prevent the build-up of substances like lipofuscin that could potentially lead to cognitive decline and serious neurological conditions.

There is also some evidence for alternative, but perhaps not mutually exclusive mechanisms that involve the peripheral nervous system. One study using an animal model observed significant improvements to memory function in rats that were administered Pramiracetam. However, no differences in memory performance were seen in rats that had their adrenal glands removed suggesting that adrenal glands and the hormones they produce may play a significant role in the cognitive enhancements seen with this supplement. Another hypothesis implicates that Pramiracetam is able to improve membrane fluidity in aged brains, a factor that can help to facilitate cell signalling.


What are the Benefits of Pramiracetam?

While effects may differ between individuals, the most notable benefit Pramiracetam offers its users is improvements to learning capacity and memory performance. While some will notice subtle improvements, being able to recall easily overlooked details, others may find they gain an almost photographic-like memory. This applies not only to the formation of memory, but also memory recall with many users finding they can retrieve information with greater speed and efficiency.

Due to the fact that memory, learning and synaptic plasticity are improved, it is likely that users will also notice an improvement to fluid intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to our ability to temporarily hold and manipulate information and is used in tasks that involve problem solving, pattern recognition or logical thinking. As this supplement increases the amount of information we can remember at any one time, as well as the efficiency with which we manipulate such information, we are more likely to come up with successful solutions to tasks or problems that challenges these cognitive abilities.

As mentioned earlier, Pramiracetam is able to increase both the uptake of oxygen and metabolism of glucose through increasing cerebral blood-flow. As well as ensuring the survival and function of neurons, these factors can also contribute to greater levels of alertness and mental energy, helping the user to think with a greater degree of clarity. Subsequently, users are also likely to benefit from a longer attention span, higher levels of concentration and an overall increase in the speed of thought and cognitive processes.

These benefits make Pramiracetam an excellent supplement for use as a study aid. Improvements to memory and learning capacity ensure students can more efficiently remember and recall dates, names, facts and figures which will no doubt be useful both studying for, and during an exam. Enhancements to fluid intelligence also mean that students are able to better understand, apply and link concepts while Pramiracetam’s alertness and concentration boosting properties can help to maintain focus in lengthy and mentally fatiguing lectures.

Recommended Dosage

Due to the potency of this nootropic relatively small amounts are required to achieve a good range of cognitive benefits. The typical dosage range for Pramiracetam is anywhere between 300 to 1,500mg a day. This should be administered in two to three equally sized parts to be taken throughout the day as Pramiracetam has a half-life span of around 5 hours.

It is important to note that there is a certain degree of flexibility when concerning nootropic dosage levels and a dosage outside of the ranges given here may be more suitable for your requirements. The most suitable dosage level can differ dramatically between individuals owing to differences in body weight, biochemistry and sensitivity to such supplements, and your tolerance to Pramiracetam may increase following extended periods of use. Generally speaking it is not advisable to use attack and mega dosage strategies (using 3 to 4 times the recommended dosage to intensify effects or decrease the load period) for this supplement as benefits may be diminished, or the chance of side effects increased. As with any nootropic or supplement, you are advised to consult your doctor beforehand to ensure Pramiracetam is right for you.


Potential Side Effects

Like most nootropics, Pramiracetam has an excellent tolerability and safety profile with no severe side effects, drug interactions or toxicity. However, there are a few side effects that users should be aware of, although these are quite rare, mild in nature, and similar to other supplements in the racetam family. The most common side effect seen with Pramiracetam use is headaches, and this can be easily remedied by adding a good quality choline source like Citicholine or Centrophenoxine to your stack. Other side effects can rarely occur such as anxiety, nervousness, fatigue and gastrointestinal distress although in most cases, these are the result of excessive dosages. If any of these symptoms occur you are advised to reduce your dosage level or discontinue using the product. 

Sulbutiamine for Improved Mood, Focus and Memory Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Sulbutiamine is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (more commonly known as vitamin B1)that was first developed in Japan to counter widespread vitamin deficiencies. Sulbutiamine is classed as a nootropic compound that provides many benefits including memory enhancement, increased focus and mood modulation, while it is also used for a number of therapeutic purposes. Unlike a few other more recently developed nootropics, this supplement has been relatively well researched with a wealth of evidence to support the benefits it can offer. So if you’re someone who struggles to remember things, need help concentrating at work or in the classroom, or even if you feel shy around other people, Sulbutiamine could be the right supplement for you. However, before deciding to use this supplement it is a good idea to first gain some understanding of how Sulbutiamine works. This article aims to cover some of these topics including this supplement’s benefits, mechanisms, potential side effects and usage guidelines.


What are the Benefits of Sulbutiamine?

Evidence from clinical trials has proven this supplement to be an effective memory enhancer. Studies show that through the modulation of various neurotransmitter levels, this supplement is able to improve working memory. The purpose of this type of memory is to temporarily hold and manipulate information, and these abilities may be significant determinants of fluid intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to our capacity for problem solving, pattern recognition and logical thinking, and is known to be a better predictor of academic or financial success than more traditional measures of intelligence, such as IQ. Such skills can be infinitely useful for fields of study or work that involve engineering, mathematics, scientific research, or indeed practically any task that requires some degree of problem solving or outside-of-the-box thinking. This type of thinking is what leads to innovation, and some of the most progressive minds of our time from Hawking to Einstein are thought to have had exceptionally high levels of fluid intelligence.

Sulbutiamine is also known to improve other aspects of memory formation and recall. Other studies have shown that as well as improvements to episodic memory (our ability to remember past events), Sulbutiamine can help to consolidate information from short-term to long term memory. Users will find that they can more efficiently remember and recall information they have committed to memory. These effects can vary from person to person, with some noticing modest improvements to memory retention, while others may gain the ability to remember everything with an almost photographic-like precision. These memory enhancements are not only useful for healthy individuals, but may help to lessen cognitive decline seen with neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s.

Due to the fact that Sulbutiamine improves signal transmission and communication between neurons, users are likely to experience an additional array of cognitive benefits. For example, users commonly report enhancements in their ability to concentrate, which may in turn lead to a greater attention span, as well as higher levels of alertness and perceived mental energy. These ergogenic properties coupled with enhanced memory performance make Sulbutiamine an excellent study aid, helping students to study longer and more effectively while experiencing less mental fatigue. This supplement’s ability to reduce fatigue is so effective that it has been implicated as being useful in the treatment of Asthenia. This is a condition characterised by chronic levels of fatigue that have a neurological basis, and studies have shown that more than half of the patients treated with Sulbutiamine showed no symptoms of the condition after just 15 days. Researchers do however recognise the need for additional research in this area to fully evaluate Sulbutiamine’s effectiveness in treating chronic fatigue.

Sulbutiamine has also been used for the purposes of reducing certain patterns of inhibitory behaviour that include feeling fearful and timid, or showing avoidance and guardedness towards new stimuli. These behavioural patterns are common in those suffering from shyness, or on a more extreme level social anxiety, as well as depression. A study utilising participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder showed a significant reduction in such incapacitating behaviours after four weeks of treatment with Sulbutiamine. These benefits can help sufferers to have a more successful professional, social and family-life which may have become disrupted as a result of their condition.


How Does Sulbutiamine Work?

To understand how this supplement works it is a good idea to first look at its molecular structure. Chemically speaking Sulbutiamine is a dimer of thiamine meaning it is essentially composed of two thiamine molecules. This arrangement allows it to cross the blood brain barrier (a type of biological filter that separate the bloodstream from the brain) more effectively than thiamine. As a result, it appears that Sulbutiamine is more effective in increasing levels of thiamine and related phosphate esters in the brain than equivalent doses of thiamine. It is these substances that are primarily responsible for the many benefits associated with this nootropic.

Sulbutiamine appears to function through multiple mechanisms. Firstly, it is believed to be involved in regulating the function of a brain structure known as the reticular activating system (RAS). As well as regulating sleep and wakefulness, the RAS is involved in controlling transitions from relaxed wakefulness to periods of high alertness which explains some of this supplement’s ergogenic properties.

Sulbutiamine also appears to modulate the level of several major neurotransmitters. For example, it has been observed to potentiate cholinergic activity associated with the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is responsible for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory to name but a few. These acetylcholine boosting effects appear to be particularly prominent in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that is linked to the formation of long term memories.

This supplement’s memory boosting properties can also be attributed partly to increases in glutamatergic activity. Increases in the activity of glutamate related systems are known to induce a phenomenon known as long-term potentiation (LTP). Briefly defined, LTP is the process by which the signal strength between two simultaneously firing neurons becomes strengthened for a lasting period, contributing to enhanced learning, memory and synaptic plasticity.

There is also evidence that Sulbutiamine may have some effect on dopamine levels in the pre-frontal cortex. Dopamine performs numerous functions in the brain and has been linked to sensations of pleasure, learning and reward systems as well as the all-important executive function that manages a variety of cognitive functions. Rather counter intuitively, Sulbutiamine is thought to actually decrease the level of dopamine that is released. Benefits are derived from compensatory mechanisms that respond to lowered dopamine levels by increasing dopamine receptor density. The result is an increased sensitivity to dopamine that promotes higher levels of activity in dopaminergic systems. This mechanism accounts for many of Sulbutiamine’s stress relieving and anxiolytic properties.


Potential Side Effects

Generally speaking, Sulbutiamine is considered to be quite safe, has a good tolerability profile and exhibits no severe side effects. However, there are a few mild side effects users should be aware of, although it should be noted that these mostly occur in instances where the recommended dosage has been exceeded. Although Sulbutiamine is used by many to reduce the symptoms of depression and anxiety, there have been some reported cases of irritability and anxiety as a result of using doses in excess of the recommended level. Other side effects may include headaches, skin rashes and nausea. If any of these symptoms occur you are advised to stop using Sulbutiamine immediately.

Although there is little evidence to suggest using Sulbutiamine can cause dependency issues, users have reported that a tolerance to this supplement can be built quite rapidly. This applies mainly to energy and mood boosting effects, although some users also report a lessening of cognitive benefits. To avoid tolerance problems, it is a good idea not to use Sulbutiamine too regularly, or consider using it on a cyclical basis, allowing sufficient periods of non-use.


Recommended Dosage

The ideal dosage level for this supplement can differ significantly between users owing to differences in body weight, biochemistry and tolerance levels. However, the average dosage for most users lies between 400 to 1,000mg a day. As Sulbutiamine is lipid soluble, the most effective way to take this supplement is with fish oil supplements, a glass of milk, or with food that has a high fat content. This will ensure the supplement is absorbed quickly and effectively.


Sulbutiamine Stacks

Due to possible tolerance issues, most nootropics users do not use Sulbutiamine on a regular basis, or as part of a daily stack. This supplement is more often used only few times per week during periods that require high levels of focus and productivity. Before using Sulbutiamine as part of any cyclical nootropic stack, you should be sure to try it on its own to familiarise yourself with its effects.

Sulbutiamine makes an excellent accompaniment to racetam nootropics, particularly Aniracetam for the purposes of stress and anxiety relief. It is also commonly combined with caffeine and cholinergic supplements such as Centrophenoxine and Citicoline. Other users find it useful to combine this supplement with Pyritinol, while those seeking more natural or herbal based stacks may consider using Sulbutiamine with Vinpocetine or Huperzine A. There are endless combinations of ways you can incorporate Sulbutiamine into a nootropics stack, and the best stack for you will no doubt require a little experimentation with dosages and different supplements.

Sunifiram: A Potent New Ergogenic and Memory Nootropic Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.


sunifiram moleculeSunifiram is among the most recently developed and more advanced nootropic supplements available today. It was first researched as recently as the year 2000, and although it has only been available to the public for the last year, it has earned a lot of attention and support from nootropics users. Though still somewhat experimental, initial user reviews have reported a wide range of potent cognitive benefits that include enhanced learning, memory, attention, alertness and decision making. Additionally, this supplement is remarkably potent, and believed to be around 1,000 times the strength of one of the first developed nootropics, Piracetam. This article covers some of the basic information that users should know before using this potent new nootropic.


Benefits and Mechanisms of Sunifiram

sunifiram side effectsSunifiram has a mechanism of action that is somewhat similar to other types of nootropics as it stimulates many of the same receptor groups, but in different ways. This supplement functions primarily on AMPA receptors and is subsequently known as an ampakine. AMPA receptors are associated with glutamate, an important neurotransmitter that is related to many facets of cognition. To understand how this is significant it is a good idea to gain some basic knowledge of how the brain works.

The brain is composed of a network of brain cells known as neurons that communicate with one another using electrical impulses known as action potentials. These neurons have a number of extensions from their cell body (known as axons or dendrites) that branch out and form connections with other neurons. Where these axons and dendrites are in close proximity, a synapse may be formed. Information and memories in the brain are stored and represented by these synaptic connections. Our brain’s ability to form, destroy, strengthen and weaken such connections is known collectively as synaptic plasticity. This is significant to the mechanism of Sunifiram as activation of AMPA receptors is thought to increase synaptic plasticity and this is where many of the supplements benefits are derived. With a greater degree of synaptic plasticity, an individual will be able to form and recall memories more effectively, as well as learn new information with greater ease.

sunifiram brainGlutamate activity is also linked to a particular type of synaptic plasticity known as long-term potentiation (LTP). This refers to the strengthening of synaptic connections between two neurons that fire synchronously. This is a useful mechanism as two neurons firing at the same time will often be part of the same pathway or response on a cellular level, so it makes sense to strengthen this connection for when it is used in the future. LTP is a particularly important function that underpins memory formation, and the effects of Sunifiram appear to be especially prominent in a region of the brain known as the hippocampus. This brain region is intimately linked with the formation of declarative and long term memory. This former type of memory refers to memories that can be consciously recalled, such as knowledge or facts, as opposed to procedural memory (memories of how to perform a particular skill such as playing a guitar). This means that Sunifiram makes an excellent nootropic for study purposes as it can help a user to remember facts and figures with greater ease.

These memory boosting benefits are not only useful to healthy individuals; Sunifiram is currently under investigation as a treatment for memory deficits that are related to cognitive impairment. A study carried out in 2013 used a group of mice that had memory deficits caused by removal of the olfactory bulb. Upon administering Sunifiram, researchers found that this supplement was able to restore lost LTP function in the hippocampal regions of the brain. These effects are believed to be linked to molecules known as protein kinases (calmodulin dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C) that affect the density of dendrites in the post synaptic neuron following LTP. While there is limited research on such effects in humans, this supplement may one day prove useful in the treatment of certain neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s and various types of dementia.

sunifiram focusSunifiram is although thought to affect other neurotransmitters, namely acetylcholine. This neurotransmitter is known to be linked to several important cognitive functions that include modulating plasticity, arousal, reward, decision making and attention, while deficits of this neurotransmitter have been highlighted as a possible causal factor in depression as well as linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Acetylcholine release is particularly prominent in the cerebral cortex where it can contribute to enhance learning, focus and memory. Interestingly, this neurotransmitter also increases the brains responsiveness to various types of sensory stimuli. Higher levels of acetylcholine have been observed to increase neuron firing rate. In behavioural terms, this correlates to higher levels of attention while some users have also reported gaining a greater level of perceptual awareness.

Acetylcholine is also thought to improve interhemispheric communication between left and right brain hemispheres. It is often thought that each side of the brain performs different tasks, a theory known as lateralisation of brain function. However this theory has been highly distorted in pop psychology and it appears that most high level brain functions are dependent on communication between these two halves. We know this as split brain patients who have had their corpus callosum severed (the part of the brain that joins the left and right halves) struggle to perform particular tasks. For example such patients when shown an object may not be able to name the object due to severed communication between visual and language centres that reside in different sides of the brain. Thus, it stands to reason that by increasing the strength of communication between brain hemispheres, many cognitive functions can be improved. This applies to skill such as logic and pattern recognition as well as social acuity.


User Experiences

Individuals using Sunifiram on a regular basis commonly report that it has ergogenic and stimulant-like effects similar to smart drugs such as Adderall. Sunifiram allows users to increase their levels of perceived mental energy, concentration and attention without the dangerous side effects that are commonly associated with amphetamines like Adderall and Ritalin. Other users report that this supplement provides a boost to motivation, allowing them to easily avoid procrastinating over study or work related tasks.

sunifiram diceAdditionally, user reviews suggest that Sunifiram has some slight mood modulating effects with the ability to reduce anxiety and stress while promoting more positive moods. There are even some who report that this supplement can have an aphrodisiac effect, helping to increase sex drive in both men and women, while increased perceptions may also aid in improving one’s sex life. While these effects have not yet been studied, there are theories that suggest Sunifiram can increase blood flow to the genitals as well as other pleasure centres in the body.


Recommended Dosage

Sunifiram is an extremely potent supplement, even when compared to some of the strongest racetams such as Pramiracetam. Users will notice benefits with dosages of only 4mg, although many individuals typically use between 5 to 8mg in a single dose, with more stimulant-like effects seen with slightly higher doses of around 10mg. While using doses of Sunifiram up to 10mg is not considered to be toxic or likely to cause dangerous side effects, some users may see an increase in body temperature and perspiration. Those that are new to this nootropic are advised to start with a relatively low dose around 3mg, and only increase this dosage if needed after a one or two weeks.


Potential Side Effects

Sunifiram is widely considered to be safe and exhibits no severe side effects when used according to dosage guidelines. However, evidence from numerous user reviews suggests that many individuals use this supplement with few or no side effects at all. Some of the mild side effects that may be encountered with Sunifiram include headaches (which may be easily counteracted with the use of additional choline supplements), anxiety or foggy thoughts as the supplement is cleared from the body, insomnia or disruption to sleep patterns if taken late in the day, indigestion or nausea, and jitters or perspiration when using doses in excess of 10mg.

Vinpocetine: A Versatile Invigorating Nootropic Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Vinpocetine is a semi-synthetic nootropic that is derived from extracts of the periwinkle plant (Vinca minor). First synthesised in 1975, this supplement is used extensively in Eastern Europe for the treatment of cerebrovascular disorders that affect blood flow in the brain, as well as for memory deficits associated with old age. However, in the West it is used mainly for off-label nootropic purposes with the ability to improve concentration, memory and energy metabolism, while also providing a range of neuroprotective benefits. This natural nootropic is highly versatile and can be used on its own or as part of a stack. As with any supplement, it is a good idea to learn more about its benefits, effects and usage guidelines before using Vinpocetine.


The Benefits and Mechanisms of Vinpocetine

vinpocetine experience

Many of Vinpocetine’s benefits are linked to the fact that it is a cerebral vasodilator. This mechanism is believed to be related to increased levels of a substance known as cyclic guanosine 3’ 5’-monophosphate, a vasorelaxant that works on the smooth muscle tissue surrounding blood vessels. By allowing blood vessels to relax and dilate, they are able to deliver larger volumes of blood, oxygen, glucose and other nutrients to vital organs like the brain.

All cells in our bodies require oxygen and glucose to produce the energy molecule known as adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), and this is especially true for brain cells (neurons) as they perform a relatively large amount of work. A greater amount of blood flow and generation of ATP means that neurons are able to work more efficiently, and users will find that they feel more alert while cognitive performance is also improved. However this is not the only benefit of increasing blood flow to the brain; as well as increasing the net transport of nutrients to the brain, the amount of toxins and waste products that are removed is also increased. This can help to prevent the build-up of harmful substances such as amyloid proteins which are known to be associated with around 20 severe conditions when abnormal levels are allowed to accumulate.

vinpocetine learn moreVinpocetine’s mechanisms, although not fully understood, appear to affect many of the brain’s major neurotransmitters that include serotonin, acetylcholine, dopamine and noradrenaline. This can result in a broad range of benefits sought after by many nootropic users such as enhancements to learning, memory (both formation and recall), attention, concentration and focus. These cognitive boosting properties make Vinpocetine an excellent choice for students and seniors alike who are looking to improve memory function or overcome “brain fog”. For example, student users have suggested that this nootropic improves their ability to study and retain larger amounts of material when compared to more traditional study aids like caffeine. Individuals that are employed in mentally fatiguing lines work can also benefit from this supplement’s ability to increase mental stamina and perceived energy. Other users have reported that Vinpocetine is able to indirectly increase motivation and mood which can aid in boosting overall productivity.

Of course this supplement’s benefits are not only useful to healthy individuals seeking cognitive enhancement. Research has suggested that Vinpocetine can aid in reducing cognitive impairment, and can even help to reverse the damage caused by strokes. Furthermore, these studies suggest that Vinpocetine decreases the chance of developing disabilities and the risk of further strokes. Vinpocetine has also been implicated as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease due to its anti-inflammatory effects.

free radicals vinpocetineVinpocetine can also help to protect your brain from damage in other ways. For example it is known to have anticonvulsant properties that make it a more potent treatment for epilepsy than several other types of antiepileptic medications. While this may be of limited use to individuals who do not suffer from epilepsy, Vinpocetine also has benefits as an antioxidant. Normal cellular function produces a number of molecules known as free radicals as a by-product. These free radicals are characterised by an unpaired electron in their outer atomic shell that causes them to be highly reactive and unstable. When such molecules react with biological structures they are known to cause oxidative damage. Vinpocetine and other antioxidants can help to significantly reduce the chance of this happening by donating an electron to these free radical molecules, causing them to become less reactive and potentially damaging. Such neuroprotective mechanisms can help you to maintain brain function and reduce the inevitable damage and cognitive decline that is seen with advancing age.

Vinpocetine has also been praised for its ability to improve the symptoms of several other conditions. In Europe it has been used in the treatment of hearing problems such as tinnitus that results from trauma to the ear. Additionally, it appears to be effective in treating some cases of urinary incontinence as it is able to relax smooth muscle tissue, thus preventing spasms of the bladder that lead to such problems. Its properties as a vasodilator also serve to improve overall cardiovascular health and can aid in reducing the build-up of plaques in the heart, as well as improving circulation to other vital organs.


Recommended Dosage and Usage Guidelines

Vinpocetine is a highly versatile supplement and the dosage level may vary considerably depending on your body weight, biochemistry and reasons for using it. This supplement is safe to use in dosages ranging from 5 to 60mg although typical dosages usually range between 15 to 30mg a day. This dosage is commonly split into 3 equally sized administrations that are taken throughout the day.

pills vinpocetineFor the purposes of treating memory deficits, including those associated with Alzheimer’s disease, the recommended amount is 5 to 10mg a day. A majority of studies suggest higher dosages between 30 and 45mg may be required to obtain the maximum range of benefits and these ranges are most commonly used by individuals who do not suffer from any form of impaired memory. Of course dosages for this supplement can be altered according to your current needs; you may decide to use 15 to 30mg on a normal day while using higher amounts up to 45mg during periods that require high levels of cognitive performance such as exams.

Although Vinpocetine dosages are safe up to 60mg, most individuals are advised not to exceed 45mg per day without first consulting a physician. This is because the benefits gained from this supplement can actually be reduced at higher dosages. You should also be sure to adjust this dosage based on any other supplements that you may be stacking it with, as Vinpocetine has a synergistic effect.







Potential Side Effects

Although Vinpocetine is considered to be quite safe for use by most individuals, there are some mild side effects and contraindications you should be aware of before using this supplement. For example some users may experience headaches, nausea, stomach problems, dizziness, nervousness and disruptions to sleep. However such negative effects are usually short lived, lasting only a few days. If any side effects continue to persist after this period, you are advised to consult a doctor.

Additionally, certain medications such as blood thinners (including some pain killers) should not be used in conjunction with Vinpocetine. Those with blood clotting problems and individuals who have recently had any form of surgery should also avoid Vinpocetine due to an increased risk of bleeding. You should also discontinue using Vinpocetine for a minimum of two weeks if you are planning to have surgery.

Phenibut for Less Stress, Less Anxiety and Better Sleep Mon, 26 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Phenibut is a nootropic supplement that is derived from the naturally occurring compound gamma-aminobutyric acid, more commonly known as GABA. This supplement is used by many for its anxiolytic properties which make it useful for sufferers of anxiety disorders and depression alike. Others use Phenibut to promote more restful sleep or correct disruptions to sleep cycles, while it may also have some cognitive enhancing benefits. It works using different mechanisms and like most nootropics, has a good safety and toxicity profile when used correctly. This article is aimed at describing some of the benefits, mechanisms, potential side effects and usage guidelines associated with this nootropic supplement.


What are the Benefits of Phenibut?

phenibut stressOne of the major benefits of this nootropic is its mood modulating properties. Phenibut is considered to be an anxiolytic supplement which means it has the ability to reduce feelings of stress and anxiety. This makes it useful in lessening the symptoms associated with various types of anxiety disorder as well as depression. Phenibut may be particularly useful for social anxiety, a disorder characterised by feelings of tension in response to certain social situations. As well as calming an overactive anxious mind, they can serve to lower unnecessary inhibitions which may otherwise prevent sufferers from carrying out successful social interactions. By lowering stress levels, it can prevent damage to the heart and neurons caused by stress hormones.

phenibut anxietyUnlike a number of other anxiolytic supplements such as Valium, Phenibut also has the added benefit of not reducing cognitive function. In fact, quite the opposite may be true as this supplement appears to possess some modest cognitive enhancing properties. Though studies that explore this relationship are somewhat limited, experimental evidence does seem to suggest that Phenibut can enhance interhemispheric communications between the left and right sides of the brain. Better global brain function in this regard is thought to be associated with the ability to think more creatively and solve problems. Additionally, other evidence points to the idea that learning and memory may also see improvements with this supplement, but more detailed research is required to substantiate these claims. Some users have also reported that this supplement provides them with a greater ability to concentrate and maintain focus.

Another reason many people use Phenibut is its ataractic or sedative effects which can be invaluable in providing more restful sleep. For example, some individuals find it difficult to fall asleep because they have trouble “switching off” or are preoccupied with anxious thoughts. Phenibut can help to inhibit overactive and anxious thought processes, making it much easier to drift off. Others may have trouble staying asleep during the night but a dose of Phenibut before bed can prevent you from waking up prematurely with its long lasting action. As this supplement helps you to remain asleep, you are more likely to achieve a sufficient amount of time in deep sleep stages, particularly the REM stage that is required for good quality, restful sleep. Not only will this help you to feel more rested, but a good night’s sleep can also indirectly contribute to better cognitive performance.


How Does Phenibut Work?

phenibut moleculePhenibut is essentially a variation of the naturally occurring neurotransmitter known as GABA. Many substances including GABA would be useless as a supplement as they would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to reach their target cells in the brain. The BBB is a kind of biological filter that regulates the type of materials that can pass from the blood stream into the brain. However, unlike GABA Phenibut possesses an additional phenyl ring allowing it to cross the BBB with relative ease.

Upon reaching the brain Phenibut functions as a GABA agonist meaning that it can activate receptor groups that normally correspond to GABA. It is believed that Phenibut binds to GABAB metabotropic receptors that are responsible for the sedative effects of other substances including baclofen and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). There is some disagreement in the literature as to whether Phenibut also acts on GABAA receptors, with some researchers suggesting this is possible at higher concentrations. These GABAA ionotropic receptors are responsible for some of the calming and inhibitory effects seen with alcohol consumption.

phenibut brainActivation of these receptor types can cause a highly negative charge to build in the neuron known as hyperpolarisation. This is achieved by allowing negative chloride ions to enter the neuron, while allowing positive potassium ions out. As a result, any excitatory signals will have to overcome a more negative charge than under normal conditions in order to propagate additional excitatory action potentials. This mechanism can be useful in helping to pacify excessive brain activity that is commonly associated with anxiety disorders, as well as promoting feelings of calm, relaxing muscles and providing other effects similar to sedatives. Some experimental evidence has suggested additional anxiety reducing mechanisms where Phenibut works to antagonise the anxiogenic effects of an endogenous substance known as phenethylamine.


Phenibut Dosage

Phenibut has a wide range of benefits but if used improperly can have a number of negative side effects and thus dosage control with this supplement is particularly important. Phenibut has a recommended dosage of 250 to 1,000mg per day; however, you are advised to start with relatively small dosages. This will allow your body sufficient time to adjust to the supplement, after which you may slowly increase the dosage as needed. Unlike many other nootropic supplements, Phenibut has a relatively long half-life meaning that effects from one dosage may last for up to a day. Due to this, you are not likely to require more than a single dosage of Phenibut in the course of a day, and are advised to allow around 4 to 6 hours if you do choose to use an additional administration. As Phenibut is soluble in water it can be mixed into a drink for the purposes of administration, however its sour taste means that most people opt for the pill format which also provides greater convenience.


Potential Side Effects of Phenibut

While Phenibut is generally considered to be safe when used according to dosage guidelines, exceeding the recommended dosage is known to cause some mild side effects. It is also highly advised against using Phenibut in conjunction with other similar substances as the cumulative effects pose the risk of more serious side effects. Side effects that are commonly seen with Phenibut use include headaches, nausea, fatigue, feeling lightheaded, gastrointestinal discomfort and in more extreme cases, memory loss and unconsciousness. Some online users have also reported experiencing withdrawal symptoms with the use of this supplement and as such, Phenibut should not be used for prolonged periods as a precautionary measure.  

Oxiracetam: A Stimulating Memory and Learning Nootropic Mon, 26 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Oxiracetam is among the most popular and potent nootropics in the racetam family that is particularly effective for increasing memory, attention and perceived mental energy. It shares similar mechanisms and effects to other racetam nootropics but is noted as being far more potent than others such as Piracetam, the first nootropic developed. The fact that it is water soluble means this nootropic is easy to use and can be dissolved into a glass of water or juice. This article details some of the things you should know about this supplement including its benefits, mechanisms, potential side effects and usage guidelines.



Racetams like Oxiracetam are derived from the first racetam nootropics developed, Piracetam. As such, many of them share similar benefits and mechanisms and Oxiracetam is no different. However, it differs from other racetams in the sense that it is considered by many as being almost purely for cognitive enhancement due to the fact that it does not significantly alter mood.

The first benefit that this nootropic offers is to boost memory. This applies particularly to long-term memory as well as the ability to quickly and efficiently recall information. Oxiracetam can also aid in improving the fluidity, clarity and speed of thought processes while attention span, concentration, focus and motivation may also see significant improvements. Many of these benefits may be related to the fact that Oxiracetam appears to have a slight stimulatory effect in contrast to other racetams, like Aniracetam, that have a more sedative calming effect. These benefits are seen not only in healthy individuals, but have also been observed in individuals with mild to moderate dementia, as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Similar improvements have also been seen when this supplement was given to individuals suffering from prolonged symptoms as a result of concussion (known as post-concussion syndrome).

Oxiracetam is also highly effective when it comes to boosting learning capacity with a large body of evidence that suggests it may improve both contextual and spatial learning. Additionally it may improve the efficacy of, and performance in, brain training exercises that are used by many nootropics users to further advance the cognitive enhancing abilities of their supplement regimens. This supplement can also improve your ability to think logically, critically and analytically, skills that are associated with what is perhaps one of the most important measures of cognitive performance, fluid intelligence. This wide range of cognitive enhancements, coupled with stimulatory and attention increasing effects makes this nootropic a popular choice for students who are studying for long periods of preparing for exams.

In addition to cognitive enhancement, this supplement offers neuroprotective benefits. Oxiracetam in this respect functions as an antioxidant with the ability to eliminate harmful substances like excessive levels of calcium. Some research has even suggested that this nootropic can prevent, and perhaps even reverse the damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption.

Another interesting, albeit minor benefit of this nootropic is that unlike other racetams, many users have noted that it does not have an unpleasant taste. While other racetams are thought to be quite bitter, Oxiracetam has a distinctly sweet taste that should not adversely affect the palatability of whatever drink you may want to dissolve it in.


How Does Oxiracetam Work?

oxiracetam brainOxiracetam’s mechanisms of action are somewhat similar to other supplements in the racetam family. Although these mechanisms are still not fully understood, it is believe to work by modulating levels of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and glutamate. Acetylcholine is a vital neurotransmitter that is involved in many functions ranging from neuromuscular control to arousal and reward mechanisms in the central nervous system. When concerning cognitive enhancement, this neurotransmitter is able to contribute to the formation of new memories, while deficits of acetylcholine are commonly associated with memory impairment seen in Alzheimer’s. Additionally, acetylcholine plays a role in synaptic plasticity which refers to your brain’s ability to alter synaptic connections between neurons. These connections represent information and memories, so having a higher level of synaptic plasticity will allow for the process of memory formation and learning to be carried out with greater efficiency.

Oxiracetam is also classed as an ampakine affecting both AMPA and NDMA receptors that correspond to the neurotransmitter glutamate. Oxiracetam is able to facilitate the transmission of signals at synapses in these glutamatergic systems, boosting the action of glutamate. Similarly to the action of acetylcholine, this is known to promote more efficient memory encoding and learning.

Learning performance may be further enhanced through the action of a substance known as protein kinase C (PKC). Studies conducted using animal models demonstrate that administration of Oxiracetam causes an increase in hippocampal concentrations of PKC, resulting in enhanced spatial and contextual learning abilities.


Recommended Dosage for Oxiracetam

Oxiracetam has quite a variable dosage range, with most users recommending a range between 600 to 3,000mg per day. Those that are new to nootropics should start with relatively small amounts and ensure they are comfortable with the effects of this supplement before increasing the dosage slowly and incrementally. Due to the fact that Oxiracetam has a relatively short half-life, this dosage should be split into several equal parts to be administered throughout the day. This ensures consistent cognitive enhancing effects. Ideally these administrations should be taken shortly after waking in the morning, then a few hours afterwards, with a final dose in the early evening. As this supplement may have some subjective stimulatory effects, it is generally not a good idea to take Oxiracetam too late in the day to avoid possible sleep disruptions.

There are additional dosage strategies for using this supplement known as attack and mega dosages. Attack dosages are generally used by first time Oxiracetam users and this involves using two to three times the normal dosage. This allows Oxiracetam to accumulate faster at receptors, allowing users to experience benefits sooner. The megadose strategy involves using around two to four times the normal dosage in order to concentrate the benefits gained. This can be useful for example before an exam, or indeed any event that may require higher levels of cognitive performance. It is important to note that although Oxiracetam is generally considered to be safe, both of these dosage strategies present an increased risk and as such, only advanced nootropic users should consider them.


Potential Side Effects of Oxiracetam

Oxiracetam, like most nootropics is considered to be well tolerated and quite safe for use by healthy adults. It has shown to have minimal toxicity and there have been no reported cases of severe side effects associated with this supplement. There have been some reported side effects although these are quite mild and have generally only occurred in instances where the recommended dosage was exceeded. Possible side effects of Oxiracetam are similar to other racetam supplements and may include headaches, anxiety, nervousness, fatigue and gastrointestinal distress. If such symptoms occur you are advised to lower your dosage or stop using Oxiracetam for a few days.

The most common of these symptoms is headaches, likely a result of increased acetylcholine activity. This is a side effect seen with many racetams and can be easily overcome by using a high quality choline supplement such as Citicoline or Centrophenoxine.


Oxiracetam tabletsOxiracetam Stacks and Cycling

There is the potential, although this is not particularly likely, for individuals to build a tolerance to Oxiracetam. This may mean that more of the supplement is required to produce the same cognitive enhancing effects. To avoid this, you may want to consider cycling this supplement with other similar nootropics that meet your needs. A commonly used cycle involves using Oxiracetam for a period of two to three weeks before taking a break from it for a week. This will ensure your body does not have sufficient time to build a tolerance to Oxiracetam, thus maintaining its effectiveness.

Oxiracetam is commonly used as part of various nootropic stacks. As well as combining it with choline which is advised to potentiate benefits and negate side effects, Oxiracetam may also be used in conjuction with a wide range of other nootropics. One popular stack is known as the PAO stack which combines this supplement with Aniracetam and Pramiracetam for increased cognitive enhancement, in addition to anxiolytic effects. Other users find it useful to cycle Oxiracetam with Aniracetam, using the former in the morning for its stimulatory benefits, and the latter in the evening to promote relaxation. There are a limitless number and combination of stacks that use Oxiracetam so it is a good idea to experiment with this nootropic to find the best stack for you. 

Noopept: A Newbies Guide to this Cognitive Enhance Thu, 22 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Noopept is one of the more recently developed and most potent nootropic supplements available today. Being around 1,000 times the strength of Piracetam, it has become popular amongst those seeking to enhance cognitive performance by a noticeable and large degree. It is known to have a wide range of cognitive enhancing benefits to learning, memory, concentration and focus. Not only this, but research has shown it to have extensive neuroprotective properties as well as possible therapeutic uses in the treatment of Alzheimer’s. Before beginning a Noopept regimen, as with any supplement, it is a good idea to first familiarise yourself with how this nootropic works as well as its benefits and potential side effects.


What are the Benefits of Noopept?

Noopept BenefitsNoopept is used by many for its ability to improve the various facets of memory and learning. It is able to enhance both early stage memory consolidation as well as recall speed, meaning information will be more effectively stored, and easier to remember when it is needed. Practically speaking, these effects can differ between users; while some notice subtle improvements like being able to remember small details; others gain the ability to remember information with an almost photographic memory.  

Noopept is also somewhat unique in the fact that it can stimulate the formation of associative connections between left and right brain hemispheres. This serves to enhance communication between brain regions on a global scale, resulting in further improvement of memory performance and learning capacity, as well increased levels of creativity.

Noopept is also noted for improving the user’s ability to focus and concentrate. Those who feel sluggish and have problems with “brain fog” will find Noopept provides them with more mental energy and allows them to think with a greater degree of clarity. This can be vital to increasing productivity during prolonged bouts of mental exertion. Many users have also reported increased motivation which will no doubt be of use in academic or workplace environments.

Additionally, this supplement is also shown to have a number of neuroprotective properties, protecting the brain from a wide range of different types of damage ranging from hypoxic conditions to the accumulation of harmful toxins. 


How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept like many nootropics is a psychotropic substance that can easily cross the blood brain barrier to reach its target tissues in the brain. This supplement has a good bioavailability and is among the fastest acting nootropics, reaching maximum concentrations after just 15 minutes. Upon reaching the brain, Noopept acts primarily on AMPA and NMDA receptors that correspond to glutamate. By binding to these receptors, Noopept increases their sensitivity to glutamate, and thus enhances overall glutamatergic activity. Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter and increased concentrations have been associated with enhanced synaptic plasticity, memory, learning and other cognitive faculties commonly associated with intelligence.

Noopept brainThis supplement may also modulate the level of other major neurotransmitters. It is believed to have an affinity for acetylcholine receptors, another important neurotransmitter implicated in the processes of learning and memory. Additionally Serotonin and Dopamine systems appear to be affected, and both of these substances are linked to mood among other things. This action on dopaminergic and serotonergic systems gives this supplement some modest anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) effects, though it should be noted that this effect is highly subjective and not all users will notice this effect. These anxiolytic properties can be useful in the context of reducing negative emotions which could otherwise impact cognitive performance, for example many people experience anxiety and nervousness before an exam, or when trying to meet work deadlines.

Noopept also appears to increase the amount of glucose and oxygen that is delivered to the brain. Both of these substances are involved in the production of adenosine triphosphate, a universal energy molecule used by all cells in the body. Consequently, all cells require a constant supply of oxygen and glucose, especially those in the brain that are tasked with a high work load. In fact, neurons begin to die after just a matter of minutes without oxygen which can lead to brain damage. Sufficient oxygen and glucose not only ensures the survival of brain cells but also allows neurons to function at an optimal capacity. Increased levels of oxygen, glucose and subsequent neuronal efficiency is thought to be responsible for many of the alertness and thought clarifying effects of Noopept.

As mentioned earlier, Noopept also has a wide range of neuroprotective properties that help to maintain the overall health of the brain. It appears to work both as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant, preventing damage from inflammation and aiding in the removal of harmful free-radicals. It also protects against excitotoxicity, accumulation of toxins and physical trauma. Additionally, studies have shown that this supplement stimulates the release of two endogenous proteins; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). Both of these substances are thought to promote the growth and repair of neurons, thus reducing the risk of developing neurological deficits.


Recommended Dosage

The recommended dosage for those that are new to Noopept is around 10mg two or three times a day. Administrations should be spaced equally throughout the day to ensure a consistent supply of the supplement as Noopept has a relatively short half-life. Common daily dosages for most individuals is between 10 and 30mg, although some may find that up to 40mg is required to achieve the desired level of cognitive enhancement. It is highly advised against using more than 60mg in a day as this may result in excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors. Noopept is usually taken orally with a meal, or sublingually by dissolving it under the tongue. As with any supplement, it is advised that you consult a doctor before using Noopept to avoid drug interactions and ensure this supplement is suitable for you.


Potential Side Effects

Despite the fact that Noopept is among the potent nootropics, it is still deemed to be quite safe with no serious tolerance or withdrawal issues, and a very low level of toxicity. As it is so potent, very little is needed to achieve significant cognitive enhancing effects, so users do not normally experience gastrointestinal distress that is sometimes seen when using large amounts of other nootropics. Additionally some evidence even suggests that Noopept can prevent headaches, which is a common side effect of some other cognitive enhancing supplements. However, there are a few side effects that should be noted, although these only tend to occur when using dosages in excess of the recommended level. This can include headaches, gastrointestinal distress, insomnia, fatigue, and nausea.


Noopept Stacks

Noopept PillsGenerally speaking, the fact that Noopept is so potent means that for many users, it is adequate as a standalone supplement. Although not recommended for new users it can be combined with other nootropics. For example, Noopept can be stacked with a choline source such as Citicoline to help negate some of the potential side effects. Others find that Noopept works well with racetams which can potentiate its effects, as well as broadening the range of benefits obtained.

There are a huge number of different Noopept based stacks to try once you are comfortable with using the supplement independently. While experimentation is recommended to ensure you get the most from your stack, you should be sure to carefully research each supplement, and experiment with dosages methodically and incrementally to reduce the possibility of negative side effects.

Nefiracetam: a Potent Nootropic for Anxiety and Memory Tue, 20 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Nefiracetam 1Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Nefiracetam is among the most recently developed nootropics that is capable of enhancing cognition by boosting activity in certain brain regions. It is classed as a racetam but is less well known and used than other supplements in this family. It is derived from one of the first nootropics developed, Piracetam, although it appears to have more structural features in common with the nootropic; Aniracetam. Like Aniracetam, Nefiracetam is lipid soluble and can help to improve both learning capacity and memory, in addition to providing neuroprotective benefits. If you are considering using this great novel nootropic, it is advisable to first learn a little more about its benefits and mechanisms.


What are the Benefits of Nefiracetam?

The most common reason people use nootropics like Nefiracetam is for its cognitive enhancing properties. There are numerous areas of brain function that make up what we commonly refer to as cognition and this includes learning and memory, fluid intelligence, attention, concentration, planning, perception and control of impulses. Nefiracetam, along with other types of supplement in the racetam class, can help to significantly enhance many of these cognitive faculties. One area in which Nefiracetam may be particularly effective is improving the enhancement of long-term memory retention.

Studies have shown that Nefiracetam can lead to dramatic improvements in spatial (navigational) learning capabilities. It also appears to be an excellent enhancer of concentration, attention and focus when compared with other racetams such as Piracetam, Pramiracetam and Oxiracetam. Additionally, these benefits are not only limited to healthy individuals as this supplement can help to improve cognition in those with neurological disorders. Furthermore, using Nefiracetam can provide neuroprotective benefits with cytoprotective mechanisms that help to promote the survival of neurons, and better overall brain health.

Nefiracetam calmSimilarly to Aniracetam, Nefiracetam also has mood modulating effects useful for the purposes of reducing anxiety, stress, and perhaps even treating depression. These two supplements have somewhat similar mechanisms, however, Nefiracetam appears to provide a greater variety of benefits. To give an example, Nefiracetam shows a greater affinity for increasing GABA and monoamine activity, while the effect of Aniracetam in such areas is comparatively modest. This makes Nefiracetam a more potent anxiolytic than Aniracetam. Evidence to support this idea comes from studies that suggest Nefiracetam could be used as a treatment in cases of severe clinical depression. Other studies have indicated that this nootropic may also be useful as a treatment for different types of seizure that include convulsive, as well as non-convulsive types. This may be particularly useful when concerning seizures that originate from the amygdala, and can this supplement can reduce both the duration and frequency of seizures that result from strokes.

How Does Nefiracetam Work?

Nefiracetam neuronNefiracetam has several types of mechanism. Some of these are similar to other more widely used racetams, while others may not be quite so familiar. Nefiracetam is able to prolong the amount of time calcium channels in neurons are open. This means that action potentials are more likely to be propagated, leading to an overall increase in brain activity. This can in turn lead to more efficient memory formation by promoting a phenomenon known as long-term potentiation (LTP). LTP is the process by which the synaptic connection between two simultaneously firing neurons is strengthened, and it is this process which aids in moving information from short-term memory to long-term memory.

Another mechanism associated with this supplement involves substances known as protein kinases, specifically protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. These two protein kinases are involved in augmenting signals in cholinergic receptors which is vital for enhancing neuronal signals in general. One of the effects this has is to increase the concentration of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA in the brain. Both glutamate and acetylcholine (associated with cholinergic systems) are important for a variety of cognitive functions including learning and the formation of memories. These neurotransmitters are also thought to stimulate the formation of pathways and neurons in the brain, and thus contribute to greater synaptic plasticity. GABA meanwhile is the brain’s primary inhibitory neurotransmitter. It works by inhibiting action potentials which can aid to pacify an overactive brain. This makes it useful for reducing anxiety, stress and symptoms of depression as well as for promoting feelings of relaxation. 


Recommended Dosage for Nefiracetam

Nefiracetam PillsThe research that has been carried out so far on Nefiracetam has used dosages that vary quite considerably. This has led some confusion and there does not yet appear to be a widely accepted dosage level. However, based on a review of currently available literature, a dosage range between 8 to 30mg for every kilogram of your body weight appears to be effective.

This is the equivalent to around 500 to 1,800mg assuming an average body weight. It should however be noted that body weight, biochemistry and physiology can differ significantly between individuals, so a certain amount of experimenting is advisable to deduce the best dosage level for you. As with any nootropic or supplement, you are advised to begin with relatively small dosages, and increase this slowly and incrementally once you are familiar and comfortable with the effects it has on you. This applies particularly to nootropics which are still considered to be somewhat experimental like Nefiracetam. Nefiracetam is lipid soluble, so it is a good idea to take this supplement with a glass of milk or other type of food that has good fat content.


Potential Side Effects of Nefiracetam

Like all nootropics, Nefiracetam does not appear to pose significant risks when concerning levels of toxicity or severe side effects. Unfortunately, studies on this supplement that have used human participants are somewhat limited, and consequently there has been no established upper limit when using this nootropic. However, research has demonstrated that Nefiracetam is still non-toxic in dosages of up to 900mg a day, with even higher dosages likely to still be safe for use by those in good health.

Nefiracetam may cause some side effects similar to those seen with the use of other racetams. This can include nausea, stomach discomfort, headaches, dizziness, fatigue and irritability. The headaches seen with this supplement are likely due to a choline deficiency as this supplement increases choline usage. As with many other racetams, this can easily be remedied by using a good quality choline supplement such as Citicoline or Centrophenoxine. Other types of side effects are rare and generally only seen when excessive dosages are used. 

Citicoline: A Versatile Memory and Learning Nootropic Sun, 18 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Citicoline: A Versatile Memory and Learning Nootropic

Citicoline BrainCiticoline (also known as CDP choline) is a safe and effective, cognitive enhancing supplement. It is known to enhance cognitive performance as well as contribute to better neuronal health by supplying the brain with a vital neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It can be used as a standalone supplement, providing enhancements to a number of cognitive processes including learning, memory, focus and fluid intelligence. However, most nootropics users find that this supplement is most effective when taken as part of a stack as it has the ability to potentiate the effect of other nootropics. It was mostly used by the elderly for its neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s as well as to aid the recovery of stroke survivors, but an increasing number of healthy individuals are beginning to discover the many benefits this supplement can offer. So what is Citicoline? This article aims to cover some of the basic information users of this nootropic should know including what this supplement is and the benefits it offers, how it works, possible side effects and usage guidelines.


What is Citocoline

Citicoline was first isolated in Japan where it was used to aid the recovery of individuals that had suffered from ischemic strokes. As well as being considered a dietary supplement, Citicoline also occurs naturally in the body. Here it functions as an intermediate metabolite used in the production of phosphatidylcholine, an important biological molecule that is the primary constituent of grey matter. Phosphatidycholine is also found universally throughout every cell in the body where it makes up cell membranes. As well as accelerating post-stroke recovery, Citicoline also has potential for the treatment of glaucoma, perhaps due to its ability to improve the health of nerve tissue and increase cerebral blood flow.


What are the Benefits of Citicoline?

Citicoline’s benefits are mostly derived from this supplements ability to increase acetylcholine activity in the brain. This vital neurotransmitter plays an important role in your brains ability to make, break, strengthen and weaken the links between the neurons of your brain, also known as synaptic plasticity. A greater degree of synaptic plasticity has numerous benefits, for example memory formation and the speed at which memories can be recalled are both improved. Partly as a result of this, learning capacity is also likely to see a notable improvement.

Citicoline can also enhance the overall metabolism of the brain. By improving cerebral blood flow, the brain is able to receive more oxygen and glucose, two components which are vital for neurons to function optimally. Many Citicoline users have reported that this supplement appears to increase their levels of mental energy which can in turn serve to increase focus, attention span and motivation.

Additionally, Citicoline has several clinical applications and is used to treat vascular diseases of the brain, trauma to the head and several types of neurological disorders ranging from dementia to cognitive decline in old age. This supplement may be particularly useful regarding the treatment of ischemic strokes as it could possibly repair some of the damage caused, and reduce the risk of additional strokes in the future. Other research has highlighted Citicoline as being able to prevent damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption and traumatic head injuries, while it may also be useful in limiting the memory loss seen with Alzheimer’s.


How Does Citicoline Work?

Citicoline NeuronCiticoline functions primarily as a cholinergic supplement, providing the body with an additional source of choline. Choline is the precursor required to make the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine, but unfortunately a majority of people do not obtain adequate amounts from their diets, with only around 10% meeting their recommended allowance. Even minor choline deficiencies can negatively impact cognitive performance so it is important to ensure we obtain an adequate amount. Using a supplement like Citicoline will increase the concentration of choline in your blood, which will in turn promote the production of acetylcholine. It is interesting to note that Citicoline provides a greater degree of cognitive enhancement than equivalent sized dosages of choline. The reason for this is that CIticoline has a greater bioavailability than choline, and is also a closer precursor for acetylcholine.

Upon ingestion, Citicoline is absorbed before being transported by the bloodstream to the head. Due to the fact that it is a psychotropic substance, it passes easily across the blood brain barrier where it reaches the brain. Here it is broken down into its constituents, choline and cytidine before being distributed across the brain. As this supplement is incorporated as part of phospholipids, it perpetuates their biosynthesis.

Citicoline influences the action of several different types of neurotransmitter. As mentioned earlier, it acts as a precursor for the production of acetylcholine, boosting cholinergic activity. This promotes increased synaptic plasticity, memory and learning. Additionally, levels of Norepinephrine and Dopamine also appear to be increased. This could explain why some users have reported feelings of well-being and a reduction in stress levels when using Citicoline.

Citicoline also has a number of neuroprotective properties. Like many nootropics, it is an anti-oxidant, protecting the body from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species and other free radicals. It also aids by preserving several important substances including Cardiolipin, an important membrane component of cell organelles known as mitochondria, as well as Sphingomyelin used in the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of many neurons.


Potential Side Effects of Citicoline

Although Citicoline is generally considered to be safe, there have been a few reported side effects. It should however be noted that such side effects are quite mild in nature and usually only occur at higher dosages in excess of the recommended daily amount. These side effects may include insomnia, diarrhoea, headaches, nausea and gastrointestinal distress. The risk factor with this supplement is very low, and many individuals actually use Citicoline to combat the headaches associated with increased choline demand caused by use of nootropics like racetams.

CDP Choline CapsulesCiticoline Dosage and Use

Citicoline is a relatively versatile supplement and can be taken in a number of different ways. Some users find it helpful to divide the recommended 500-2,000mg dosage into several administrations to be taken throughout the day. You may also want to consider cycling this supplement with a different choline source, although most users find this unnecessary and have no problems with using Citicoline on a regular basis. To gain the full range of benefits this supplement can offer, it should be taken with other types of nootropic supplements as part of a stack. Citicoline, like other cholinergic supplements, works well with racetam nootropics as it can potentiate the benefits gained, in addition to negating potential side effects.

Joss Earl
Centrophenoxine: The Best Nootropic for Longevity? Sat, 17 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 brain centrophenoxinePlease note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Centrophenoxine (also known as meclofenoxate) is among the lesser known nootropics. It is structurally similar to DMAE and classed amongst the cholinergic nootropics. Centrophenoxine is considered to be a fairly versatile nootropic, and is commonly used with other cognitive enhancing supplements to potentiate their effects. This supplement can not only improve memory function, enhance intelligence and boost mental energy, but also has a wide range of neuroprotective effects making it perhaps one of the best nootropics for promoting longevity.

The Benefits and Effects of Centrophenoxine

Originally developed to combat cognitive deficits associated with senility and old age, this compound is now used extensively as a cognitive enhancer. Centrophenoxine is thought to increase synaptic plasticity which may explain its effectiveness in treating age-related memory loss. However, similar enhancements to memory are also seen in healthy individuals using this supplement making it an ideal nootropic to use while studying. Centrophenoxine is able to boost intelligence by increasing long term and working memory stores, thus increasing both crystallised and fluid intelligence.

Many users also report that Centrophenoxine also provides them with stimulant like effects, increasing focus and levels of perceived mental energy. This can help to counteract the fatigue that comes with long periods of mental exertion.

Not only this, but Centrophenoxine also appears to have some neuroprotective mechanisms, protecting against the effects of brain damage caused by advancing age, drugs (including the consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol), toxins and strokes. These protective mechanisms are numerous, making Centrophenoxine perhaps one of the best nootropics for maintaining brain health.

Additionally, it has a number of clinical applications and is used alongside other forms of treatment for Alzheimer’s and dementia to improve their effectiveness. There is also on-going research into the ability of this supplement to improve mood and perhaps even treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

How Does Centrophenoxine Work?

Although the mechanisms of this supplement are still somewhat unclear, there is a general consensus amongst the scientific community that Centrophenoxine functions primarily as a cholinergic supplement. It is structurally similar to DMAE which acts as an acetylcholine precursor molecule; however Centrophenoxine is more easily absorbed by the body making it more effective. By providing more choline as a precursor, we are able to increase production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Unfortunately,  a majority of the population is deficient in choline, with only 10% of people acquiring a sufficient amount of this substance from dietary sources. This is why it is often necessary to use supplements like Centrophenoxine in order to promote proper brain function. This cholinergic action also makes Centrophenoxine an ideal accompaniment to other nootropics like racetams which increase the body’s demand for such choline sources.

Synapse CentrophenoxineIncreasing acetylcholine levels is known to result in a number of benefits. Higher levels of this neurotransmitter result in greater synaptic plasticity. This refers to your brains ability to form, destroy, strengthen and weaken the links (synapses) between neurons that represent memories and information in the brain. Therefore, a brain that can perform these functions more efficiently will be able to more effectively create and store memories in both short and long term.

Many of the mechanism that contributes to improved memory also serve to enhance intelligence. Though conventionally defined by IQ, intelligence is more comprehensively represented in the idea of crystallised and fluid intelligence. Crystallised intelligence refers to the collective amount of prior knowledge we have stored in long-term memory and is what we commonly refer to as geeks. Centrophenoxine can improve our capacity of long term memory, and thus increase our crystallised intelligence. The other form of intelligence is called fluid intelligence and refers to our ability to problem solve, recognise patterns, reason and think logically. This type of intelligence is dependent on our working memory (sometimes referred to as short term memory). Again Centrophenoxine, with consistent use, can increase this type of memory. As a result, we will be able to simultaneously manipulate more information which represents a higher level of fluid intelligence.

As well as enhancing cognition, this supplement has a number of mechanisms that can protect against various forms of damage. Under normal conditions, cells in our bodies produce molecules known as free-radicals. These free-radicals contain an unpaired electron in their outer atomic shell which makes the molecule highly reactive and unstable. When such molecules react with biological structures they cause oxidative damage and may in turn produce additional free-radicals. Centrophenoxine, along with other antioxidants, work by losing an electron to free-radicals while still remaining stable, and in doing so negate the potential for oxidative damage.

Prolonged use of Centrophenoxine has also shown to protect against certain toxins. As we age, the efficiency with which the body can remove waste products like lipofuscin and excess potassium is decreased. Given time, these substances can accumulate and impair brain function, and many researchers consider this a causal factor in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s. Using Centrophenoxine can significantly reduce the build-up of such substances, thus increasing the brains electrical conductivity. As a result the brain functions more efficiently and is less likely to succumb to cognitive deficits.

Centrophenoxine possesses an additional mechanism that may counteract the symptoms of age-related cognitive decline. This concerns increasing the production of a substance known as ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA is involved in the process of gene expression where the genetic code from DNA molecules is used to produce the various proteins that they code for. These proteins can be anything from haemoglobin in blood, to muscle fibres and enzymes. By increasing the amount of RNA present we can effectively increase protein turnover, and it is this mechanisms that is responsible for Centrophenoxine’s anti-ageing effects.

Centrophenoxine side effectsThe recommended dosage for Centrophenoxine is in the range of 500 to 1,000mg although those using this supplement for its anti-ageing properties may require significantly more. This dosage can be taken in one administration or divided into several. As this supplement increases alertness and mental energy, it is advised to use it early in the day to avoid disruptions to sleep patterns. As with any supplement, and particularly if you plan to use higher dosages for anti-ageing purposes, you should consult a doctor before using Centrophenoxine.

Potential Side Effects of Centrophenoxine

Centrophenoxine like most nootropics is considered to be safe and well tolerated, with a very low level of toxicity when recommended dosages and guidelines are followed. However, there are a few side effects that should be noted, although these generally only occur with excessive dosages. Though there are currently no known interactions with other types of medication, those using any type of prescription should consult their doctor before using Centrophenoxine. Common side effects that have been reported include nausea, headaches, dizziness, gastrointestinal distress, irritability and jaw clenching. If any of these symptoms occur you are advised to stop using Centrophenoxine immediately and consult a doctor for further advice.

Aniracetam - A Nootropics for Anxiety and Intelligence Tue, 13 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

What is Aniracetam?

Aniracetam is one of the most popular nootropic supplements, first developed by the Belgian pharmaceutical company Hoffmann La-Roche. It belongs to the racetam class of supplements much like piracetam, but appears to be significantly more potent than its predecessor (around ten times the strength) with some additional benefits included.  As well as enhancing cognition and memory, Aniracetam also appears to have significant anxiolytic effects. This supplement has been studied extensively and is widely considered to be safe, with low levels of toxicity making it safe for use by most healthy adults. However, before using this nootropic supplement it is a good idea to gain some understanding of how it works,  the benefits it can provide and some of the potential side effects.


Aniracetam BooksWhat Benefits Can Aniracetam Provide?

Though personal experiences can be highly subjective, the main benefit that most users see is an improvement in cognitive performance, particularly when concerning the ability to learn and remember. Some users will find that they develop an almost photographic memory, being able to easily recall almost everything they have committed to memory, while others may see more subtle effects, with an increased ability to remember small or easily overlooked details.

Aniracetam can also provide the user with a greater level of focus and many users often report that their attention span is significantly increased, while they are also able to maintained concentration with greater ease. These benefits can also serve to enhance mental fluidity, allowing a user to carry out even routine tasks effortlessly.

It is interesting to note that different users report contradictory mood and energy effects when using this supplement; while some find that Aniracetam provides them with increased amounts of energy and a boost in alertness levels, others report that is has more of a calming effect on them. It is likely the case that this supplements effects in this regard are more dependant on your mood at the time of using it. Those who suffer from high levels of anxiety and nervousness are more likely to see calming effects, particularly if the symptoms are caused by an imbalance of brain biochemistry.


How Does Aniracetam Work?

Despite the many advancements in modern medicine and our understanding of the brain, the workings of this complex organ are still not fully understood, and thus neither are the mechanisms of supplements that affect it. While we do not have a comprehensive pharmacological understanding of these supplements, there are a number of widely supported and scientifically sound theories.


Aniracetam Brain

After the supplement is ingested it is absorbed by the small intestine, reaching maximum blood concentration levels after approximately 20 to 30 minutes. It is circulated towards the head where it passes across the blood brain barrier, before entering the brain. Here, the supplement binds to receptors that correspond to acetylcholine, thus propagating activity in cholinergic systems. This is believed to be the primary mechanism from which many of Aniracetams benefits are derived; as acetylcholine is intimately linked to cognitive abilities, including our capacity to learn and remember information. Aniracetam is also considered to be an ampakine which means it can bind to AMPA receptors that normally respond to glutamate. This causes the receptors to become more sensitive to the presence of glutamate which is significant as glutamatergic systems have been implicated in learning and memory, particularly in the process known as long-term potentiation that aids in memory consolidation.

Aniracetam is also thought to increase extracellular levels of two other major neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine. Both of these substances are linked to the regulation of mood, among other things, and by providing optimal levels of these neurotransmitters, we can help to correct chemical imbalances that are linked to anxiety and other mood disorders. Cognitive enhancement and mood modulation often go hand in hand as the individuals who use nootropics (mostly students and business executives) are usually subjected to a lot of stress as a result of their situations. Such negative moods can serve as a distraction and have a dramatic impact on concentration, cognitive ability and overall productivity.

What are the Potential Side Effects of Aniracetam?

Aniracetam, like most nootropics, is considered to be quite safe and well tolerated with low levels of toxicity. In fact it is rated as being lower in toxicity than your average table salt. Since its development there have been no reports of dangerous side effects, although it should be noted that a small number of users have reported side effects of a mild nature. Side effects are quite rare and are generally only seen when the recommended dosage is exceeded. The most commonly reported side effect is headaches, usually a result of choline depletion. Aniracetam, like other racetam supplements, increases acetylcholine activity creating a greater demand for its precursor choline. However as most individuals are deficient in choline it is often necessary to supplement dietary intake with high quality choline sources like Citicoline which should aid in negating headaches experienced with Aniracetam use. Other common complaints experienced with high dosages include nervousness and gastrointestinal distress, in which case you should reduce your dosage or discontinue using the supplement.

Aniracetam Dosage

The recommended dosage for most users is around 500 to 3,000mg a day. Due to Aniracetam’s low bioavailability, this amount should be divided into two to three equally sized administrations taken throughout the day to ensure a consistent supply. Unlike other racetams, Aniracetam is lipid soluble and it is suggested that you take this supplement with a meal or  a glass of milk, fish oil supplements, or other source of lipids to facilitate absorption into the bloodstream. As with any nootropic or dietary supplement it is advised that you consult a health care practitioner before using Aniracetam.

Aniracetam Stacks

Aniracetam PillsAlthough some users may find Aniracetam to be sufficient as a standalone supplement, most find that using it as part of a stack affords a wider range of more potent benefits. As well as combining Aniracetam with a choline source as mentioned earlier, you may also wish to try it as part of a PAO stack that utilises the racetams Phenylpiracetam, Aniracetam and Oxiracetam. Each of these racetams offers slightly different benefits and can result in emergent effects when taken together.



Some users also choose to cycle Aniracetam with other racetams in order to avoid building a tolerance. For example, you could use Oxiracetam during the morning in order to enhance focus and Aniracetam later in the day which will promote feelings of relaxation. The best stack for you personally will no doubt be one tailored to your individual requirements, so it is a good idea to experiment with different combinations and dosages of nootropics.


Alexis Dover
A Beginners Guide to Nootropics Thu, 03 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

What Are Nootropics?

Broadly defined, nootropics are substances that have the ability to enhance cognitive performance with few side effects or toxicity issues. There is often some confusion over the terms used to describe these supplements; all nootropics are generally considered to be cognitive enhancers (or smart drugs) but not all cognitive enhancing supplements fit the criteria of a nootropic. Substances like caffeine or amphetamines for example, may provide some benefits to cognition, but often come with the dangers of severe side effects, or problems with tolerance and addiction. Of course, the concept is also somewhat ambiguous and it is important to note that even after the term nootropics was first coined by Dr Corneliu Giugea over 40 years ago, scientists are still in disagreement as to the exact criteria for a substance to be considered a nootropic.


Misconceptions About Nootropics

The way that nootropics are portrayed in the media has led to somewhat unrealistic expectations. This article should help to address a few of these misconceptions.

  1. Nootropics do not give you superhuman abilities.

Nootropics certainly can help you to improve your cognitive performance but not to the extent that you would be considered superhuman, as depicted in the film Limitless. It is a common misconception that we only use 10-20% of our brains and that by using 100% we could become exponentially more intelligent, or even possess psychokinetic abilities. This however, is simply not true as Nootropics work only within the boundaries of normal human physiology.

  1. Nootropics are not a replacement for sleep.

While it is true that nootropics can both improve the quality of sleep you receive and help you to perform better while sleep deprived, it is not a replacement for sleep altogether. Sleep is essential for our survival as humans and there is no adequate replacement for it. In fact, sleep deprivation can be so severely damaging that it has been used as a form of torture, and can lead to death in extreme cases.

  1. Nootropics are not a substitute for working hard.

Many people assume that nootropics will instantly make a genius of them, but this is simply not the case. Students will still have to study and carry out the tasks they normally would, nootropics simply facilitate the learning process, making it easier to remember and understand new concepts.

  1. Stimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are not nootropics.

Again, this is a problem that comes down to the definition of nootropics. While these substances could certainly be considered cognitive enhancers, the dangers of their side effects and the fact that individuals may develop a tolerance to them means that whatever definition of nootropics is considered, these supplements simply do not fit the criteria.

  1. Nootropics are not completely free of side effects.

While it is true that most nootropics are safe when used correctly, as with any supplement they are not completely side effect free. These supplements simply exhibit side effects that are far less common, and usually quite mild compared to those that are seen with the use of other performance enhancers like amphetamines. Furthermore, nootropics show much lower levels of toxicity than other cognitive enhancers.


How Do They Work?

There are literally hundreds of types of different substances that could be considered nootropic supplements. Each of these has slightly different properties and mechanisms that contribute to the brain working more efficiently. Many nootropics work by modulating the level of various neurotransmitters in the brain, which can be achieved for example by providing a greater amount of neurotransmitter precursors, altering the sensitivity of receptors, or by inhibiting enzymes that break down neurotransmitters. Others work by increasing cerebral blood flow, bringing with it a greater amount of oxygen, glucose and other materials needed for neurons to perform efficiently. Some even stimulate the release of substances like nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), types of protein that encourage the growth and repair of neurons, which can lead to greater synaptic plasticity and fluidity in cell membranes.


What Benefits Can Nootropics Provide?

The effects a user will see depends largely on the type of nootropic used, although it is important to consider that experiences are also likely to be highly subjective as everyone has different expectations, and will react slightly differently to a given supplement. Many nootropic supplements can enhance an individual’s capacity to learn and remember information, particularly when concerning the racetam and cholinergic varieties. Individuals commonly observe an improved ability to process, consolidate and recall information, while comprehension of difficult concepts also comes with greater ease. Nootropics can also provide greater levels of attention and the ability to focus on important tasks, with increased motivation to carry them out.

Some supplements appear to exhibit neuroprotective properties, shielding the brain from damage by physical trauma, toxins and neurological diseases alike. Others have therapeutic uses, for example phenibut and picamilon are used by sufferers of depression and anxiety for their anxiolytic and mood brightening effects, while they also appear to improve the quality of sleep and aid with disruptions to sleep cycles.

Nootropics are even used to improve physical performance; atheletes report phenylpiracetam to be an effective pre-workout supplement, helping to decrease recovery time, provide the motivation to carry out more challenging exercise routines, and help the user cope with the stress caused by physical strain.


What Are Stacks?

A majority of nootropics users find it useful to combine several types of nootropic supplement in what is called a stack. This is useful both to potentiate the effects of each individual supplement, as well as compensate for their shortcomings. Racetams for example may enhance activity in cholinergic pathways, increasing the demand for acetylcholine. By supplementing intake of the precursor molecule choline, the user is able to ensure the action of the racetam is not limited, and that they do not suffer from side effects like headaches due to choline depletion.

Another commonly used stack in the nootropic community is the CLITEP stack. An acronym for chemically induced long term potentiation, this stack is designed with the purpose of causing long term enhancements in the signal strength between two simultaneously fired neurons. This has been observed to improve learning and memory mechanisms, no doubt a useful effect for anyone seeking cognitive enhancement.


What Are the Best Stacks for Beginners?

The temptation that many new users have is to immediately start taking multiple nootropics all at once but we would highly recommend against this. While the greatest benefits will be gained by using one or more nootropics in a stack, new users are advised start with a single supplement or simple stack and become familiar with it before adding additional supplements. Below are a few examples of stacks that are ideal for inexperienced users.

  1. Choline and racetam stacks.

As mentioned earlier, it is a good idea to use additional choline supplements with racetams to prevent choline depletion and potentiate overall effects. These types of stacks are relatively versatile owing to the many types of racetam supplements available. However, some users have found the effects of these stacks to be subtle, and it will require some experimentation to gain the most benefits from them. This stack in general is aimed at improving memory and learning capacity, though effects will differ depending on the racetam used; Aniracetam for example has some notable anxiolytic effects, while Oxiracetam provides mild stimulant-like effects.

  1. Theanine and caffeine stacks.

This stack is one of the simplest, and an ideal place to start for many users. Caffeine works by increasing levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, acetylcholine and adrenaline, combating fatigue and increasing alertness. The addition of L-theanine aids in counteracting caffeine’s negative side effects such as the jitters. Users should note that one disadvantage of this stack is the potential for acquiring a tolerance, and so this stack should not be used more than 2 to 4 times a week.

  1. Huperzine A, sulbutiamine and choline stacks.

This is a good all-purpose stack that covers many areas of cognitive enhancement. The sulbutiamine component of this stack enhances dopaminergic activity to increase motivation, while Huperzine A inhibits acetycholinesterase to increase acetylcholine levels, resulting in better memory, focus and concentration. Choline supplements ensure the huperzine A works effectively and users may prefer different choline supplements depending on their requirements; GPC choline is a good choice for those looking to increase focus, while CDP choline is geared more towards increasing motivation

The Student Stack: What are the Best Nootropics for Studying? Wed, 02 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

The Problem with Traditional Stimulants

Whether studying before exams, understanding difficult concepts or having to write a lengthy paper with little time, students face a lot of pressure to perform well academically. It is no wonder then that many have resorted to stimulants like caffeine to give them that extra little boost needed to get the job done. However, even though it is the world’s most widely consumed stimulant, caffeine has proven to have a wide range of undesirable side effects when ingested in large quantities (which is so often the case when it’s 3am and you have several thousand words to write before the morning).

Recent years have also seen an increase in the use of drugs like Adderall and Ritalin. Usually prescribed to sufferers of ADHD to increase concentration, they have a similar effect on healthy individuals. Unfortunately, they also come with an array of short and long-term side effects including headaches, dehydration, insomnia, increased blood pressure, loss of consciousness, seizures and depression to name but a few. Additionally, these substances are also habit forming and users can not only become dependent, but may also develop a tolerance meaning they will no longer experience cognitive enhancing benefits. In recent years, America has seen an epidemic of college students illegally obtaining these prescription medications to boost their academic performance, and there have even been several reported deaths linked to these drugs. Not only do the side effects pose an immediate danger, but in several cases the abuse of these medications has led to psychosis, causing the individuals to commit suicide or perform dangerous acts with complete disregard for their own safety.


What Are Nootropics?

Considering these all too real dangerous, you may be reluctant to use any type of cognitive enhancer. There is however an alternative; a loosely related group of supplements known as nootropics which have been proven to safely enhance cognition with virtually no side effects. The term nootropics encompasses a wide range of natural and synthetic supplements that are used for everything from memory and learning enhancement, to promoting alertness or better sleep. Some nootropics are even used to improve physical performance and fight diseases.

There are well in excess of a hundred different nootropic supplements and their mechanisms of action can vary considerably. Many of them are designed to modulate neurotransmitter activity by providing precursors, increasing production or regulating the sensitivity of receptors. Depending on the neurotransmitter concerned this can result in changes to behaviours including mood, memory, learning, sleep or appetite to name a few. Other nootropics work by increasing cerebral blood circulation, providing the brain with more oxygen and nutrients needed to function efficiently. Some are even known to aid in the removal of waste products like lipofuscin that could otherwise contribute to neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s. This wide range of applications means that smart drugs are used by everyone from athletes to business executives. However because they are considered to be primarily cognitive enhancers, their use still remains most prominent among academic circles.



How Can Nootropics Benefit Me as a Student?

Whether you lack the motivation to work, are feeling overwhelmed, or struggle with difficult study materials, there are many reasons why you may feel you are not achieving the highest grades you are capable of. Even those who are at the top of their class can benefit from these supplements ability to improve mental agility or think creatively. But what specific aspects of academia can these supplements help with?



Nootropics are known to increase performance in practically all aspects of memory which is invaluable to the average student trying to memorising various formulas, theories and techniques alike. To understand how they work it is a good idea to first look at how memories are created. Memories are first formed in a process known as encoding where stimuli, whether this be visual, acoustic, semantic or a combination of different types, passes from the various receptors in your body to the brain where they are incorporated into a single experience. This is the equivalent of reading a book, or listening to your lecturer talk and consciously perceiving what is going on. This is the first hurdle in successfully remembering information as unfortunately we do not always encode all the information we want to remember. However supplements like bacopa monnieri and vasopressin (more commonly known as antidiuretic hormone) are known to directly increase the amount of information that is encoded. Other nootropics may also enhance this process through indirect means (increased blood circulation or more neurotransmitter, leading to greater overall neuronal efficiency).

After encoding, memories must be stored and this refers to the passive ability to retain information indefinitely. Memories are stored as a series of synaptic connections between neurons. This information begins first in sensory memory, before graduating to short term memory stores which can hold information for a limited period of a few seconds to about a minute. This obviously isn’t very useful if you’re trying to study for an exam and so information must be consolidated into long term memory using processes like rehearsal. This would be the equivalent of repeating a phrase or piece of information to yourself several times which aids in strengthening connections to stabilise a memory trace.

Neurologically, consolidating information from short to long term memory uses a phenomenon known as long term potentiation. This refers to the process by which the strengthening of connections occurs between two simultaneously firing neurons. The effectiveness of this process can be enhanced by taking a combination of nootropics known as a CILTEP stack which is discussed later in this article. Information that is stored, whether in sensory, short, or long term memory must be done in an effective manner to prevent it being lost. We know that a healthy human brain has an almost unlimited capacity for storing information over an indefinite period, so forgetting things is likely due to improper encoding or a failure to recall information.

Recall is the final process in memory, referring to the action of searching for and retrieving specific information. Sometimes we tend to forget things but remember it later on, suggesting that while the memory still exists there may be problems in the process of retrieving them. Fortunately nootropics can help in this area too. For example, 2006 study looked at individuals with age-related memory impairment who would often forget where they had left things, or information such as phone numbers. After being administered Bacopa Monnieri, researchers found a significant improvement in recall ability. Oxiracetam, another nootropic, also appears to have similar recall-enhancing effects in addition to improving attention and semantic memory. These nootropics of course, won’t just help you remember where you left your keys, they could help make the difference between a good and excellent grade when trying to remember critical information in an exam.



Having a high level of intelligence can obviously make a big difference when it comes to doing well academically but there are different types of intelligence to consider. The first form, crystallized intelligence, refers to the cumulative amount of knowledge you have acquired over your lifetime and is very much a function of long-term memory. This type of intelligence is often what we think of as “book smarts” and tends to increase as we grow, before dropping off with old age as a result of memory deficits. The second type, fluid intelligence, is independent of prior knowledge, referring more to your ability to think logically, problem solve and recognise patterns.

Fluid intelligence is thought to be a function of working memory (sometimes confused with short term memory). Working memory refers to a series structures and processes in the brain that can temporarily retain and manipulate information. This requires neurons to constantly form, destroy, strengthen and weaken synaptic connections between them, and your brains ability to manipulate such processes is known as synaptic plasticity. With a greater synaptic plasticity, your brain can work with more pieces of information, making it more likely that you will be able to successfully devise solutions, perform calculations or carry other tasks commonly associated with this type of intelligence.

Synaptic plasticity can be enhanced by several types of nootropics including the racetams (Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam), Huperzine A, DMAE, Centrophenoxine and Bacopa Monnieri to name but a few. Though some of these mechanisms are not fully understood, there are a few hypothesized routes through which this can occur. Researchers theorize that nootropics can increase the activity of certain neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters act as chemical messengers relaying electrical signals (action potentials) between neurons connected by synapses. In some cases, greater amounts of the neurotransmitters present in the brain can enhance the sensitivity of post synaptic neurons, allowing signals to propagate with greater ease. To give an example, some nootropics appear to increase levels of glutamate and acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain. These areas are involved in memory acquisition and can facilitate the learning of new information, particularly in regard to working memory. Other types of nootropics are capable of regulating levels of acetylcholine and norepinephrine which has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of information in working memory.

Increased functionality of working memory, and by extension fluid intelligence, can be particularly helpful in fields of study like engineering, mathematics and science in which students are constantly challenged to solve problems, manipulate information and think laterally.

Focus and Concentration

The ability to concentrate for long periods will no doubt be useful to any student whether sitting in a lecture hall, or reading difficult texts. Concentration can be thought of as being able to pay attention to one particular stimulus, while simultaneously ignoring other competing stimuli in your environment. This is a part of what is known as the executive function that is associated with the prefrontal cortex of the brain. Although we often consider the ability to concentrate as an abstract idea, is can be thought of as a state of mind that is brought about by the action of several key neurotransmitters. Thus, by altering neurotransmitter levels, we can exert some positive effects on our concentration levels.

There are several neurotransmitters concerned here. Dopamine is responsible for controlling reward mechanisms and is used by our brains to help keep our attention focused on a particular task. Low levels of dopamine have been observed to decrease levels of concentration, so logically nootropics that increase dopamine activity can have the opposite effect. The adrenal system is also implicated in maintaining concentration. Hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine are usually released upon exposure to stressful stimuli to prepare your body for a flight or fight response and part of this effect is to increase alertness.

Nootropics can increase concentration in a number of different ways. As mentioned earlier, using nootropics to enhance dopaminergic activity can modulate reward systems to help keep your attention focused on the task at hand. Similarly some nootropics are cholinergic, increasing acetylcholine activity in the brain which can aid to make the executive function more efficient. Other nootropics have mood enhancing effects and can help the user to concentrate by negating negative moods which could otherwise cause a significant distraction.

Reducing Anxiety and Stress

With deadlines to meet and exams that may ultimately determine future career prospects, there is no denying that today’s students are under a substantial amount of pressure. This often leads to many students underperforming because of pre-test nerves, or dropping out altogether to remove themselves from stress inducing situations. Therefore, being able to control or reduce anxiety and stress levels is important not only for academic success, but the welfare of the individual as well. Experiencing some stress and anxiety is perfectly normal and can even be helpful in motivating us to take actions to remove ourselves from situations that evoke these feelings. It becomes a problem when these feelings of anxiety and stress prevent us from being productive, or this reaction occurs frequently in response to inappropriate situations.

While the exact causes of excessive anxiety are unknown with some scientists suggesting a psychological basis while other believe it may be down to neuroanatomy, most cases can be characterised by excessive stimulation in the brain caused by our body’s flight or fight response. This overstimulation is responsible for many of the symptoms seen with anxiety that can include restlessness, irritability, feelings of dread, changes in sleeping patterns, loss of appetite, nervous habits and increased motor tension (such as foot tapping or other repetitive actions).

Fortunately, a number of nootropics are known to have significant anxiolytic and stress reducing properties. Supplements like Picamilon and Phenibut are GABA derivatives that are broken down into GABA upon entering the body. This important substance is the brains primary inhibitory neurotransmitter that can prevent action potentials from propagating. This mechanism aids in calming an overstimulated brain and can help to break anxious thought cycles that are centred on negative beliefs.

Social Acuity

Being a student of course, doesn’t just mean studying. The ability to socialise as well as create friendships and relationships with other people can greatly enrich your life. Social acuity can also be seen as an important tool to help you more easily achieve your goals. Being an individual who can easily interact with other people is becoming a prerequisite for many jobs, and it is not hard to see why a potential employer would sooner hire a confident, easy going applicant over a stuttering nervous one. Furthermore, some areas of academia often require students make presentations and speak in front of large audiences, something that evokes stage fright in a surprisingly large number of people. Unfortunately not all of us are born as natural socialites, while others have additional obstacles like social anxiety to contend with.

Some of the aforementioned supplements can help individuals to overcome social anxiety. Picamilon for example, while helping to pacify overactive anxious thoughts, can also lower inhibitions that prevent us from making successful interactions out of fear or embarrassment. Other nootropics enhance regions of the brain associated with verbal language skills, and while this does not directly counter anxiety, being able to communicate more effectively can naturally make a user feel more confident.

Additionally, being able to think with more logic and clarity is useful in helping us to understand other people. A greater ability to analyse and empathise means we can more easily determine how to act in an appropriate manner. The memory enhancing benefits of nootropics could also help you avoid certain social faux pas, particularly if you are the sort of person that forgets names and faces easily.


Stacks for Students

Although nootropics can be used individually, most users find that combining several different types into what is known as a stack can greatly increase the range and strength of benefits that are seen. Furthermore, using stacks can help to negate some of the potential side effects that may arise from singular use of nootropics. To give an example, many racetams work by enhancing acetylcholine activity in the brain which causes an increase in the demand for the acetylcholine precursor choline. A majority of the population is deficient in dietary choline sources, so it is often necessary to supplement intake with products like CDP choline or Alpha GPC in order to avoid depletion and resulting side effects such as headaches.

There are numerous companies that supply various combinations of nootropics combined into a single product, however these come with some distinct disadvantages. Although it is generally more convenient to take a single pill or powder rather than measuring out several different types, preformed stacks do not offer the same versatility as separate supplements. For example it would be impossible to selectively increase the dosage of a single supplement in your stack when using these all-in-one products. Furthermore, the amount of each individual supplement in the stack may not be appropriate for you personally as physiology and brain biochemistry can differ dramatically from person to person. Finally, there is the issue of price which may be particularly relevant to students who seldom have much money to spare. Much of the expense associated with stack products is due to processing and branding costs. It is far more economical to use generic forms of single supplements and combine them yourself. Below is listed a few examples of stacks that may be ideal for students.


Caffeine & L-Theanine

This stack is ideal for both inexperienced users, and students that may already be using caffeine-based products as a cognitive enhancer. This stack uses only natural nootropics and is considered to be very safe, cheap, easily obtainable, and with effects that are almost immediately discernible. The caffeine element of this stack functions as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Adenosine is usually responsible for inhibitory effects within the central nervous system. By preventing the activation of receptors that correspond to adenosine, caffeine can prevent inhibitory signals from propagating. This is the primary mechanism responsible for most of caffeine’s benefits which include increased levels of alertness and concentration. The addition of L-Theanine not only potentiates the positive effects of caffeine, but also helps to negate some of the possible side effects including the jitters, disturbances to sleep patterns, anxiety and increased blood pressure.


Pramiracetam & Alpha GPC

Pramiracetam is considered by many to be among the most versatile and balanced racetam supplements in terms of the benefits that it offers. Though like many of the racetams its mechanisms are not fully understood, it is believed to function by increasing high affinity choline uptake (HACU) and subsequent production of acetylcholine in the brain. Through this mechanism it is able to offer students enhanced memory and concentration, and helps to increase productivity in whatever task attention is directed towards. This makes it an ideal supplement when trying to complete work in a limited time. The addition of alpha GPC ensures that choline deficits do not occur as a result of increased cholinergic activity. Some users may also find it useful to use L-Theanine with this stack for its positive mood altering properties, helping the user to feel calm and optimistic when under the pressure of deadlines and exams.


Aniracetam, Alpha GPC, Huperzine A & Vinpocetine

Another good all-round combination of supplements, this stack uses a variety of mostly natural nootropics with low toxicity and differing mechanisms. Aniracetam provides the main cognitive enhancing benefits seen with this stack, with the ability to enhance memory, improve learning and increase the speed of cognitive processing. Aniracetam also has some notable stress and anxiety reducing properties, which can be invaluable in reducing pre-test nerves that can significantly affect cognitive performance.

The Huperzine A in this stack functions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, helping to prevent the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Higher levels of this neurotransmitter are thought to improve memory, specifically the ability to effectively form and recall information which may be useful both in the process of studying, as well as recalling information during an exam.

Alpha GPC is a precursor of acetylcholine, working synergistically with the mechanism of Huperzine to increase overall levels in the brain as well as negating the possibility of choline depletion as a result of Aniracetam use and increased cholinergic activity.

The final component of this stack, Vinpocetine, is renowned for its neuroprotective effects that prevent excitotoxicity (excessive stimulation of neurons) and inflammation of the brain. This aids in maintaining the overall health of neurons and as a result, memory retention is improved as information is not as likely to be lost through damage to synaptic connections. These neuroprotective effects would no doubt be valuable to the average student whose lifestyle often involves imbibing a considerable amount of potentially damaging alcohol. Vinpocetine also acts as a vasodilator, causing blood vessels in the brain to expand delivering greater quantities of materials such as oxygen and glucose needed by neurons to function efficiently.


The CILTEP Stack

This stack has gained much popularity in recent years. An acronym for chemically induced long-term potentiation, this stack is designed to induce the phenomenon of LTP (long term potentiation) covered earlier in the article. The benefits provided by this stack can help students to consolidate and recall study materials with greater ease and aid in the understanding of difficult concepts.

The stack is usually composed of two main components; a cAMP booster and PDE-4 inhibitor. The cAMP booster, commonly a supplement like forskolin from the Plectranthus barbatus plant, works to increase levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate.  Meanwhile, PDE-4 inhibitors such as artichoke extract work by inhibiting the enzymes that break down cAMP. The result is a dramatic increase in cAMP levels, which is thought to lead to long term potentiation.

An additional advantage of this stack is its versatility; because CILTEP stacks work using rather unique mechanisms, it is possible to use it with other combinations of nootropics. For example some users add additional racetams to this stack, while others have noted that CILTEP greatly potentiates the action of stimulants, allowing them to use smaller amounts of stimulants for greater effects.

Users may also want to consider adding a dopamine precursor like phenylalanine to their CILTEP stack as some have reported experiencing fatigue when using this combination of nootropics, most likely a result of dopamine depletion.

These are just a few examples of the many types of stacks students are currently employing to boost their academic performance. With so many different types of nootropic supplement out there, the combinations are limitless. Although these stacks are an excellent place to start, the best stack for your requirements will no doubt be one tailored for your needs. We would therefore advise that you spend some time researching and experimenting with different nootropics to find which supplements and dosages are ideal for you. Remember to keep in mind what you hope to achieve (is it a stack for memory, concentration or learning?) and always consult a doctor before using any type of nootropic.


Modern academic institutions demand a lot from their students. Whether underperforming or overwhelmed, there is no doubt many students feel the need for cognition enhancing supplements. Regardless of whether this should be considered ethically as cheating or not, the fact is that students will go to tremendous lengths to ensure they perform well academically and there is no question as to whether it is better to use potentially illegal, habit forming and dangerous drugs like Adderall or safe, legal, neuroprotective supplements like nootropics. 

Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Smart Drugs Tue, 01 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Our brains are constantly ageing. Even through normal function, the neurons that make up your brain are subject to the build-up toxins, physical damage, chemical changes and premature death. Over time these factors can lead to a dramatic decline in brain function, and while the effects of ageing on the body are normally quite clear, damage to the brain is not always so evident. As these changes are more difficult to detect, we are far less likely to take preventative measures before the damage becomes irreversible.

In the UK it is estimated that some 800,000 people are currently suffering from some form of neurocognitive disorder, and the risk of developing such conditions rises dramatically beyond the age of 65. Despite years of dedicated research, how the brain functions is still largely a mystery, and scientists have not yet been able to develop a cure for these conditions. Unfortunately it seems that unless we take preventative measures now, we are more than likely to develop some form of cognitive impairment as we grow older.

There are however, number of supplements that are designed to slow the ageing process, and even repair the brain. These supplements, often termed smart drugs, have many different purposes, and while they can protect the brain, they also offer a range of cognitive enhancements from improved memory to greater alertness and concentration. These supplements are so effective in terms of neuroprotection and enhancing cognition, that they are being researched as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. To understand how we can protect the brain and the best types of smart drug for this, it is a good idea to first examine what forms of damage it could be subjected to.


Accumulation of Toxins

Metabolic processes in the body produce a number of waste products which your body is constantly trying to dispose of. Over time, or perhaps due to reduced disposal efficiency, these waste products can accumulate and begin to cause problems. One such substance is lipofuscin, a granular pigment that is produced during the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Lipofuscin is found in many parts of the body including vital organs (liver, heart and kidneys), the retina, and nerve cells. Excess amounts of this toxin have been implicated as a major risk factor for degenerative eye diseases, chronic obstructive problems and lysosomal diseases, as well as neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s and Parkinsons.

Fortunately several smart drugs are known to significantly decrease the accumulation of lipofuscin, particularly in the brain. This includes Centrophenoxine, DMAE, Ginkgo Biloba extracts and Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Such supplements are usually taken to reduce the appearance of age or liver spots, although they work equally as well for removing lipofuscin deposits in the brain.


Loss of Plasticity

Plasticity can be loosely defined as the brains ability to change and adapt as a response to learning, stress or environmental factors. Synaptic connections between neurons are dynamic and constantly changing according to the usefulness of the information they represent. When we acquire new information, new connections are formed and if this information is recalled regularly, such connections can be strengthened. Similarly, memories or information that are not as useful may have their associated synaptic connections cut back, as the brain has a limited number of resources. However, as we get older, the plasticity of the brain decreases as a result of waste build-up and reduced cell function. Degradation can also be seen in neurites (extensions from the cell body) through which synapses are formed, contributing to cognitive decline with advancing age.

Early research into brain plasticity suggested that the nervous system was fixed and could not regenerate after a certain age. However we now know that with the appropriate exercise and supplements, neurogenesis (the formation of new neurons) can occur even in advanced age. The brain’s ability to survive and adapt is quite remarkable and there have been cases of individuals having large portions of their brain removed as a result of strokes or severe injuries. In some cases, the brain has shown to compensate for this loss by dramatically increasing the number of new connections formed in remaining parts of the brain.

Neuroplasticity can be increased by the use of supplements that enhance acetylcholine activity, most notably the racetam family (Piracetam, Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam, Aniracetam) as well as some non-racetam supplements like Noopept. Noopept appears to have the additional advantage of increasing nerve growth factor that can stimulate neuronal growth.

Chemical Changes

Another change that can be observed with advancing age is the reduction of grey matter. Grey matter is composed mostly of neuronal cell bodies, as well as blood capillaries and glial cells that support and protect neurons. It is distinguished from white matter that appears white due to the presence of myelin, a substance that insulates the axons and dendrites of neurons to increase the speed of nerve impulses. Grey matter is an extremely important component of the nervous system, and is involved in memory, sensory perceptions, muscular locomotion, speech and emotions to name but a few. Without grey matter we would be unable to perform tasks that involve information processing from mathematical equations to problem solving, and even reasoning skills in everyday situations. Declines in grey matter volume can even change the physical properties of components in the brain. For example, it may lead to cell membranes becoming less permeable meaning substances cannot be transported across them efficiently, or reduce the brains electrical conductivity, all of which results in cognitive processes occurring slower.

The brain may also see a reduction in the production and overall levels of particular neurotransmitters which are vital to practically all thought and memory processes. Dopamine in particular is known to decline as we age, bringing with it a reduction in several cognitive functions including working memory, problem solving, attention, planning, multitasking and inhibition. Among the other neurotransmitters that also see a reduction with age are serotonin, that is responsible for learning, memory, appetite, sleep and mood, as well as glutamate which has been implicated in maintaining synaptic plasticity. Acetylcholine production may also drop off and this neurotransmitter has been linked to all aspects of memory from formation to recall.

In order to maintain healthy neurotransmitter levels, you may want to consider supplementing your choline intake with products such as Centrophenoxine, CDP Choline or Alpha GPC which will aid in bolstering dopamine and serotonin production. Racetams are also a good choice for boosting neurotransmitter levels, and have the added advantage of enhancing cognitive performance at the same time. For those who prefer a more natural alternative, herbal supplements like Vinpocetine and Huperzine A can serve a similar purpose.


Free Radicals

Free radicals are molecules that have an unpaired electron in their outer atomic shell which makes them highly unstable and reactive. When such molecules react with biological structures like a neuron, they can cause oxidative damage. These biological structures may in turn become free radicals due to the loss of electrons, and cause a chain-reaction, oxidising and damaging additional cells.

It is this mechanism that is hypothesized to be the basis of ageing, as well as the possible cause of health problems ranging from heart diseases, to cancer and degenerative diseases. Free radicals are produced by our bodies on a constant basis, for example this occurs during the production of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), an energy molecule used by practically all of the cells in your body. The brain is especially at risk from free radical damage as neurons require a lot of energy, and hence a lot of ATP to function efficiently.

The most effective way to reduce the amount of free radicals is to use antioxidants. As the name might suggest, these substances stop oxidative damage from occurring by neutralising the free radicals. This is achieved by using substances that can easily give up an electron to the free radical, without becoming a free radical itself. There are many smart drugs that function effectively as antioxidants including L-theanine, Ginko Biloba, Ginseng, Melatonin and several of the Racetams.

Of course, for the best protection against the effects of ageing, you might want to consider using a combination of these supplements as part of a stack. For example, combining Centrophenoxine with a Racetam should give you more comprehensive protection against free radical, toxin and chemical damage, while simultaneously maintaining the integrity of neurons and brain plasticity. With smart drugs it is now possible to slow, stop and even reverse the effects of ageing, allowing you to avoid cognitive decline, and continue learning even at an advanced age.  

5-Hydroxytryptophan: A Smart Drug to Improve Mood, Sleep and Reduce Stress Tue, 01 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

5-Hydroxytroptophan (5-HTP) is an amino acid that is found in a variety of natural sources, most notably, an African climbing plant species known as Griffonia simplicifolia. 5-HTP is involved in a number of important biological processes, acting as a precursor molecule, as well as a metabolic intermediate in the synthesis of neurotransmitters from tryptophan. It is used for many purposes including suppressing appetite, regulating sleep patterns, enhancing mood, and reducing stress and anxiety.



To understand how 5-HTP works, it is a good idea to first look at one of the molecules it is closely related to, Tryptophan. Tryptophan is another amino acid that is considered to be essential, as it cannot be synthesized in the body. Found in many high-protein foods such as eggs, fish, red and white meat, tryptophan is an essential building block for the synthesis of numerous biological products. Among the most important of these are the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.

Serotonin is responsible for mood, learning, sleep, appetite, memory and a whole host of other biological functions. It is converted from tryptophan into serotonin in a two-step enzyme catalysed process. Serotonin can then be broken down into melatonin, a hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating circadian rhythms. This is your internal clock that dictates sleep-wake cycles, as well as other behaviours dependant on the time of day.


How Does 5-HTP Work?

As mentioned earlier, 5-HTP is an intermediate metabolite for the synthesis of serotonin. This means it is the molecule that tryptophan is first converted into, before undergoing another enzyme catalysed reaction to form serotonin. By supplying the body with an additional source of this serotonin precursor, we are effectively skipping the first stage of the conversion process. This means serotonin can be synthesised more directly than when using tryptophan as a starting point. An additional advantage of 5-HTP is that it will be converted exclusively into serotonin, whereas tryptophan supplements may be converted into any number of proteins. Considering these points, you may question why we don’t simply take supplements that contain serotonin. However this would not work as psychotropic supplements (that work on the brain) first have to cross the blood brain barrier in order to reach their target cells, and while serotonin is not capable of doing this, 5-HTP can.


What is 5-HTP Used For?

Enhancing serotonin production can have a wide range of benefits and using 5-HTP can help to promote positive feelings, a property that makes this supplement potentially useful for depression. Clinical trials have already proven 5-HTP to be more effective in improving the symptoms of depression when compared to a placebo. While its clinical use is deemed to be somewhat limited compared to more powerful SSRIs, users who prefer more natural herbal supplements generally favour 5-HTP.

As serotonin is believed to be important for regulating emotions such as anxiety, it is only logical to assume that supplements that modulate serotonin levels can help to treat anxiety disorders. Dosages of around 50 to 100mg have been observed to aid those with anxiety, and while not all people find it useful, a majority of users note that 5-HTP can at least contribute to more restful sleep, and lower their sensitivity to the type of stimuli that evokes anxiety.

5-HTP is also believed to be an effective weight loss aid. When first adhering to a new weight loss diet, many individuals find that they experience negative moods caused in part by a drop in serotonin levels. This can also lead to eating excessive amounts, and craving carbohydrate rich foods. By supplementing serotonin levels, 5-HTP can improve mood, and suppress appetite, allowing the user to more easily achieve the calorie deficit that is required for weight loss. Studies have shown that obese individuals using 5-HTP felt more satiated (full) after eating and were less likely to eat more as a result. Additionally, they lost an average of 2% body weight when not on a diet, and 3% when dieting, compared to a control group who lost no weight in either scenario.

As mentioned earlier, 5-HTP can indirectly contribute to higher levels of melatonin, as well as serotonin. This is useful for those that have irregular sleeping patterns, or sufferers of insomnia. Studies have shown that using 5-HTP allows the user to fall asleep quicker, and achieve higher sleep quality. For such purposes, a dosage of 200 to 300mg is recommended before bed in order to promote better quality sleep.


Possible Side Effects

Provided that it is used in the correct manner and dosage, 5-HTP is considered to be quite safe for use by most healthy adults, although it is not recommended for those under 18 years old. Although cases are rare, users may experience some gastrointestinal distress as a result of serotonin-induced muscle contractions of the small intestine. This can lead to vomiting or diarrhoea.

Users should avoid taking 5-HTP with certain types of anti-depressants, particularly MAIOs and SSRIs to avoid the possibility of developing serotonin syndrome. This supplement may also cause interactions with other types of medication such as carbidopa, often used to treat Parkinson’s disease. It is important that you consult a qualified healthcare professional for guidance before using 5-HTP to avoid the possibility of such negative side effects.

Huperzine A Tue, 01 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Huperzine A is a naturally occurring alkaloid that is found in the Chinese club moss plant, Huperzia serrata. This nootropic compound provides a range of cognitive enhancements most notably benefiting memory performance, although improvements can also be seen in concentration and data processing skills. This supplement also has therapeutic applications, and is used in the treatment of neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s, as well as age related memory impairment.


Effects and Uses of Huperzine A

Huperzine A functions primarily as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. This means that it is able to inhibit the action of enzymes that are usually responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. As you may be aware, acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter used extensively in the body’s various nerve systems, from activating muscles in the peripheral nervous system, to neuromodulation, plasticity, arousal and reward in the central nervous system. By increasing the concentration of acetylcholine in our bodies, we can gain a wide variety of beneficial effects. In terms of cognitive enhancement, the most pronounced effects we see concerns an increase in the ability to pay attention, as well as increased memory consolidation, retention and recall. Synaptic plasticity also appears to improve, allowing the user to learn, adapt and store new information more effectively. This mechanism of action is not dissimilar from other drugs used to treat Alzheimer’s and it has been suggested that Huperzine A may exhibit neuroprotective effects against cognitive decline, senile dementia, and other neurodegenerative conditions.

Huperzine A may provide additional protection as an NMDA receptor antagonist. In layman’s terms, this means that it is able to reduce or inhibit the action of NMDA receptors. This mechanism has been implicated as a possible treatment for conditions involving excitotoxicity, where neurons become damaged due to excessive levels of neurotransmitter and subsequent activity. Such conditions include neurodegenerative disorders like Huntington’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, as well as strokes and physical brain trauma. Although more thorough research is required, preliminary tests into Huperzine A’s effect on Alzheimer’s patients demonstrate a significant improvement in cognitive skills and memory function after 4 to 8 weeks of use, whereas similar results are seen in multi-infarct dementia after just 2 to 4 weeks.

Other research into Huperzine A shows that it can offer protection against organophosphate poisoning that affects the nervous system. The study utilised Soman (O- Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) a type of nerve gas considered to be a chemical weapon that works by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. If Huperzine A is administered prior to exposure, it appears to temporarily sequester the binding sites of these enzymes, preventing damage from soman.

Huperzine A is used to treat a muscle weakening condition known as myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis is characterised by a muscles that tire and weaken, even after a short period of exertion. This condition is caused by the body’s autoimmune response mistaking acetylcholine receptors for foreign bodies, causing them to be destroyed. It appears that using Huperzine A to increase the concentration of acetylcholine in affected areas compensates for the lack of receptor sites, and results in a lessening of muscular fatigue symptoms.


Recommended Dosage

Dosage and methods of administering Huperzine A differ according to the purpose for which it is taken. Those suffering from myasthenia gravis can receive daily injections from a qualified healthcare provider. For treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s and multi-infarct dementia, patients will benefit more from oral administrations ranging between 50 to 200mcg twice daily. A lower dosage of 30mcg is suggested for a sufferer of senile dementia while around 100mcg is suitable for adolescent users.

Although users taking Huperzine A for cognitive enhancing benefits may notice the effects of this supplement when used alone, it is likely to be far more effective as part of a smart drug stack. Users have found this supplement to be ideal for combination with various racetams such as Piracetam and Aniracetam, though it also works equally well with Noopept. As always, it is advised that you consult a qualified healthcare professional to determine which supplements are safe to incorporate into your own personal cognitive enhancing regimen.


Potential Side Effects

Huperzine A is considered to be generally quite safe and does not carry a serious risk of negative side effects. However, as with any supplement, there have been some observed side effects that should be noted. Although some users may not experience any side effects, and symptoms are usually mild, Huperzine A has been known to cause vomiting, diarrhoea, sweating, blurred vision, muscle twitches, restlessness, loss of appetite, slurred speech and increased salivation. There are also certain circumstances under which Huperzine A should not be taken. For example, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Huperzine due to a lack of research and understanding of effects within this group. Additionally, those with cardiovascular diseases should use Huperzine A with caution as it is known to decrease heart rate. Those with brachycardia should be particularly cautious and should consult their doctor before using this supplement. Similarly, sufferers of epilepsy should avoid Huperzine A due to the possibility that it may worsen this condition.

Smart Drugs for Mood Enhancement Tue, 01 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

We can all feel a little low or down from time to time, but for some people these feelings are more regular, persistent, and can severely affect their day to day lives. Anxiety and depression are among the most common mental health disorders, and although exact figures are difficult to obtain as many people do not seek help, it is believed that at least 1 in 5 people in the UK will experience some form of depression during their lifetime.

Traditionally, a class of drugs known as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have been used to treat depression under the assumption that it is caused primarily by an imbalance of brain biochemistry. While these medications work well for many, some sufferers of anxiety and depression have found them to be ineffective, or unsuitable due to the numerous side effects that are associated with them. This may be particularly true in cases where a doctor has prescribed multiple SSRIs, and this is a routine medicinal practice despite the fact that there is little evidence to support it. Furthermore, studies published in the Journal of the American Medical Association suggest that while SSRIs like Prozac and Paxil may be effective for severe depression, their effectiveness is limited when concerning milder forms, for which they are most often prescribed.

Another problem with these medications is that they work on principles that are far too simplistic; considering just how complex the brain is, it is unwise to assume all cases of depression and anxiety are caused by an imbalance of a single neurotransmitter. Fortunately, more modern supplements are constantly being developed that address other possible causes of these mental health problems, or work using different mechanisms. Among the most prominent of these are smart drugs. Used by many to enhance cognitive performance, some of these supplements are thought to have mood enhancing properties, and may provide a suitable alternative to traditional anti-depressants. This article was written with the purpose of detailing what some of these mood enhancing smart drugs are, and how they work.



Tianeptine is a smart drug that is often taken for non-medicinal purposes to improve mental clarity and provide a sense of well-being. It has also been used in the treatment of depressive episodes ranging from mild to severe, and has significant anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) properties. Classed as a monoamine reuptake enhancer, it works by increasing serotonin uptake in the brain. Interestingly, this is the exact opposite mechanism of many traditional anti-depressants which prevent serotonin reuptake, and researchers have yet to establish exactly why these two different mechanisms can result in many of the same effects. Tianeptine is also thought to enhance the concentration of extracellular dopamine, and modulate dopamine receptors in the brain. Dopamine is another important neurotransmitter that is partly responsible for mood regulation, and increased activity in these pathways can result in some profound mood enhancing effects. Tianeptine may also have some effect on glutamate receptors that play a vital role in reversing the impairment of neuroplasticity, which is often linked to stress.

Although it is just as effective as traditional SSRIs, Tianeptine has far fewer side effects. Its lack of adverse sedative, anticholinergic and cardiovascular effects means it is a suitable for the elderly and those who are more sensitive to psychotropic medications. It also appears not to cause any type of tolerance or addiction, and may even be useful in treating other issues like social anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorders.



Inositol is naturally occurring carbohydrate that can be found in fibre rich foods such as corn, brown rice, wheat bran and beans. It is also synthesized by the kidney in humans at a rate of a few grams per day, and is involved in many important functions from the formation of cells, to transporting fats and gene expression. Inositol is used by some as a cognitive enhancer to improve thought processing and focus, but it is also known to provide mood enhancing benefits.

Taking inositol is thought to supplement the body’s own supply of myo-inositol which may become lowered or depleted as a result of anxiety and depressive states. It is also thought to play an important role in modulating serotonergic activity by reversing the desensitisation of serotonin receptors. Inositol can also reduce symptoms of excessive fatigue characteristic of depression by improving metabolism and providing the user with more mental energy.

Preliminary results on inositol containing supplements show a great amount of promise in regard to the treatment of disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, unipolar and bipolar depression. A number of double blind studies have shown that this supplement is equally effective as SSRIs in treating OCD, and more effective than Fluvoxamine (an SSRI) when concerning anxiety. Participants that suffered from anxiety attacks saw an average reduction of 4 panic attacks per week when using Inositol, compared to just 2.4 for Fluvoxamine. Additionally, inositol showed no side effects whereas those using Fluvoxamine reported fatigue and nausea. Other research suggests that inositol contributes to a significant improvement of symptoms in depressed patients, with no adverse effects on kidney or liver function.



Originally developed in Russia during the 1960s, phenibut is a synthetic derivative of GABA, the body’s main inhibitory neurotransmitter. It is noted for being able to reduce stress and anxiety without negatively affecting cognitive function, as with some other anxiolytic supplements. In fact, quite the opposite is true as phenibut has shown to increase memory and cognitive performance.

Phenibut is essentially GABA with the addition of a phenyl ring structure that allows it to pass across the blood brain barrier. Upon entering the brain, phenibut acts as a GABA agonist meaning that it is able to stimulate receptors that would normally respond to GABA. Activation of these receptors causes hyperpolarisation (a more negative electrical potential) by allowing negative chloride ions into the neuron, and positive potassium ions out. As a result, it is less likely that neurons will fire (depolarisation) because they will have to overcome a greater negative charge. This inhibitory effect can aid in supressing the excessive neuronal activity characteristic of anxiety disorders, helping the user to feel calm and more centred.

As well as modulating GABA activity, Phenibut is also thought to have an effect on other neurotransmitters. By increasing dopamine concentrations, this supplement can help to improve mood and motivation, something that individuals suffering from depression generally lack.


Picamilon is another supplement that was developed by Russia in 1969. Like phenibut, it is also a GABA derivative, and works using an almost identical mechanism. It is however, slightly structurally different, with a niacin group instead of the phenyl ring seen with phenibut. This supplement provides similar anxiolytic benefits to phenibut through altered GABA activity, and may be useful in treating social anxiety as it lowers inhibitions.

Unlike phenibut, Picamilon also shows some mild stimulatory effects. This is due to the niacin component of the supplement that works in several ways. Niacin acts primarily as a vasodilator, increasing cerebral blood flow, and providing the user with greater mental energy to combat fatigue. Greater blood circulation may also lead to an improved ability to focus and reason. Additionally, niacin can help to detoxify the brain and is used to treat migraine.



Sulbutiamine is a synthetically derived dimer of thiamine (vitamin B1) that originated in Japan in response to widespread thiamine deficiencies. It is used by many as a cognitive enhancing compound to improve memory, concentration, and learning capacity but also has therapeutic uses. Although it is not considered to be an anxiolytic substance, it may be useful for treating certain types of anxiety disorder.

This supplement has multiple mechanisms that affect three major neurotransmitters; dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate. These neurotransmitters are responsible for regulating several types of behaviour, but perhaps the most relevant when concerning anxiety is dopamine. While some traditional anxiolytics may work by supressing excessive neuronal activity, this can sometimes lead to drowsiness. Sulbutiamine on the other hand modulates dopaminergic activity to induce a more positive mood without such tranquilising effects.

Sulbutiamine is the only medication prescribed for asthenia, a condition that is characterised by a chronic fatigue similar to that seen in depression. This condition has neurological origins, and by targeting the areas responsible for such symptoms, sulbutiamine can aid in reducing fatigue in asthenia and depression alike.



Aniracetam belongs to the racetam class of smart drugs, and is a more potent version of piracetam, one of the first smart drugs developed. It is among the most popular racetams, and second only to piracetam, perhaps due in part to its mood enhancing effects. This supplement functions as an ampakine that can activate AMPA receptors and stimulate glutamatergic activity. In addition to combating fatigue by providing increased amounts of energy, glutamate also functions as a precursor to GABA that can aid in calming an overactive anxious mind. Aniractam has also been observed to increase extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels, contributing to a better mood, and providing many of the supplement’s anxiolytic effects.

Aniracetam’s efficacy in treating anxiety and depression is supported by a wealth of experimental evidence. A study published in the journal Psychopharmacology demonstrated that in animal models, administering aniracetam increased levels of social interaction, and reduced anxiety as a result of environmental stressors. User reviews of this supplement report that it provides a feeling of calm and relaxation, allowing individuals to more effectively cope with stressful scenarios. In addition to aiding with general anxiety, aniracetam is particularly effective in combatting social anxiety. By lowering inhibitions and increasing verbal language proficiency, it has proven to be useful for those who suffer from anxiety in various social situations, from public speaking to conversational interactions.

For recommended dosages and more detailed information regarding these smart drugs, you should refer to their individual descriptions. Although most smart drugs by definition are considered to be safe for use with low toxicity and few side effects, you should always remember to thoroughly research them, and consult a qualified healthcare professional for guidance before using any of these supplements.   

Smart Drugs to Promote Restful Sleep Tue, 01 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

We all know that a good night’s sleep can help you to feel more energised and productive throughout the next day. Sleep deprivation on the other hand can take a serious toll on your mental and physical health, and while most of us experience occasional irregularities in our sleep patterns, for some, getting restful sleep is a constant battle.

As well feeling tired and less productive following a lack of sleep, sleep deprivation on a long term basis can negatively affect the function and health of your brain. Sleep is vital for maintaining the health of neurons, particularly those that are a part of memory systems. Yet our busy modern lifestyles mean that many of us do not sleep for a sufficient amount of time every night. Due to this, it is important to ensure that you get high quality sleep in order to take full advantage of what little time you may have. Luckily, there are several kinds of smart drug that can help you to achieve restful sleep on a regular basis.

As the name may suggest, smart drugs offer a wide range of cognitive enhancing benefits from improved memory and learning, to greater alertness and even enhanced physical performance. However, a number of them also aid in promoting restful sleep, whether this be by allowing you to fall asleep quicker, remain asleep, or by improving the quality of sleep. There are a number of factors that can contribute to poor sleep, and in order to address such problems, it is a good idea to identify what these may be for you personally. Some individuals are subject to high levels of stress on a daily basis and may have trouble “switching off” at night, whereas others may have no trouble falling asleep, but do not get a sufficient amount of deep sleep. This article details the most commonly experienced problems associated with poor quality sleep, and a range of smart drug supplements that may be able to help.


Falling Asleep

Many individuals have difficulties in falling asleep at night and may struggle to get comfortable due to overactive cognitive processes. Certain smart drugs are able to correct this by increasing levels of inhibitory neurotransmitters that serve to pacify overactive neurons. Among the most effective of these supplements are Picamilon and Phenibut.

Picamilon (also known as nicotinoyl GABA) is composed of Niacin and GABA, and is broken down into these constituents in the body. The GABA component of this supplement is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the body and works by counteracting excitatory action potentials (nerve impuses). This can reduce stress levels, help to switch off an overactive mind at night, and allow the user to drift off into sleep much faster.

Picamilon is sometimes stacked with other anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) smart drugs such as Phenibut. Phenibut, like Picamilon is another GABA derivative, with the addition of a phenyl ring that allows it to effectively cross the blood brain barrier. It works in much the same way, by providing increased concentrations of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Phenibut is also believed to modulate the production of dopamine, another powerful neurotransmitter that is linked to reduced levels of stress.


Staying Asleep

Another common problem associated with poor sleep is the inability to remain asleep. Waking up during the night is often problematic as it disrupts regular cycling through the various stages of sleep. This may lead to the individual not get enough of the right type of sleep, particularly at the deepest level known as REM sleep. Again, Phenibut is a good supplement to try in regards to this problem as it acts as an agonist for GABA. With relatively long lasting effects, this supplement is best taken immediately before bed in order to improve your ability to remain asleep during the night.

Aniracetam is another supplement that appears to possess sleep promoting properties. Similar to Piracetam, Aniracetam works by increasing the rate of Serotonin and Dopamine utilisation. Both of these neurotransmitters are known to play a key role in regulating movement, mood, relaxation, and most importantly sleep. Like the previously mentioned supplements, Aniracetam also exhibits anxiety and stress reducing properties, making it useful for treating depression as well as improving sleep. Reviews from users of Aniracetam suggest that it can dramatically improve your ability to remain asleep during the night. Some users also reported an increased amount of dream activity, suggesting that they were experiencing more REM sleep as their sleep cycles were no longer being disrupted.


Improving Sleep Quality

Even if you are able to fall asleep and remain asleep throughout the night, this does not necessarily mean you will get a good amount of high quality sleep. Some individuals may wake up feeling lethargic and unable to concentrate, as if they have only gotten a few minutes of sleep. This can occur if the individual is woken during the REM sleep stage, but is more likely a result of insufficient deep sleep during the course of the night. A number of smart drugs can help to promote deep sleep, allowing you to spend longer in the REM stage.

L-Theanine is a naturally occurring substance commonly found in several plant sources including Ilex guayusa and Camellia sinensis (the tree from which green tea is made), as well as mushroom species such as Boletus badius. It is structurally similar to L-Tryptophan, an important precursor to Serotonin, one of the neurotransmitters involved in regulating sleep-wake cycles. Studies have shown that L-Theanine can modulate alpha brain waves, which are associated with feelings of relaxation that can aid in getting more restful sleep. Interestingly, L-Theanine is thought to neutralise some of caffeine’s stimulant effects without impacting its ability to increase mental energy or burn greater amounts of fat.

You may also consider trying Huperzine A, a naturally occurring alkaloid found in Hyperzia moss species. It functions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and is known to significantly increase the amount of time spent in REM sleep by as much as 30%. For the best sleep promoting benefits, this supplement should be taken approximately 30 minutes before sleep. Some research also indicates that users may acquire a tolerance to this supplement meaning that it should only be used a few times per week.  

The Smart Drug Revolution: How People Are Discovering the Benefits of These Cognitive Enhancers Sun, 30 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Conventional Stimulants

For years, students and success-driven professionals alike have gotten by using traditional stimulants to study longer, increase productivity and meet deadlines. While this might be adequate for some, such productivity aids can be limited in their effectiveness and come with some potentially serious consequences. In excessive dosages even caffeine, the world’s most widely consumed stimulant, can cause a variety of uncomfortable side effects including diarrhoea, heart palpitations, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, headaches and dehydration to name but a few. Other individuals have resorted to procuring drugs like Adderall and Ritalin in their search for enhanced brain power. Again these substances are associated with a very real risk of side effects and their ambiguous legal status for non-medical use means these individuals often obtain substandard products from disreputable online pharmacies. Furthermore, the potential for abuse of such substances is huge, and this is illustrated by the recent epidemic of prescription drug abuse among America college students. Pressured to keep up with their peers academically, an alarming number of students are taking these drugs without consulting their doctor, and unfortunately this has led to the deaths of several individuals, as well as the hospitalisation of many more.


The Benefits of Nootropics

There is however an alternative; nootropics. This class of smart drugs can provide many of the same performance boosting effects of traditional stimulants, without the harmful side effects. These supplements are by definition much safer to use, do not cause dependency or addiction, and show extremely low levels of toxicity. Yet despite these benefits and the fact that the first nootropic supplement, Piracetam, was developed as early as 1964, it is only in recent years that their use has become more common with films like Limitless popularising them in the media. Although they may not give you quite the same enhancements as the fictional drug NZT-48 depicted in the film, there are many scientifically rigorous studies that prove their efficacy in enhancing aspects of cognition from memory to attention. On top of that, rather than causing damage to the brain, some nootropics appear to do quite the opposite, exhibiting neuroprotective and anti-ageing properties. It is no wonder then that an increasing number of people are trading in their energy drinks and caffeine tablets for more effective, cleaner, cognitive enhancing supplements.

Nootropics Communities

You will find no shortage of information on the internet about nootropics. The open access movement has allowed anyone with a computer to access a huge resource of scientific journal papers and educate themselves on the use of these supplements. Coupled with the spawning of entire forums and websites dedicated to nootropics, an ever increasing number of people from different professions and backgrounds are benefiting from the competitive and cognitive edge these supplements can offer. These online communities have grown large enough to attract neuroscientists, statisticians and doctors alike, all working to further the discussion about various aspects of nootropics. Such communities have become an invaluable resource for nootropic users, allowing them to share experiences and knowledge with a wide audience. Without such a platform for sharing information, it is unlikely that nootropics would have become as popular or successful as they are today, particularly as the field of medicine is more concerned with restoring individuals to baseline than enhancing them beyond it.


Who Uses Nootropics?

The use of smart drugs appears to be most prominent in academic institutions where the ability to learn and remember information efficiently is often the key to success. Students that are challenged to think creatively may also benefit from the outside of the box thinking these smart drugs can offer. The wide range of benefits associated with these supplements means that smart drugs aren’t just used by students but a whole range of professions. For example, businessmen who travel frequently use these supplements to overcome jetlag, while it also aids those in a managerial position to think with more clarity when making important decisions. Their use however, is not limited to cognitive faculties. Some athletes report that nootropics like phenylpiracetam make an effective pre-workout supplement, helping to decrease recovery time and provide the motivation to carry out challenging exercise routines. It seems that regardless of the profession, nootropics can help practically anyone to excel in whatever they choose to put their mind to.

The benefits that nootropics provide are not only useful to healthy individuals seeking a competitive edge; many of these supplements are also used therapeutically. Nootropics like Picamilon and Phenibut are known to have anxiolytic effects, and may also prove useful in decreasing the symptoms of depression. Others like tryptophan are used to treat steatohepatitis and premenstrual dysphoric disorder, while Huperzine A is used for the muscle weakening condition myasthenia gravis. Some nootropics such as the racetams are even thought to be beneficial in treating neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Piracetam in particular, as one of the first and most well researched supplements, is used for everything from treating blood clots to strokes and craniocerebral trauma.

Of course, the benefits that these supplements can offer have not gone unnoticed by larger institutions. Modafinil for example is being used extensively by government bodies the world over; it has been approved for use in U.S Air Force missions to help pilots maintain concentration, while paramedics in the state of Maryland may use the supplement to perform better after periods of limited rest. Similarly, the French foreign legion is known to use Modafinil for covert missions, and even astronauts aboard the International Space Station take nootropics to help correct disruptions to sleep cycles and reduce the likelihood of making mistakes.



With all the benefits that nootropics can provide us with, both personally and on a societal level, it may be only a matter of time before their use becomes widespread. Scientists are beginning to take notice of these brain boosting supplements, and although the field of medicine has largely ignored them, being primarily cognitive enhancers, there is no doubt that nootropics hold a great amount of potential for the future. While many still have reservations about taking something that can alter brain function, this is no different from taking multivitamins. We are simply providing the brain with what it needs to work at an optimum level.

Though once only the work of science fiction, cognitive enhancement is now very much a reality, but it’s up to you to decide whether you’ll join the many people who are now taking advantage of all the cognitive power their brains are capable of.

3 Simple Guidelines for Designing an Effective Nootropic Stack Sun, 30 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Many nootropics users find it useful to combine more than one type of supplement in what is known as a stack. This allows a user to benefit from a wider range of cognitive enhancements, potentiate the effects of individual supplements, and negate some possible side effects. There are many different types of stacks to try, but the eventual goal for many users is to tailor a combination of supplements to suit their specific needs. This article covers 3 of the most important points you should consider to get the most out of your nootropics stack.


Start Slowly and Build Your Way Up

When trying nootropics for the first time, the temptation many users have is to immediately use several types of supplement all at once. After all it seems only logical that taking lots of different nootropic supplements will result in a wide variety of benefits. While this is true to some extent, using multiple nootropics as a beginner is highly advised against for several reasons. Firstly, you will not yet be aware of how your body will react to each of these substances. Although nootropics are generally considered to be safe when guidelines and dosages are followed correctly, there is a chance that you may have an adverse reaction. This risk is likely to increase in new users with multiple nootropics as your body is not yet used to these substances, and will take some time to adjust.

Secondly, if you’ve taken several supplements, there will be no way to distinguish which supplement is responsible for the various effects that you are experiencing, desired or otherwise. This can be problematic, particularly when considering the effects of some nootropics are quite similar to one another. Additionally, it may be the case that you overestimate dosages and use far more supplements than your body actually needs to obtain the desired level of cognitive enhancement. While this may not pose any problems for some, it is at very least likely to be wasteful and potentially expensive depending on the price of your chosen nootropic.

Although it may be time consuming and you may not see cognitive enhancements immediately, the best course of action is to try each nootropic individually, starting on a low dosage before increasing it slowly and incrementally. This will allow you to discern the effects of each individual supplement, and find the ideal dosage level for you. Once you are comfortable and satisfied with the effects of one supplement, you can then move on to experimenting with others. It is a good idea to keep a journal to record the effects of each supplement, allowing you can easily track your progress and give you a basis from which to design your stack.


Identify the Weakest Link

It is important to identify what you hope to acquire or change by taking nootropics for several reasons. Firstly, this gives you a goal to aim towards and something by which to measure your progress. Secondly, many areas that nootropics are designed to improve upon, are interlinked. For example, it may be the case that you suffer from problems with memory as a result of poor sleep, which is caused by overactive anxious thoughts. But which kind of supplement is it that you require; one that improves memory, one that improves sleep, or one that reduces anxiety? Only by identifying your greatest weaknesses and addressing these first will you be able to gain the most from your nootropic supplements.

Some users may be seeking general improvements to cognition, rather than having a specific target in mind. This approach is fine, but you should always be mindful of factors that can greatly influence your capacity for cognitive enhancement. For example, there is little use in taking anti-fatigue supplements during the day if you know you are not getting an adequate amount or quality of sleep to begin with. This approach would merely address the symptoms and you would be far more likely to benefit from supplements like Picamilon or Phenibut that promote restful sleep.


Use Nootropics with Different Mechanisms

Once you know which areas you want to improve, you should carefully consider the kind of nootropics to use. Generally speaking, the best approach involves selecting supplements that work using different biological mechanisms. This ensures that a wider range of benefits can be gained as opposed to obtaining limited enhancement from several similar nootropics. For example, few users are known to take multiple racetams such as Piracetam, Aniracetam and Oxiracetam as these supplements have similar molecular structures and subsequent mechanisms of action. While taking multiple racetams could possibly provide some emergent properties, far greater benefits are likely to be seen by supplementing them with a choline source in addition to more unique supplements like vinpocetine or huperzine A.

To give another example we will consider a stack for the purposes of reducing anxiety. Picamilon and Phenibut are both known for their anxiolytic effects. They are both modified versions of GABA, the only difference being that Phenibut has a phenyl ring while this is replaced by niacin in Picamlion. As a result, they have very similar properties and are not likely to provide any additional benefits when taken together. It would be much more productive to couple either Picamilon or Phenibut with another supplement like Bacopa that uses different anxiolytic and stress relieving mechanisms.

Another reason for using different classes of nootropics is that it can help to negate some of the potential side effects. For example, many racetams work by increasing activity in cholinergic pathways that are associated with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This increases the demand for the acetylcholine precursor molecule, choline. When choline depletion occurs, the result is side effects like headaches, and these effects may be more pronounced when using multiple racetams. However, by supplementing a single racetam with a high quality source of choline such as Alpha GPC or CDP choline, we can easily prevent such side effects and ensure the racetam works optimally. This also reduces the possibility of side effects from overstimulation of a particular pathway by the cumulative effect of several supplements.

Alexis Dover
What are the Benefits of Tryptophan? Sun, 30 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Tryptophan is among the 22 amino acids that can be found in the human body. It is a vital building block for the synthesis of a variety of proteins and also functions as a precursor for many biologically important molecules. It is classed an essential amino acid as it cannot be synthesized by the body, and must be obtained in our diets through protein rich foods such as eggs, fish, soyabeans and cheese. However, the amount of tryptophan in a typical diet is barely enough to meet the body’s basic requirements, let alone provide the many benefits associated with this supplement. Deficiencies in tryptophan have shown to have a wide range of negative consequences, from weight gain, stress and mood disorders, to more serious and life threatening conditions such as pellagra at the extreme end of the scale. Considering these facts, it is no wonder that many people are turning to this dietary supplement to promote higher a higher quality of sleep, improved mood, and better overall health.


How Does Tryptophan Work?

Tryptophan’s primary role in the body is to act as a precursor molecule for a range of important neurotransmitters and hormones. This is particularly relevant in the brain where it contributes to the production of serotonin, a vital neurotransmitter responsible for memory, sleep, appetite and mood to name but a few. Serotonin may then in turn be converted into melatonin that is known to regulate sleep-wake cycles and function as a powerful anti-oxidant.

The body is also known to convert tryptophan into niacin (vitamin B3). This vitamin aids in the catabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, is involved in DNA repair and cell signalling, and can improve cardiovascular health and lower cholesterol.


What are the Benefits of Tryptophan?

One of the main benefits associated with tryptophan concerns its ability to enhance serotonin production. As mentioned earlier, this neurotransmitter has a wide range of applications within the body, and a deficiency of serotonin has been linked to problems with mood such as anxiety and depression. It therefore stands to reason that regulating serotonin levels can help to ease the symptoms associated with anxiety and depression, something that can be achieved by supplementing your tryptophan intake. Tryptophan is used by many as a prescription drug and may be a more suitable natural alternative to other antidepressants, some of which come with severe side effects. However, it is also commonly used in conjunction with some types of antidepressant such as tricyclic antidepressants to help better regulate serotonin and mood levels.

Tryptophan is also helpful for weight loss. Individuals that take up weight loss diets often experience food cravings and the urge to binge eat. This is because the calorie deficits and restrictions associated with such diets may cause a drop in serotonin production. Serotonin is a natural appetite suppressant and contributes to feelings of satiety, or fullness. By using Tryptophan to enhance serotonin production, individuals will feel fuller after a meal, and are much less likely to overeat. Additionally, Niacin which is synthesized from tryptophan aids in catabolising fat and carbohydrates, leading to a greater degree of weight loss.

Another benefit of Tryptophan is that it can help improve sleep quality. It is able to do this by maintaining a relatively constant concentration of serotonin in the brain, in addition to providing an adequate amount of melatonin during the night that aids in relaxation and allows you to fall asleep with greater ease. Tryptophan is somewhat different to other precursors of serotonin such as 5-HTP as it is subject to factors that limit its rate of use. When using 5-HTP, there is little control over how elevated serotonin levels become. While this means that 5-HTP may produce more pronounced effects, it can also show more side effects when compared to tryptophan.

Tryptophan has also shown promise for a number of other therapeutic applications. It is believed to reduce inflammation associated with a type of liver diseases known as steatohepatitis. Additionally, it may be effective in negating the mood related symptoms of premenstrual dysphoria disorder, a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. Participants in this study showed a 34.5% reduction in the magnitude of negative moods when compared to a baseline.


Recommended Dosage

Like a majority of other supplements, the recommended dosage can vary greatly between individuals according to your physiology and purpose for taking the supplement. Therefore, it is important that you consult a qualified healthcare professional before using tryptophan. Most adult users, particularly those using it for depression, typically take dosages in the range of 6 to 12g in 3 to 4 equally spaced administrations throughout the day. Those under the age of 18 should consult a doctor for an ideal dosage range.


Potential Side Effects

Although tryptophan does not show any side effects when taken according to the recommended dosage and guidelines, there have been some observed side effects when concerning excessive dosages. This can include dizziness, diarrhoea, dry mouth, confusion, agitation, fever, restlessness, overactive reflexes, twitching, shaking, vomiting and headaches. If such symptoms occur, you are advised to discontinue use of the supplement immediately and begin again on a reduced dosage after symptoms have passed.

The Most Common Uses of Nootropics Fri, 28 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

The Most Common Uses of Nootropics

Nootropics have seen a lot of attention from the media in recent years and for good reason; these scientifically proven supplements can help you improve various aspects of cognition, maintain a healthy brain and fight diseases. While they are used mainly by students to help them remember and learn more efficiently, this is far from the limit of their applications. This article discusses some of the most common uses and benefits associated with these supplements.

Nootropics as a Study Aid

It is fair to assume that students constitute a majority of smart drug users. The fact that many of these supplements provide enhanced memory and learning capabilities makes them an obvious choice for improving academic performance. Unlike caffeine and other traditional stimulants, which have long since been the preferred cognitive enhancer for students trying to meet deadlines, nootropics have comparatively fewer side effects and do not show signs of tolerance. 

The racetam family of nootropics in particular has proven to be a favourite among students, perhaps as they provide the focus, attention and motivation enhancing properties required to study effectively for long periods.  Additionally, some nootropics like aniracetam have stress reducing effects which can help students cope when put under the pressures of exams and deadlines.

Nootropics for Work and Business

Businesses, no matter what they specialise in, are subject to economic fluctuations making it ever more important for market leaders to be dynamic and enterprising. This of course requires workers to be innovative and think laterally, and while some people are content to produce the same amount and standard of work, others strive to obtain promotions, earn more money and achieve greater success. But what if you don’t have the type of entrepreneurial personality needed to achieve these goals? Nootropic supplements might just be able to help you.

These supplements have long since been providing business executives with the cognitive edge they need to stay ahead of the competition. Supplements like phenylpiracetam allow the user to think more clearly and logically, a trait that is useful when making critical decisions. This supplement also help users to stay focused on tasks for long periods of time without experiencing the fatigue normally associated with prolonged mental exertion. Businessmen who travel regularly also use nootropic supplements to negate the effects of jetlag, allowing them to stay focused and alert for important meetings.

Nootropics for Social Acuity

Some individual also utilise nootropic supplements in social situations. How we interact with other individuals in our social circles can have a dramatic influence on the quality of our lives, whether this is trying to impress your significant other’s parents, conversing with a potential employer, or having an intellectual conversation with friends. Unfortunately not all of us are born as natural socialites and other factors like poor mood and social anxiety can make successful interactions even harder. Nootropics however can help you overcome some of these obstacles. 

Nootropic supplements with anxiolytic effects can counteract social anxiety and give the user more confidence. Others improve verbal language skills, and though they may not necessarily be anxiolytic, if a user feels they can communicate more effectively, they may naturally feel more confident. The ability to think clearly and logically also helps us to better understand those around us, and how to act appropriately, while the enhanced memory that these supplements offer can also be useful to those who forget names and faces easily.

Nootropics for Health

The term nootropics was first coined by Dr. Corneliu Giurgea who stated that for a substance to be considered a nootropic, it must offer protection from chemical or physical damage. This of course means most nootropics impart some kind of health benefit and they achieve this with various different mechanisms. For example, some nootropics function as powerful antioxidants that are capable of neutralising damaging free radicals. Free radicals are molecules with an unpaired electron in their outer atomic shell which makes them highly unstable and reactive. These free radicals can steal electrons from molecules in surrounding biological structures, causing oxidative stress. A number of nootropics including Ginko Biloba, L-Theanine and many of the racetams neutralise free radicals by losing electrons to them, without becoming free radicals themselves. 

Other nootropics such as DMAE and centrophenoxine can help to reduce the accumulation of toxins like the metabolic waste product lipofuscin. This granular pigment is produced by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and is implicated as a causal factor in lysosomal diseases, chronic obstructive problems and neurological defects.

Some nootropics like Noopept are even known to increase the expression of genes associated with the production of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NFG). These two proteins encourage the survival, growth and differentiation of neurons, and are intimately linked to synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, low levels of BDNF have been linked to neurodegenerative conditions, so taking nootropics may reduce your chances of developing Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. 


People all over the world from athletes to astronauts are using nootropics to become more intelligent, productive and healthier. The applications listed here are only a few of the ways that nootropics are currently being used, and with new varieties being researched and produced all the time, the applications for these all-purpose supplements will only grow in number. So why not check out our site and see for yourself if nootropics can aid you in bettering your brain, or even your life. After all, you have nothing to lose and potentially everything to gain.

Nootropics To Fight Disease Mon, 24 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.


Groundbreaking discoveries over the past 20 years have led to a staggeringly complex understanding in the field of neuropharmacology. Now with targeted therapies focusing on precise neurotransmitters systems and well understood receptor subgroups, many types of neurological disease are becoming treatable and even curable. Huge sums of money have been spent by large pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs to help, prevent and even reverse the effects of neurodegenerative disorders. Due to neurological degeneration being so prevalent in elderly populations, and the life expectancy steadily climbing, it is no wonder that large pharma companies want to cash in on this expanding medicinal market. This is great news for those who suffer from these types of diseases, but not great news for those who wish to improve their mind or even supplement themselves to help prevent the inevitable future onset of neurodegerative disorders.

The main problem is the general lack of funding and disregard for preventative medicine or even brain boosting supplementation. The general consensus in medicine is to research methods of curing people who have some form of disease or illness. It is extremely rare for funding to be given for research on already healthy individuals, as medicine to recognise the need to help people be smarter. This, unfortunately, comes down to the fact that pharma companies don't profit so much of this type of medicine, as it is not going to be prescribed and so would not see so many sales. The only place where we do see funding and research for nootropics is in the military, as governments want their soldiers to be the best!

In many neurological problems there is often an imbalance of neurotransmitters, receptors and neurons, leading to a general decline in cognition. This has led to successful nootropic compounds which have been proven to improve memory, increase attention, and even to prevent the further death of neurons in diseases such as Alzheimer's and other forms of senile dementia. The degeneration of the brain is commonly caused by the irreversible death of neurons. Even in healthy individuals, neurons die constantly and this is why elderly people will to some extent suffer from diminished brain function as they get older.

Racetam's are a very special group of compounds which have been subject to a steady flow of interest and research. Back in the 60's scientists discovered Piracetam, leading to the term "Nootropic" being coined. Piracetam was not only shown to be highly effective as a treatment for restoring, memory and cognitive performance, but was also found to be extremely safe and non-toxic. The next 50 years has led to other interesting Racetam nootropics such as Oxiracetam, Aniracetam,. Nefiracetam, Pramiracetam, Phenylpiracetam and although not strictly a Racetam – Noopept. These Recetam compounds have all been scientifically proven to help those with neurodegenerative disorders, and even stimulate neurons to re-grow. Piracetam has been a prescription medication for the treatment of Alzeihmer's for some years now. These same compounds have even been shown to have the exact same effect in completely healthy individuals, its just they are not actively sold for this purpose. Noopept is a new nootropic supplement which has some unique properties and a very strong potential as one the most potent and powerful nootropics.

Noopept - The Latest Nootropic Mon, 24 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

One important flagship Nootropic is Noopept. A team funded by Russian pharmaceutical company JSC LEKKO, began studies by simulating brain injury in the laboratory. This allowed scientists to effectively tests different compounds to determine their use at combating neuronal death. One method adopted, involved starving a brain of oxygen, and testing different compounds efficacy at restoring or preventing brain damage. After extensive trial, scientists successfully identified a compound called Noopept which they developed and subsequently had licensed as a nootropic treatment for alcohol induced brain damage. When rats where starved of oxygen, the neuronal death was significantly reduced when Noopept was administered. It was found that Noopept possessed neuro-protective properties in addition to the usual cognition enhancing properties of a nootropic Racetam compound. Furthermore, Noopept could be seen to actually stimulate neurons to re-grow via expression of NGF and BDNF, which is a huge breakthrough as this can reverse the effects of brain damage and could even help those with severed spinal cords to walk again.

Although the focus of these Racetam nootropics is on treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, in many cases, the exact same beneficial effects apply to completely healthy humans, allowing cognition to be enhanced further than was ever possible. The reason this is not widely publicised is because many people have the idea that we should not be allowed to improve ourselves beyond normal function, this idea is further supported by the general lack of funding and interest into nootropic use in the healthy.  

Negative side effects are the first concern of both the consumer and the pharmaceutical companies. Many scientists regard the Racetam family of nootropics to be "safe drugs” with extremely low instances of adverse effects. Moreover, many nootropics have the ability to actually protect the brain from future cell death, and can even stimulate neuronal re-growth as seen with Noopept. Out of the few identified side effects, most are simply mild headaches which actually stop once the drug is discontinued. In fact, most of the mild headache caused by nootropics is simply down to an inadequate amount of Choline in the body due to poor diet. As many Racetam nootropics act around acetylcholine, it is as simple as supplementing yourself with a source of Choline such as Citicholine.

I share the common, unheard opinion that many nootropics supplements will actually become fully mainstream in the years to come. People are slowly realising the ignorance and stupidity of those who do  not to take something which can improve thier mental function without any downsides. In fact, I would go so far as to say it is inhumane to deprive our infinitely intelligent species of a tool with so many benefits to society.

Why Take Nootropics? Mon, 24 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Success in the modern world is a very competitive and fast paced race. There is an increasing need to achieve more and increase your chances of winning. Thousand of people just like you, trying desperately to get where you want to be. Those that have caught on quickly and discovered the new age of brain power will have a somewhat unfair advantage over the rest. By reading this you have already put yourself ahead until the rest catch up. While others choose to live in an old traditional world of consuming large quantities of caffeine, there are some who have seen the light and are actively benefiting from safe cognitive enhancement.

Being smarter is an attribute most would delightfully embrace. There are people that actively try to achieve this and those that don’t. Many people will go through life wishing they had the mental edge to gain that promotion, or do well in that exam. People often say they don’t want to take something that will change their brain function in fear of damaging themselves. However, if you were to ask "would you take something that makes you more intelligent, if it was not physically addictive, and had no negative side effects?” the answer is a unanimous "of course I would!”. Although not widely accepted yet, this is now the reality.

An easy way to think about everyday nootropic use is by comparing them to the most commonly consumed nootropic....Caffeine. Soon the world will accept the underlying fact that many modern nootropics are simply the natural evolution from caffeine to something safer, more effective and non-addictive.

Caffeine is a great example to compare against. Caffeine only stimulates the brain, while also making you go to the toilet more frequently, raising your blood pressure, giving you the jitters and making you physically dependent  On the other hand, nootropics can actively improve memory, focus and attention, while also protecting your neurons, lowering your chances of developing disorders such as Alzheimer's and schizophrenia, and can even slow the effects of ageing, while being well tolerated and generally non-addictive. Don't you think it's time for a change?

Nootropics are available in many different forms. There are both synthetic and plant derived supplements. In my opinion the synthetic nootropic supplements are more refined and tailored to fit the exact needs of a high achieving individual. However, the herbal products often offer a mixture of extracts and alkaloids which work in synergy to give a unique nootropic effect. Each have a very interesting and specific mechanism of action, the more we learn of the neurological mechanisms, the better we can design the nootropics.

How Do They Work? Mon, 24 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

There are many different nootropics, explaining the mechanism of action of each individual one would be a very long article. However, there are some general pathways that should be described. Some mechanisms are so new and exciting that they are not yet fully understood, but offer a fascinating area of research for scientists as the future capabilities are literally unlimited.

1. Directly modulating neurotransmitters: as discussed earlier, the brain is made up of a huge network of neurons with all signals being mediated through synapses between different neurons. Neurotransmitters determine the output of that particular pathway e.g. mood, attention, appetite, sleep, arousal, memory etc. By changing the amount of a particular neurotransmitter, the action of that pathway can be excited or inhibited. So for instance, certain nootropics can act to increase the amount of Glutamate (an excitatory neurotransmitter), meaning more of it can bind to receptors and so a large excitatory signal can propagate. This causes a general stimulatory effect around the body.

One of the more interesting mechanisms is that of the Ampakines. Many Racetams are thought to act upon the AMPA receptors; Glutamate is one neurotransmitter which activates the AMPA receptor. Stimulation of the AMPA receptor is known to increase alertness and attention span as well as facilitate learning and memory. By simulating Glutamate we are creating our own versions of neurotransmitters able to bind and activate AMPA receptors, with further tweaking we can determine the strength and duration of signal. We have also found nootropics which modulate the receptor, meaning that we can effectively determine how sensitive the AMPA receptor is to our bodies own natural Glutamate, this is much more effective as we do not need to create anything that binds directly to the receptor, we simply tell the receptors how sensitive they should be to endogenous Glutamate.

Ampakines are so effective and well tolerated by the body that they are currently being investigated by the US military funded by DARPA. Modafinil is actually currently being used by the US military to increase the effectiveness of their soldiers. Ampakines unlike earlier stimulants (caffeine, Ritalin and amphetamines) do not have the common unwanted side effects such as addiction and sleeplessness.

2. Increase oxygen supply: Each cell in our body requires a constant supply of Oxygen, this is especially true for the high work rate of neuronal cells. As discussed previously, when neurons are deprived of oxygen (hypoxia), even for a short time, they begin to die. Neuronal death is essentially brain damage, and as little as 7 minutes hypoxia can kill a human. When the brain is starved of oxygen partially, the symptoms include, confusion, lack of attention, concentration and coordination. New thought processes are harder to complete and memories harder to be processed and stored. The complete opposite is true when there is excess oxygen supply to the brain. For this reason some nootropics actively cause a neuronal abundance of oxygen to all parts of the brain, allowing for a global increase in general cognition.

3. Re-growing neurons and neuron protection: The study of neurons re-growing has been under much debate until relatively recently. The consensus has been that neurons do not re-grow and form new links. This is why it is almost impossible to cure someone of neuronal death such as brain damage. It is perfectly natural for neurons to die, and as more die during old age you essentially become senile, with a deterioration of mental function. However, recently there have been huge advances in both genetics and neuropharmacology as scientists have successfully shown the re-growth of neurons.

One breakthrough has shown that the expression of certain genes can stimulate neurons to re-grow, and can even stimulate neighboring neurons to fill the gap.

Certain nootropics have been shown to have this amazing quality, and this is one of the amazing properties owing to their huge success in treating and reversing the symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease.

What are Nootropics? Mon, 24 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Nootropics are cognitive enhancers that are neuroprotective or extremely non-toxic.

Nootropic Criteria:

1. Enhances learning and memory.

2. Enhance learned behaviours under conditions which are known to disrupt them. Example: hypoxia (oxygen deficiency).

3. Protect the brain from physical or chemical injury.

4. Enhance the tonic cortical/subcortical control mechanisms

5. Exhibit few side effects and extremely low toxicity, while lacking the pharmacology of typical psychotropic drugs (motor stimulation, sedation etc.).
Nootropics are general herbal supplements and compounds which have the ability to improve general brain cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation and focus. It comes as no surprise that these supplements sometimes referred to as "smart drugs” are becoming a daily regimen for high achieving professionals around the world. Nootropics can come in the form of herbal extracts or specifically designed nutritional compounds. Some of the more popular nootropics were first identified as they were found to aid in the recovery of people with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and brain damage.

It may seem a bit too good to be true, but this is a perfectly natural reaction people adopt when presented with the unbelievable facts. The common question is "Why isn’t everyone taking it?!”, the simple truth is that people are beginning to come around recently, and there is a rapidly growing subculture of regular nootropic users who are almost reluctant to let on, as they see it as a form of cheating. We understand that being skeptical about anything you ingest is a healthy reaction, but we make no false claims here and unlike other nutritional supplement vendors, we promote and advise people to go away and do their own research. As an added benefit for those who wish to do some further reading, we have actually cited as much of our information as possible, so you can find links to the genuine research for a particular finding.

Basic principles of brain function are an essential part of fully understanding how and why nootropics are so successful at improving the brains general function.The brain consists of a network of neurons, all interconnected and electrically charged. In a healthy human there maybe be anywhere from 20 billion to a trillion individual neurons. These neurons are the cables used to transfer information to the rest of the body. Almost all processes within the body begin with information being sent down a neuron to trigger a response. Each neuron is the size of a cell, with each one connecting to another to form an intricate web of connected neurons. The neurons are not physically attached to one another, instead they are connected via a small gap junction between the head of one and the tail of another. The small gap between neurons are called synapses, information travels across these synapses to continue the signal to the target area

Synapses are where chemicals are diffused across from one neuron to the other, the sending neuron releases chemicals which then bind to receptors on the receiving neuron. In the image to the left you can see sending neuron at the top and the receiving neuron at the bottom. The receiving neuron has receptor embedded within its membrane, and the sending neuron will release chemicals know as neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters diffuse across the gap and bind to specific receptors on the receiving neuron. Once the neurotrasmitter has bound it will trigger a response in the receiving neuron. This response can is different for each neuron, neurotransmitter and receptor. The receiving receptor will then either either continue to message by releasing more neurotransmitters to the next neuron, stop the signal all together, or actually cause a response in an effectpr cell if it is the terminal neuron on the pathway.

In summary, synapses connect neurons, chemicals known as neurons pass across and bind to receptors. This can cause a response in the receiving neuron which is usually an electrical potential firing down the neuron, causing more neurotransmitters to be released, thus continuing the signal. Sometimes the signal may be stopped, sometimes the signal may be at the end of the pathway and cause a response. Each response is dependent on the neurotransmitter released, the action it has upon the receptor, the duration, concentration and binding type within the synapse.

Modern drug design, is based on this mechanism, as it is the fundamental pathway for almost all physiological responses in the body. There are many different chemicals which mediate the transmission of all kinds of signals being passed down a neuronal network. Receptor based medicine has been the focus of new drug design as the ability to control the body often comes down to directly effecting the receptors or the body’s own neurotransmitters.

An example pathway, your body releases norepinephrine (adrenalin) in response to certain environmental cues such as fear, this neurotransmitter then binds to its receptor like a lock in a key, causing an excitatory signal to be fired down to the end of the neuron where this process happens again. As this excitatory signal passes down millions of neurons, eventually the signal reaches one or several targets causing the desired physiological response. The response can be huge, and with adrenaline the body undergoes a fear response with, dilated pupils, loss of appetite, increased heart rate, heightened awareness and reaction times. This is just one example, as the body can change all bodily functions based on environmental stimulus like fear OR clever drug design like with nootropics.

As a brief example of the opposing reaction; when the brain is subjected to ethanol, it enters the cortex and begins to increase levels of the neurotransmitter known as GABA, while also lowering concentrations of Glutamine. The change in concentration of these neurotransmitters causes inhibitory signals to propagate, leading to general fatigue state, reducing the ability to reason, concentrate and stay awake.

Memory, focus, appetite, mood and attention to name a few are all subject to change based on the mechanism outlined above, meaning that in recent years we have opened the possibility to change these states as we please. However, previous drug design was based on naive principles, leading to the excessive use of and exhaustion of neurotransmitters and receptors. This gives rise to withdrawal, dependence and negative side effects. Many people are simply stuck in this mind set, believing that all drugs with positive mental effects have this unavoidable downside. However, in recent years we have gained a much fuller understanding of these negative side effects, allowing a more refined approach modulating and changing the brains functions to suite our needs, without massive adverse effects

Nootropics, may work as modulators of the memory, growth and stimulatory systems often by indirectly activating them using the body's own neurotransmitters. Alternatively, some may work against the inhibitory systems to prevent fatigue. Some even work specifically on the memory systems to enhance its function and ability to retain information.

Getting Started Mon, 24 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

By now you should have gained some working knowledge of nootropics and their qualities and benefits. The first thing to point out is that many nootropics are not going to suddenly make you super-human. After watching the film "limitless” many people got the wrong dramatized view of cognition enhancing drugs, thinking that you can take a pill and suddenly turn your life around. This is simply not true, and despite the constant search for the drug named in the film as "NZT-482", it is a fictional drug which has never existed.

You may feel some nootropics begin working straight away, some will take days and some will take weeks. Many of the studies proving their effectiveness have shown this after weeks of use. It is true in some respects "good things come to those who wait”. Most nootropics will be a subtle change, unlike classic stimulants that cause a "rush” and a physical feeling of stimulation, nootropics work in the background on your brains function, this trait allows them to be non-addictive and have almost no negative side effects. Bear in mind that some nootropics do work fairly quickly, this will be detailed in each product description.

Another very important point to make is that everyone is genetically different, and until everyone's genome is individually sequenced we will never know someones reaction to a particular substance. This holds true for every substance you put in your body. For this reasons, there will always be a small percentage of people who are "non-responders" to certain nootropics, although rare, there is a 1-2% chance that you will not respond. This could be because of many factors, one of the most common being the lack of a certain enzyme needed to metabolize the nootropic so it can be used. This happens with many substance, for instance, 10% of European Caucasians will not benefit from the popular painkiller Codeine due to an enzyme mutation. There are a small sub-group of non-responders, and they seem to find a lack of responce to a certain type of nootropic such as the racetam like nootropics, as these will have similar mechanism of action. If you think you may fall into this group, it is advised to search "nootropic non-responder" to find others who have discovered nootropics which work as an alternative. A great place to search for individual product non-responders is the forum, simply use their search option in the top right of the screen to find the nootropic you are not responding to.

To begin with, start using one nootropic at a time, although some nootropics are best taken as a stack, it is recommended to try them on their own fist to get a feel for it. Start low and build your dose up to the recommended dose. Remember, some people will need more and some people less, so experiment until you find the dose that is just right for you. Eventually, once you are happy with the effects, you may begin experimenting with other nootropics to see which one best suits your needs. Although it may not be obvious at first, there are subtle differences even between closely related nootropics. Please bear in mind that with some people and specific nootropics, the initial few days may leave a slight feeling of brain fog and lethargy, although rare, this is just the brains way of becoming accustomed the the nootropics action, and it will pass.

Eventually you will find a nootropic or nootropic stack which is perfect for your individual needs. You will benefit from sharp focus, enhanced working and spatial memory, improved recall, heightened attention, stimulation and neuroprotection for the future. Don't hold yourself back. Read, listen, research and find out for yourself. Extending your limits is now possible it's just you haven't begun yet...