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The Smart Drug Revolution: How People Are Discovering the Benefits of These Cognitive Enhancers

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Conventional Stimulants

For years, students and success-driven professionals alike have gotten by using traditional stimulants to study longer, increase productivity and meet deadlines. While this might be adequate for some, such productivity aids can be limited in their effectiveness and come with some potentially serious consequences. In excessive dosages even caffeine, the world’s most widely consumed stimulant, can cause a variety of uncomfortable side effects including diarrhoea, heart palpitations, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, headaches and dehydration to name but a few. Other individuals have resorted to procuring drugs like ADHD medication in their search for enhanced brain power. Again these substances are associated with a very real risk of side effects and their ambiguous legal status for non-medical use means these individuals often obtain substandard products from disreputable online pharmacies. Furthermore, the potential for abuse of such substances is huge, and this is illustrated by the recent epidemic of prescription drug abuse among America college students. Pressured to keep up with their peers academically, an alarming number of students are taking these drugs without consulting their doctor, and unfortunately this has led to the deaths of several individuals, as well as the hospitalisation of many more.

The Benefits of Nootropics

There is however an alternative; nootropics. This class of smart drugs can provide many of the same performance boosting effects of traditional stimulants, without the harmful side effects. These supplements are by definition much safer to use, do not cause dependency or addiction, and show extremely low levels of toxicity. Yet despite these benefits and the fact that the first nootropic supplement, Piracetam, was developed as early as 1964, it is only in recent years that their use has become more common with films like Limitless popularising them in the media. Although they may not give you quite the same enhancements as the fictional drug NZT-48 depicted in the film, there are many scientifically rigorous studies that prove their efficacy in enhancing aspects of cognition from memory to attention. On top of that, rather than causing damage to the brain, some nootropics appear to do quite the opposite, exhibiting neuroprotective and anti-ageing properties. It is no wonder then that an increasing number of people are trading in their energy drinks and caffeine tablets for more effective, cleaner, cognitive enhancing supplements.

Nootropics Communities

You will find no shortage of information on the internet about nootropics. The open access movement has allowed anyone with a computer to access a huge resource of scientific journal papers and educate themselves on the use of these supplements. Coupled with the spawning of entire forums and websites dedicated to nootropics, an ever increasing number of people from different professions and backgrounds are benefiting from the competitive and cognitive edge these supplements can offer. These online communities have grown large enough to attract neuroscientists, statisticians and doctors alike, all working to further the discussion about various aspects of nootropics. Such communities have become an invaluable resource for nootropic users, allowing them to share experiences and knowledge with a wide audience. Without such a platform for sharing information, it is unlikely that nootropics would have become as popular or successful as they are today, particularly as the field of medicine is more concerned with restoring individuals to baseline than enhancing them beyond it.

Who Uses Nootropics?

The use of smart drugs appears to be most prominent in academic institutions where the ability to learn and remember information efficiently is often the key to success. Students that are challenged to think creatively may also benefit from the outside of the box thinking these smart drugs can offer. The wide range of benefits associated with these supplements means that smart drugs aren’t just used by students but a whole range of professions. For example, businessmen who travel frequently use these supplements to overcome jetlag, while it also aids those in a managerial position to think with more clarity when making important decisions. Their use however, is not limited to cognitive faculties. Some athletes report that nootropics like phenylpiracetam make an effective pre-workout supplement, helping to decrease recovery time and provide the motivation to carry out challenging exercise routines. It seems that regardless of the profession, nootropics can help practically anyone to excel in whatever they choose to put their mind to.

The benefits that nootropics provide are not only useful to healthy individuals seeking a competitive edge; many of these supplements are also used therapeutically. Nootropics like Picamilon and Phenibut are known to have anxiolytic effects, and may also prove useful in decreasing the symptoms of depression. Others like tryptophan are used to treat steatohepatitis and premenstrual dysphoric disorder, while Huperzine A is used for the muscle weakening condition myasthenia gravis. Some nootropics such as the racetams are even thought to be beneficial in treating neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Piracetam in particular, as one of the first and most well researched supplements, is used for everything from treating blood clots to strokes and craniocerebral trauma.

Of course, the benefits that these supplements can offer have not gone unnoticed by larger institutions. Modafinil for example is being used extensively by government bodies the world over; it has been approved for use in U.S Air Force missions to help pilots maintain concentration, while paramedics in the state of Maryland may use the supplement to perform better after periods of limited rest. Similarly, the French foreign legion is known to use Modafinil for covert missions, and even astronauts aboard the International Space Station take nootropics to help correct disruptions to sleep cycles and reduce the likelihood of making mistakes.


With all the benefits that nootropics can provide us with, both personally and on a societal level, it may be only a matter of time before their use becomes widespread. Scientists are beginning to take notice of these brain boosting supplements, and although the field of medicine has largely ignored them, being primarily cognitive enhancers, there is no doubt that nootropics hold a great amount of potential for the future. While many still have reservations about taking something that can alter brain function, this is no different from taking multivitamins. We are simply providing the brain with what it needs to work at an optimum level.

Though once only the work of science fiction, cognitive enhancement is now very much a reality, but it’s up to you to decide whether you’ll join the many people who are now taking advantage of all the cognitive power their brains are capable of.

Centrophenoxine: The Best Nootropic for Longevity?

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Centrophenoxine (also known as meclofenoxate) is among the lesser known nootropics. It is structurally similar to DMAE and classed amongst the cholinergic nootropics. Centrophenoxine is considered to be a fairly versatile nootropic, and is commonly used with other cognitive enhancing supplements to potentiate their effects. This supplement can not only improve memory function, enhance intelligence and boost mental energy, but also has a wide range of neuroprotective effects making it perhaps one of the best nootropics for promoting longevity.

brain centrophenoxineThe Benefits and Effects of Centrophenoxine

Originally developed to combat cognitive deficits associated with senility and old age, this compound is now used extensively as a cognitive enhancer. Centrophenoxine is thought to increase synaptic plasticity which may explain its effectiveness in treating age-related memory loss. However, similar enhancements to memory are also seen in healthy individuals using this supplement making it an ideal nootropic to use while studying. Centrophenoxine is able to boost intelligence by increasing long term and working memory stores, thus increasing both crystallised and fluid intelligence.

Many users also report that Centrophenoxine also provides them with stimulant like effects, increasing focus and levels of perceived mental energy. This can help to counteract the fatigue that comes with long periods of mental exertion.

Not only this, but Centrophenoxine also appears to have some neuroprotective mechanisms, protecting against the effects of brain damage caused by advancing age, drugs (including the consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol), toxins and strokes. These protective mechanisms are numerous, making Centrophenoxine perhaps one of the best nootropics for maintaining brain health.

Additionally, it has a number of clinical applications and is used alongside other forms of treatment for Alzheimer’s and dementia to improve their effectiveness. There is also on-going research into the ability of this supplement to improve mood and perhaps even treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

How Does Centrophenoxine Work?

Although the mechanisms of this supplement are still somewhat unclear, there is a general consensus amongst the scientific community that Centrophenoxine functions primarily as a cholinergic supplement. It is structurally similar to DMAE which acts as an acetylcholine precursor molecule; however Centrophenoxine is more easily absorbed by the body making it more effective. By providing more choline as a precursor, we are able to increase production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Unfortunately, a majority of the population is deficient in choline, with only 10% of people acquiring a sufficient amount of this substance from dietary sources. This is why it is often necessary to use supplements like Centrophenoxine in order to promote proper brain function. This cholinergic action also makes Centrophenoxine an ideal accompaniment to other nootropics like racetams which increase the body’s demand for such choline sources.

Synapse CentrophenoxineIncreasing acetylcholine levels is known to result in a number of benefits. Higher levels of this neurotransmitter result in greater synaptic plasticity. This refers to your brains ability to form, destroy, strengthen and weaken the links (synapses) between neurons that represent memories and information in the brain. Therefore, a brain that can perform these functions more efficiently will be able to more effectively create and store memories in both short and long term.

Many of the mechanism that contributes to improved memory also serve to enhance intelligence. Though conventionally defined by IQ, intelligence is more comprehensively represented in the idea of crystallised and fluid intelligence. Crystallised intelligence refers to the collective amount of prior knowledge we have stored in long-term memory and is what we commonly refer to as geeks. Centrophenoxine can improve our capacity of long term memory, and thus increase our crystallised intelligence. The other form of intelligence is called fluid intelligence and refers to our ability to problem solve, recognise patterns, reason and think logically. This type of intelligence is dependent on our working memory (sometimes referred to as short term memory). Again Centrophenoxine, with consistent use, can increase this type of memory. As a result, we will be able to simultaneously manipulate more information which represents a higher level of fluid intelligence.

As well as enhancing cognition, this supplement has a number of mechanisms that can protect against various forms of damage. Under normal conditions, cells in our bodies produce molecules known as free-radicals. These free-radicals contain an unpaired electron in their outer atomic shell which makes the molecule highly reactive and unstable. When such molecules react with biological structures they cause oxidative damage and may in turn produce additional free-radicals. Centrophenoxine, along with other antioxidants, work by losing an electron to free-radicals while still remaining stable, and in doing so negate the potential for oxidative damage.

Prolonged use of Centrophenoxine has also shown to protect against certain toxins. As we age, the efficiency with which the body can remove waste products like lipofuscin and excess potassium is decreased. Given time, these substances can accumulate and impair brain function, and many researchers consider this a causal factor in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s. Using Centrophenoxine can significantly reduce the build-up of such substances, thus increasing the brains electrical conductivity. As a result the brain functions more efficiently and is less likely to succumb to cognitive deficits.

Centrophenoxine possesses an additional mechanism that may counteract the symptoms of age-related cognitive decline. This concerns increasing the production of a substance known as ribonucleic compounds (RNA). RNA is involved in the process of gene expression where the genetic code from DNA molecules is used to produce the various proteins that they code for. These proteins can be anything from haemoglobin in blood, to muscle fibres and enzymes. By increasing the amount of RNA present we can effectively increase protein turnover, and it is this mechanisms that is responsible for Centrophenoxine’s anti-ageing effects.

Centrophenoxine side effectsThe recommended dosage for Centrophenoxine is in the range of 500 to 1,000mg although those using this supplement for its anti-ageing properties may require significantly more. This dosage can be taken in one administration or divided into several. As this supplement increases alertness and mental energy, it is advised to use it early in the day to avoid disruptions to sleep patterns. As with any supplement, and particularly if you plan to use higher dosages for anti-ageing purposes, you should consult a doctor before using Centrophenoxine.

Potential Side Effects of Centrophenoxine 

Centrophenoxine like most nootropics is considered to be safe and well tolerated, with a very low level of toxicity when recommended dosages and guidelines are followed. However, there are a few side effects that should be noted, although these generally only occur with excessive dosages. Though there are currently no known interactions with other types of medication, those using any type of prescription should consult their doctor before using Centrophenoxine. Common side effects that have been reported include nausea, headaches, dizziness, gastrointestinal distress, irritability and jaw clenching. If any of these symptoms occur you are advised to stop using Centrophenoxine immediately and consult a doctor for further advice.

Huperzine A

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Huperzine A is a naturally occurring alkaloid that is found in the Chinese club moss plant, Huperzia serrata. This nootropic compound provides a range of cognitive enhancements most notably benefiting memory performance, although improvements can also be seen in concentration and data processing skills. This supplement also has therapeutic applications, and is used in the treatment of neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s, as well as age related memory impairment.

Effects and Uses of Huperzine A

Huperzine A functions primarily as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. This means that it is able to inhibit the action of enzymes that are usually responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. As you may be aware, acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter used extensively in the body’s various nerve systems, from activating muscles in the peripheral nervous system, to neuromodulation, plasticity, arousal and reward in the central nervous system. By increasing the concentration of acetylcholine in our bodies, we can gain a wide variety of beneficial effects. In terms of cognitive enhancement, the most pronounced effects we see concerns an increase in the ability to pay attention, as well as increased memory consolidation, retention and recall. Synaptic plasticity also appears to improve, allowing the user to learn, adapt and store new information more effectively. This mechanism of action is not dissimilar from other drugs used to treat Alzheimer’s and it has been suggested that Huperzine A may exhibit neuroprotective effects against cognitive decline, senile dementia, and other neurodegenerative conditions.

Huperzine A may provide additional protection as an NMDA receptor antagonist. In layman’s terms, this means that it is able to reduce or inhibit the action of NMDA receptors. This mechanism has been implicated as a possible treatment for conditions involving excitotoxicity, where neurons become damaged due to excessive levels of neurotransmitter and subsequent activity. Such conditions include neurodegenerative disorders like Huntington’s, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, as well as strokes and physical brain trauma. Although more thorough research is required, preliminary tests into Huperzine A’s effect on Alzheimer’s patients demonstrate a significant improvement in cognitive skills and memory function after 4 to 8 weeks of use, whereas similar results are seen in multi-infarct dementia after just 2 to 4 weeks.

Other research into Huperzine A shows that it can offer protection against organophosphate poisoning that affects the nervous system. The study utilised Soman (O- Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) a type of nerve gas considered to be a chemical weapon that works by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. If Huperzine A is administered prior to exposure, it appears to temporarily sequester the binding sites of these enzymes, preventing damage from soman.

Huperzine A is used to treat a muscle weakening condition known as myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis is characterised by a muscles that tire and weaken, even after a short period of exertion. This condition is caused by the body’s autoimmune response mistaking acetylcholine receptors for foreign bodies, causing them to be destroyed. It appears that using Huperzine A to increase the concentration of acetylcholine in affected areas compensates for the lack of receptor sites, and results in a lessening of muscular fatigue symptoms.

Recommended Dosage

Dosage and methods of administering Huperzine A differ according to the purpose for which it is taken. Those suffering from myasthenia gravis can receive daily injections from a qualified healthcare provider. For treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s and multi-infarct dementia, patients will benefit more from oral administrations ranging between 50 to 200mcg twice daily. A lower dosage of 30mcg is suggested for a sufferer of senile dementia while around 100mcg is suitable for adolescent users.

Although users taking Huperzine A for cognitive enhancing benefits may notice the effects of this supplement when used alone, it is likely to be far more effective as part of a smart drug stack. Users have found this supplement to be ideal for combination with various racetams such as Piracetam and Aniracetam, though it also works equally well with Noopept. As always, it is advised that you consult a qualified healthcare professional to determine which supplements are safe to incorporate into your own personal cognitive enhancing regimen.

Potential Side Effects

Huperzine A is considered to be generally quite safe and does not carry a serious risk of negative side effects. However, as with any supplement, there have been some observed side effects that should be noted. Although some users may not experience any side effects, and symptoms are usually mild, Huperzine A has been known to cause vomiting, diarrhoea, sweating, blurred vision, muscle twitches, restlessness, loss of appetite, slurred speech and increased salivation. There are also certain circumstances under which Huperzine A should not be taken. For example, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Huperzine due to a lack of research and understanding of effects within this group. Additionally, those with cardiovascular diseases should use Huperzine A with caution as it is known to decrease heart rate. Those with brachycardia should be particularly cautious and should consult their doctor before using this supplement. Similarly, sufferers of epilepsy should avoid Huperzine A due to the possibility that it may worsen this condition.

Smart Drugs to Promote Restful Sleep

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

We all know that a good night’s sleep can help you to feel more energised and productive throughout the next day. Sleep deprivation on the other hand can take a serious toll on your mental and physical health, and while most of us experience occasional irregularities in our sleep patterns, for some, getting restful sleep is a constant battle.

As well feeling tired and less productive following a lack of sleep, sleep deprivation on a long term basis can negatively affect the function and health of your brain. Sleep is vital for maintaining the health of neurons, particularly those that are a part of memory systems. Yet our busy modern lifestyles mean that many of us do not sleep for a sufficient amount of time every night. Due to this, it is important to ensure that you get high quality sleep in order to take full advantage of what little time you may have. Luckily, there are several kinds of smart drug that can help you to achieve restful sleep on a regular basis.

As the name may suggest, smart drugs offer a wide range of cognitive enhancing benefits from improved memory and learning, to greater alertness and even enhanced physical performance. However, a number of them also aid in promoting restful sleep, whether this be by allowing you to fall asleep quicker, remain asleep, or by improving the quality of sleep. There are a number of factors that can contribute to poor sleep, and in order to address such problems, it is a good idea to identify what these may be for you personally. Some individuals are subject to high levels of stress on a daily basis and may have trouble “switching off” at night, whereas others may have no trouble falling asleep, but do not get a sufficient amount of deep sleep. This article details the most commonly experienced problems associated with poor quality sleep, and a range of smart drug supplements that may be able to help.

Falling Asleep

Many individuals have difficulties in falling asleep at night and may struggle to get comfortable due to overactive cognitive processes. Certain smart drugs are able to correct this by increasing levels of inhibitory neurotransmitters that serve to pacify overactive neurons. Among the most effective of these supplements are Picamilon and Phenibut.

Picamilon (also known as nicotinoyl GABA) is composed of Niacin and GABA, and is broken down into these constituents in the body. The GABA component of this supplement is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the body and works by counteracting excitatory action potentials (nerve impuses). This can reduce stress levels, help to switch off an overactive mind at night, and allow the user to drift off into sleep much faster.

Picamilon is sometimes stacked with other anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) smart drugs such as Phenibut. Phenibut, like Picamilon is another GABA derivative, with the addition of a phenyl ring that allows it to effectively cross the blood brain barrier. It works in much the same way, by providing increased concentrations of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Phenibut is also believed to modulate the production of dopamine, another powerful neurotransmitter that is linked to reduced levels of stress.

Staying Asleep

Another common problem associated with poor sleep is the inability to remain asleep. Waking up during the night is often problematic as it disrupts regular cycling through the various stages of sleep. This may lead to the individual not get enough of the right type of sleep, particularly at the deepest level known as REM sleep. Again, Phenibut is a good supplement to try in regards to this problem as it acts as an agonist for GABA. With relatively long lasting effects, this supplement is best taken immediately before bed in order to improve your ability to remain asleep during the night.

Aniracetam is another supplement that appears to possess sleep promoting properties. Similar to Piracetam, Aniracetam works by increasing the rate of Serotonin and Dopamine utilisation. Both of these neurotransmitters are known to play a key role in regulating movement, mood, relaxation, and most importantly sleep. Like the previously mentioned supplements, Aniracetam also exhibits anxiety and stress reducing properties, making it useful for treating depression as well as improving sleep. Reviews from users of Aniracetam suggest that it can dramatically improve your ability to remain asleep during the night. Some users also reported an increased amount of dream activity, suggesting that they were experiencing more REM sleep as their sleep cycles were no longer being disrupted.

Improving Sleep Quality

Even if you are able to fall asleep and remain asleep throughout the night, this does not necessarily mean you will get a good amount of high quality sleep. Some individuals may wake up feeling lethargic and unable to concentrate, as if they have only gotten a few minutes of sleep. This can occur if the individual is woken during the REM sleep stage, but is more likely a result of insufficient deep sleep during the course of the night. A number of smart drugs can help to promote deep sleep, allowing you to spend longer in the REM stage.

L-Theanine is a naturally occurring substance commonly found in several plant sources including Ilex guayusa and Camellia sinensis (the tree from which green tea is made), as well as mushroom species such as Boletus badius. It is structurally similar to L-Tryptophan, an important precursor to Serotonin, one of the neurotransmitters involved in regulating sleep-wake cycles. Studies have shown that L-Theanine can modulate alpha brain waves, which are associated with feelings of relaxation that can aid in getting more restful sleep. Interestingly, L-Theanine is thought to neutralise some of caffeine’s stimulant effects without impacting its ability to increase mental energy or burn greater amounts of fat.

You may also consider trying Huperzine A, a naturally occurring alkaloid found in Hyperzia moss species. It functions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and is known to significantly increase the amount of time spent in REM sleep by as much as 30%. For the best sleep promoting benefits, this supplement should be taken approximately 30 minutes before sleep. Some research also indicates that users may acquire a tolerance to this supplement meaning that it should only be used a few times per week.

Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Smart Drugs

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Our brains are constantly ageing. Even through normal function, the neurons that make up your brain are subject to the build-up toxins, physical damage, chemical changes and premature death. Over time these factors can lead to a dramatic decline in brain function, and while the effects of ageing on the body are normally quite clear, damage to the brain is not always so evident. As these changes are more difficult to detect, we are far less likely to take preventative measures before the damage becomes irreversible.

In the UK it is estimated that some 800,000 people are currently suffering from some form of neurocognitive disorder, and the risk of developing such conditions rises dramatically beyond the age of 65. Despite years of dedicated research, how the brain functions is still largely a mystery, and scientists have not yet been able to develop a cure for these conditions. Unfortunately it seems that unless we take preventative measures now, we are more than likely to develop some form of cognitive impairment as we grow older.

There are however, number of supplements that are designed to slow the ageing process, and even repair the brain. These supplements, often termed smart drugs, have many different purposes, and while they can protect the brain, they also offer a range of cognitive enhancements from improved memory to greater alertness and concentration. These supplements are so effective in terms of neuroprotection and enhancing cognition, that they are being researched as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. To understand how we can protect the brain and the best types of smart drug for this, it is a good idea to first examine what forms of damage it could be subjected to.

Accumulation of Toxins

Metabolic processes in the body produce a number of waste products which your body is constantly trying to dispose of. Over time, or perhaps due to reduced disposal efficiency, these waste products can accumulate and begin to cause problems. One such substance is lipofuscin, a granular pigment that is produced during the oxidation of unsaturated fatty compoundss. Lipofuscin is found in many parts of the body including vital organs (liver, heart and kidneys), the retina, and nerve cells. Excess amounts of this toxin have been implicated as a major risk factor for degenerative eye diseases, chronic obstructive problems and lysosomal diseases, as well as neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s and Parkinsons.

Fortunately several smart drugs are known to significantly decrease the accumulation of lipofuscin, particularly in the brain. This includes Centrophenoxine, DMAE, Ginkgo Biloba extracts and Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Such supplements are usually taken to reduce the appearance of age or liver spots, although they work equally as well for removing lipofuscin deposits in the brain.

Loss of Plasticity

Plasticity can be loosely defined as the brains ability to change and adapt as a response to learning, stress or environmental factors. Synaptic connections between neurons are dynamic and constantly changing according to the usefulness of the information they represent. When we acquire new information, new connections are formed and if this information is recalled regularly, such connections can be strengthened. Similarly, memories or information that are not as useful may have their associated synaptic connections cut back, as the brain has a limited number of resources. However, as we get older, the plasticity of the brain decreases as a result of waste build-up and reduced cell function. Degradation can also be seen in neurites (extensions from the cell body) through which synapses are formed, contributing to cognitive decline with advancing age.

Early research into brain plasticity suggested that the nervous system was fixed and could not regenerate after a certain age. However we now know that with the appropriate exercise and supplements, neurogenesis (the formation of new neurons) can occur even in advanced age. The brain’s ability to survive and adapt is quite remarkable and there have been cases of individuals having large portions of their brain removed as a result of strokes or severe injuries. In some cases, the brain has shown to compensate for this loss by dramatically increasing the number of new connections formed in remaining parts of the brain.

Neuroplasticity can be increased by the use of supplements that enhance acetylcholine activity, most notably the racetam family (Piracetam, Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam, Aniracetam) as well as some non-racetam supplements like Noopept. Noopept appears to have the additional advantage of increasing nerve growth factor that can stimulate neuronal growth.

Chemical Changes

Another change that can be observed with advancing age is the reduction of grey matter. Grey matter is composed mostly of neuronal cell bodies, as well as blood capillaries and glial cells that support and protect neurons. It is distinguished from white matter that appears white due to the presence of myelin, a substance that insulates the axons and dendrites of neurons to increase the speed of nerve impulses. Grey matter is an extremely important component of the nervous system, and is involved in memory, sensory perceptions, muscular locomotion, speech and emotions to name but a few. Without grey matter we would be unable to perform tasks that involve information processing from mathematical equations to problem solving, and even reasoning skills in everyday situations. Declines in grey matter volume can even change the physical properties of components in the brain. For example, it may lead to cell membranes becoming less permeable meaning substances cannot be transported across them efficiently, or reduce the brains electrical conductivity, all of which results in cognitive processes occurring slower.

The brain may also see a reduction in the production and overall levels of particular neurotransmitters which are vital to practically all thought and memory processes. Dopamine in particular is known to decline as we age, bringing with it a reduction in several cognitive functions including working memory, problem solving, attention, planning, multitasking and inhibition. Among the other neurotransmitters that also see a reduction with age are serotonin, that is responsible for learning, memory, appetite, sleep and mood, as well as glutamate which has been implicated in maintaining synaptic plasticity. Acetylcholine production may also drop off and this neurotransmitter has been linked to all aspects of memory from formation to recall.

In order to maintain healthy neurotransmitter levels, you may want to consider supplementing your choline intake with products such as Centrophenoxine, CDP Choline or Alpha GPC which will aid in bolstering dopamine and serotonin production. Racetams are also a good choice for boosting neurotransmitter levels, and have the added advantage of enhancing cognitive performance at the same time. For those who prefer a more natural alternative, herbal supplements like Vinpocetine and Huperzine A can serve a similar purpose.

Free Radicals

Free radicals are molecules that have an unpaired electron in their outer atomic shell which makes them highly unstable and reactive. When such molecules react with biological structures like a neuron, they can cause oxidative damage. These biological structures may in turn become free radicals due to the loss of electrons, and cause a chain-reaction, oxidising and damaging additional cells.

It is this mechanism that is hypothesized to be the basis of ageing, as well as the possible cause of health problems ranging from heart diseases, to cancer and degenerative diseases. Free radicals are produced by our bodies on a constant basis, for example this occurs during the production of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), an energy molecule used by practically all of the cells in your body. The brain is especially at risk from free radical damage as neurons require a lot of energy, and hence a lot of ATP to function efficiently.

The most effective way to reduce the amount of free radicals is to use antioxidants. As the name might suggest, these substances stop oxidative damage from occurring by neutralising the free radicals. This is achieved by using substances that can easily give up an electron to the free radical, without becoming a free radical itself. There are many smart drugs that function effectively as antioxidants including L-theanine, Ginko Biloba, Ginseng, Melatonin and several of the Racetams.

Of course, for the best protection against the effects of ageing, you might want to consider using a combination of these supplements as part of a stack. For example, combining Centrophenoxine with a Racetam should give you more comprehensive protection against free radical, toxin and chemical damage, while simultaneously maintaining the integrity of neurons and brain plasticity. With smart drugs it is now possible to slow, stop and even reverse the effects of ageing, allowing you to avoid cognitive decline, and continue learning even at an advanced age.

Citicoline: A Versatile Memory and Learning Nootropic

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Citicoline: A Versatile Memory and Learning Nootropic

Citicoline BrainCiticoline (also known as CDP choline) is a safe and effective, cognitive enhancing supplement. It is known to enhance cognitive performance as well as contribute to better neuronal health by supplying the brain with a vital neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It can be used as a standalone supplement, providing enhancements to a number of cognitive processes including learning, memory, focus and fluid intelligence. However, most nootropics users find that this supplement is most effective when taken as part of a stack as it has the ability to potentiate the effect of other nootropics. It was mostly used by the elderly for its neuroprotective effects against Alzheimer’s as well as to aid the recovery of stroke survivors, but an increasing number of healthy individuals are beginning to discover the many benefits this supplement can offer. So what is Citicoline? This article aims to cover some of the basic information users of this nootropic should know including what this supplement is and the benefits it offers, how it works, possible side effects and usage guidelines.

What is Citocoline?

Citicoline was first isolated in Japan where it was used to aid the recovery of individuals that had suffered from ischemic strokes. As well as being considered a dietary supplement, Citicoline also occurs naturally in the body. Here it functions as an intermediate metabolite used in the production of phosphatidylcholine, an important biological molecule that is the primary constituent of grey matter. Phosphatidycholine is also found universally throughout every cell in the body where it makes up cell membranes. As well as accelerating post-stroke recovery, Citicoline also has potential for the treatment of glaucoma, perhaps due to its ability to improve the health of nerve tissue and increase cerebral blood flow.

What are the Benefits of Citicoline?

Citicoline’s benefits are mostly derived from this supplements ability to increase acetylcholine activity in the brain. This vital neurotransmitter plays an important role in your brains ability to make, break, strengthen and weaken the links between the neurons of your brain, also known as synaptic plasticity. A greater degree of synaptic plasticity has numerous benefits, for example memory formation and the speed at which memories can be recalled are both improved. Partly as a result of this, learning capacity is also likely to see a notable improvement.

Citicoline can also enhance the overall metabolism of the brain. By improving cerebral blood flow, the brain is able to receive more oxygen and glucose, two components which are vital for neurons to function optimally. Many Citicoline users have reported that this supplement appears to increase their levels of mental energy which can in turn serve to increase focus, attention span and motivation.

Additionally, Citicoline has several clinical applications and is used to treat vascular diseases of the brain, trauma to the head and several types of neurological disorders ranging from dementia to cognitive decline in old age. This supplement may be particularly useful regarding the treatment of ischemic strokes as it could possibly repair some of the damage caused, and reduce the risk of additional strokes in the future. Other research has highlighted Citicoline as being able to prevent damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption and traumatic head injuries, while it may also be useful in limiting the memory loss seen with Alzheimer’s.

How Does Citicoline Work?

Citicoline NeuronCiticoline functions primarily as a cholinergic supplement, providing the body with an additional source of choline. Choline is the precursor required to make the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine, but unfortunately a majority of people do not obtain adequate amounts from their diets, with only around 10% meeting their recommended allowance. Even minor choline deficiencies can negatively impact cognitive performance so it is important to ensure we obtain an adequate amount. Using a supplement like Citicoline will increase the concentration of choline in your blood, which will in turn promote the production of acetylcholine. It is interesting to note that Citicoline provides a greater degree of cognitive enhancement than equivalent sized dosages of choline. The reason for this is that CIticoline has a greater bioavailability than choline, and is also a closer precursor for acetylcholine.

Upon ingestion, Citicoline is absorbed before being transported by the bloodstream to the head. Due to the fact that it is a psychotropic substance, it passes easily across the blood brain barrier where it reaches the brain. Here it is broken down into its constituents, choline and cytidine before being distributed across the brain. As this supplement is incorporated as part of phospholipids, it perpetuates their biosynthesis.

Citicoline influences the action of several different types of neurotransmitter. As mentioned earlier, it acts as a precursor for the production of acetylcholine, boosting cholinergic activity. This promotes increased synaptic plasticity, memory and learning. Additionally, levels of Norepinephrine and Dopamine also appear to be increased. This could explain why some users have reported feelings of well-being and a reduction in stress levels when using Citicoline.

Citicoline also has a number of neuroprotective properties. Like many nootropics, it is an anti-oxidant, protecting the body from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species and other free radicals. It also aids by preserving several important substances including Cardiolipin, an important membrane component of cell organelles known as mitochondria, as well as Sphingomyelin used in the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of many neurons.


Potential Side Effects of Citicoline

Although Citicoline is generally considered to be safe, there have been a few reported side effects. It should however be noted that such side effects are quite mild in nature and usually only occur at higher dosages in excess of the recommended daily amount. These side effects may include insomnia, diarrhoea, headaches, nausea and gastrointestinal distress. The risk factor with this supplement is very low, and many individuals actually use Citicoline to combat the headaches associated with increased choline demand caused by use of nootropics like racetams.

CDP Choline CapsulesCiticoline Dosage and Use

Citicoline is a relatively versatile supplement and can be taken in a number of different ways. Some users find it helpful to divide the recommended 500-2,000mg dosage into several administrations to be taken throughout the day. You may also want to consider cycling this supplement with a different choline source, although most users find this unnecessary and have no problems with using Citicoline on a regular basis. To gain the full range of benefits this supplement can offer, it should be taken with other types of nootropic supplements as part of a stack. Citicoline, like other cholinergic supplements, works well with racetam nootropics as it can potentiate the benefits gained, in addition to negating potential side effects.

5-Hydroxytryptophan: A Smart Drug to Improve Mood, Sleep and Reduce Stress

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

5-Hydroxytroptophan (5-HTP) is an amino compounds that is found in a variety of natural sources, most notably, an African climbing plant species known as Griffonia simplicifolia. 5-HTP is involved in a number of important biological processes, acting as a precursor molecule, as well as a metabolic intermediate in the synthesis of neurotransmitters from tryptophan. It is used for many purposes including suppressing appetite, regulating sleep patterns, enhancing mood, and reducing stress and anxiety.


To understand how 5-HTP works, it is a good idea to first look at one of the molecules it is closely related to, Tryptophan. Tryptophan is another amino compounds that is considered to be essential, as it cannot be synthesized in the body. Found in many high-protein foods such as eggs, fish, red and white meat, tryptophan is an essential building block for the synthesis of numerous biological products. Among the most important of these are the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin.

Serotonin is responsible for mood, learning, sleep, appetite, memory and a whole host of other biological functions. It is converted from tryptophan into serotonin in a two-step enzyme catalysed process. Serotonin can then be broken down into melatonin, a hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating circadian rhythms. This is your internal clock that dictates sleep-wake cycles, as well as other behaviours dependant on the time of day.

How Does 5-HTP Work?

As mentioned earlier, 5-HTP is an intermediate metabolite for the synthesis of serotonin. This means it is the molecule that tryptophan is first converted into, before undergoing another enzyme catalysed reaction to form serotonin. By supplying the body with an additional source of this serotonin precursor, we are effectively skipping the first stage of the conversion process. This means serotonin can be synthesised more directly than when using tryptophan as a starting point. An additional advantage of 5-HTP is that it will be converted exclusively into serotonin, whereas tryptophan supplements may be converted into any number of proteins. Considering these points, you may question why we don’t simply take supplements that contain serotonin. However this would not work as psychotropic supplements (that work on the brain) first have to cross the blood brain barrier in order to reach their target cells, and while serotonin is not capable of doing this, 5-HTP can.

What is 5-HTP Used For?

Enhancing serotonin production can have a wide range of benefits and using 5-HTP can help to promote positive feelings, a property that makes this supplement potentially useful for depression. Clinical trials have already proven 5-HTP to be more effective in improving the symptoms of depression when compared to a placebo. While its clinical use is deemed to be somewhat limited compared to more powerful SSRIs, users who prefer more natural herbal supplements generally favour 5-HTP.

As serotonin is believed to be important for regulating emotions such as anxiety, it is only logical to assume that supplements that modulate serotonin levels can help to treat anxiety disorders. Dosages of around 50 to 100mg have been observed to aid those with anxiety, and while not all people find it useful, a majority of users note that 5-HTP can at least contribute to more restful sleep, and lower their sensitivity to the type of stimuli that evokes anxiety.

5-HTP is also believed to be an effective weight loss aid. When first adhering to a new weight loss diet, many individuals find that they experience negative moods caused in part by a drop in serotonin levels. This can also lead to eating excessive amounts, and craving carbohydrate rich foods. By supplementing serotonin levels, 5-HTP can improve mood, and suppress appetite, allowing the user to more easily achieve the calorie deficit that is required for weight loss. Studies have shown that obese individuals using 5-HTP felt more satiated (full) after eating and were less likely to eat more as a result. Additionally, they lost an average of 2% body weight when not on a diet, and 3% when dieting, compared to a control group who lost no weight in either scenario.

As mentioned earlier, 5-HTP can indirectly contribute to higher levels of melatonin, as well as serotonin. This is useful for those that have irregular sleeping patterns, or sufferers of insomnia. Studies have shown that using 5-HTP allows the user to fall asleep quicker, and achieve higher sleep quality. For such purposes, a dosage of 200 to 300mg is recommended before bed in order to promote better quality sleep.

Possible Side Effects

Provided that it is used in the correct manner and dosage, 5-HTP is considered to be quite safe for use by most healthy adults, although it is not recommended for those under 18 years old. Although cases are rare, users may experience some gastrointestinal distress as a result of serotonin-induced muscle contractions of the small intestine. This can lead to vomiting or diarrhoea.

Users should avoid taking 5-HTP with certain types of anti-depressants, particularly MAIOs and SSRIs to avoid the possibility of developing serotonin syndrome. This supplement may also cause interactions with other types of medication such as carbidopa, often used to treat Parkinson’s disease. It is important that you consult a qualified healthcare professional for guidance before using 5-HTP to avoid the possibility of such negative side effects.

Noopept: A Newbies Guide to this Cognitive Enhance

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Noopept is one of the more recently developed and most potent nootropic supplements available today. Being around 1,000 times the strength of Piracetam, it has become popular amongst those seeking to enhance cognitive performance by a noticeable and large degree. It is known to have a wide range of cognitive enhancing benefits to learning, memory, concentration and focus. Not only this, but research has shown it to have extensive neuroprotective properties as well as possible therapeutic uses in the treatment of Alzheimer’s. Before beginning a Noopept regimen, as with any supplement, it is a good idea to first familiarise yourself with how this nootropic works as well as its benefits and potential side effects.

What are the Benefits of Noopept?

Noopept BenefitsNoopept is used by many for its ability to improve the various facets of memory and learning. It is able to enhance both early stage memory consolidation as well as recall speed, meaning information will be more effectively stored, and easier to remember when it is needed. Practically speaking, these effects can differ between users; while some notice subtle improvements like being able to remember small details; others gain the ability to remember information with an almost photographic memory.

Noopept is also somewhat unique in the fact that it can stimulate the formation of associative connections between left and right brain hemispheres. This serves to enhance communication between brain regions on a global scale, resulting in further improvement of memory performance and learning capacity, as well increased levels of creativity.

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Noopept is also noted for improving the user’s ability to focus and concentrate. Those who feel sluggish and have problems with “brain fog” will find Noopept provides them with more mental energy and allows them to think with a greater degree of clarity. This can be vital to increasing productivity during prolonged bouts of mental exertion. Many users have also reported increased motivation which will no doubt be of use in academic or workplace environments.

Additionally, this supplement is also shown to have a number of neuroprotective properties, protecting the brain from a wide range of different types of damage ranging from hypoxic conditions to the accumulation of harmful toxins.

How Does Noopept Work?

Noopept like many nootropics is a psychotropic substance that can easily cross the blood brain barrier to reach its target tissues in the brain. This supplement has a good bioavailability and is among the fastest acting nootropics, reaching maximum concentrations after just 15 minutes. Upon reaching the brain, Noopept acts primarily on AMPA and NMDA receptors that correspond to glutamate. By binding to these receptors, Noopept increases their sensitivity to glutamate, and thus enhances overall glutamatergic activity. Glutamate is an important neurotransmitter and increased concentrations have been associated with enhanced synaptic plasticity, memory, learning and other cognitive faculties commonly associated with intelligence.

Noopept brainThis supplement may also modulate the level of other major neurotransmitters. It is believed to have an affinity for acetylcholine receptors, another important neurotransmitter implicated in the processes of learning and memory. Additionally Serotonin and Dopamine systems appear to be affected, and both of these substances are linked to mood among other things. This action on dopaminergic and serotonergic systems gives this supplement some modest anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) effects, though it should be noted that this effect is highly subjective and not all users will notice this effect. These anxiolytic properties can be useful in the context of reducing negative emotions which could otherwise impact cognitive performance, for example many people experience anxiety and nervousness before an exam, or when trying to meet work deadlines.

Noopept also appears to increase the amount of glucose and oxygen that is delivered to the brain. Both of these substances are involved in the production of adenosine triphosphate, a universal energy molecule used by all cells in the body. Consequently, all cells require a constant supply of oxygen and glucose, especially those in the brain that are tasked with a high work load. In fact, neurons begin to die after just a matter of minutes without oxygen which can lead to brain damage. Sufficient oxygen and glucose not only ensures the survival of brain cells but also allows neurons to function at an optimal capacity. Increased levels of oxygen, glucose and subsequent neuronal efficiency is thought to be responsible for many of the alertness and thought clarifying effects of Noopept.

As mentioned earlier, Noopept also has a wide range of neuroprotective properties that help to maintain the overall health of the brain. It appears to work both as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant, preventing damage from inflammation and aiding in the removal of harmful free-radicals. It also protects against excitotoxicity, accumulation of toxins and physical trauma. Additionally, studies have shown that this supplement stimulates the release of two endogenous proteins; brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF). Both of these substances are thought to promote the growth and repair of neurons, thus reducing the risk of developing neurological deficits.

Recommended Dosage

The recommended dosage for those that are new to Noopept is around 10mg two or three times a day. Administrations should be spaced equally throughout the day to ensure a consistent supply of the supplement as Noopept has a relatively short half-life. Common daily dosages for most individuals is between 10 and 30mg, although some may find that up to 40mg is required to achieve the desired level of cognitive enhancement. It is highly advised against using more than 60mg in a day as this may result in excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors. Noopept is usually taken orally with a meal, or sublingually by dissolving it under the tongue. As with any supplement, it is advised that you consult a doctor before using Noopept to avoid drug interactions and ensure this supplement is suitable for you.

Potential Side Effects

Despite the fact that Noopept is among the potent nootropics, it is still deemed to be quite safe with no serious tolerance or withdrawal issues, and a very low level of toxicity. As it is so potent, very little is needed to achieve significant cognitive enhancing effects, so users do not normally experience gastrointestinal distress that is sometimes seen when using large amounts of other nootropics. Additionally some evidence even suggests that Noopept can prevent headaches, which is a common side effect of some other cognitive enhancing supplements. However, there are a few side effects that should be noted, although these only tend to occur when using dosages in excess of the recommended level. This can include headaches, gastrointestinal distress, insomnia, fatigue, and nausea.

Noopept Stacks

Noopept PillsGenerally speaking, the fact that Noopept is so potent means that for many users, it is adequate as a standalone supplement. Although not recommended for new users it can be combined with other nootropics. For example, Noopept can be stacked with a choline source such as Citicoline to help negate some of the potential side effects. Others find that Noopept works well with racetams which can potentiate its effects, as well as broadening the range of benefits obtained.

There are a huge number of different Noopept based stacks to try once you are comfortable with using the supplement independently. While experimentation is recommended to ensure you get the most from your stack, you should be sure to carefully research each supplement, and experiment with dosages methodically and incrementally to reduce the possibility of negative side effects.


The Student Stack: What are the Best Nootropics for Studying?

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Please note: Because nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

The Problem with Traditional Stimulants

Whether studying before exams, understanding difficult concepts or having to write a lengthy paper with little time, students face a lot of pressure to perform well academically. It is no wonder then that many have resorted to stimulants like caffeine to give them that extra little boost needed to get the job done. However, even though it is the world’s most widely consumed stimulant, caffeine has proven to have a wide range of undesirable side effects when ingested in large quantities (which is so often the case when it’s 3am and you have several thousand words to write before the morning).

Recent years have also seen an increase in the use of drugs ADHD medication. Usually prescribed to sufferers of ADHD to increase concentration, they have a similar effect on healthy individuals. Unfortunately, they also come with an array of short and long-term side effects including headaches, dehydration, insomnia, increased blood pressure, loss of consciousness, seizures and depression to name but a few. Additionally, these substances are also habit forming and users can not only become dependent, but may also develop a tolerance meaning they will no longer experience cognitive enhancing benefits. In recent years, America has seen an epidemic of college students illegally obtaining these prescription medications to boost their academic performance, and there have even been several reported deaths linked to these drugs. Not only do the side effects pose an immediate danger, but in several cases the abuse of these medications has led to psychosis, causing the individuals to commit suicide or perform dangerous acts with complete disregard for their own safety.

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What Are Nootropics?

Considering these all too real dangerous, you may be reluctant to use any type of cognitive enhancer. There is however an alternative; a loosely related group of supplements known as nootropics which have been proven to safely enhance cognition with virtually no side effects. The term nootropics encompasses a wide range of natural and synthetic supplements that are used for everything from memory and learning enhancement, to promoting alertness or better sleep. Some nootropics are even used to improve physical performance and fight diseases.

There are well in excess of a hundred different nootropic supplements and their mechanisms of action can vary considerably. Many of them are designed to modulate neurotransmitter activity by providing precursors, increasing production or regulating the sensitivity of receptors. Depending on the neurotransmitter concerned this can result in changes to behaviours including mood, memory, learning, sleep or appetite to name a few. Other nootropics work by increasing cerebral blood circulation, providing the brain with more oxygen and nutrients needed to function efficiently. Some are even known to aid in the removal of waste products like lipofuscin that could otherwise contribute to neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s. This wide range of applications means that smart drugs are used by everyone from athletes to business executives. However because they are considered to be primarily cognitive enhancers, their use still remains most prominent among academic circles.

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How Can Nootropics Benefit Me as a Student?

Whether you lack the motivation to work, are feeling overwhelmed, or struggle with difficult study materials, there are many reasons why you may feel you are not achieving the highest grades you are capable of. Even those who are at the top of their class can benefit from these supplements ability to improve mental agility or think creatively. But what specific aspects of academia can these supplements help with?


Nootropics are known to increase performance in practically all aspects of memory which is invaluable to the average student trying to memorising various formulas, theories and techniques alike. To understand how they work it is a good idea to first look at how memories are created. Memories are first formed in a process known as encoding where stimuli, whether this be visual, acoustic, semantic or a combination of different types, passes from the various receptors in your body to the brain where they are incorporated into a single experience. This is the equivalent of reading a book, or listening to your lecturer talk and consciously perceiving what is going on. This is the first hurdle in successfully remembering information as unfortunately we do not always encode all the information we want to remember. However supplements like bacopa monnieri and vasopressin (more commonly known as antidiuretic hormone) are known to directly increase the amount of information that is encoded. Other nootropics may also enhance this process through indirect means (increased blood circulation or more neurotransmitter, leading to greater overall neuronal efficiency).

After encoding, memories must be stored and this refers to the passive ability to retain information indefinitely. Memories are stored as a series of synaptic connections between neurons. This information begins first in sensory memory, before graduating to short term memory stores which can hold information for a limited period of a few seconds to about a minute. This obviously isn’t very useful if you’re trying to study for an exam and so information must be consolidated into long term memory using processes like rehearsal. This would be the equivalent of repeating a phrase or piece of information to yourself several times which aids in strengthening connections to stabilise a memory trace.

Neurologically, consolidating information from short to long term memory uses a phenomenon known as long term potentiation. This refers to the process by which the strengthening of connections occurs between two simultaneously firing neurons. The effectiveness of this process can be enhanced by taking a combination of nootropics known as a CILTEP stack which is discussed later in this article. Information that is stored, whether in sensory, short, or long term memory must be done in an effective manner to prevent it being lost. We know that a healthy human brain has an almost unlimited capacity for storing information over an indefinite period, so forgetting things is likely due to improper encoding or a failure to recall information.

Recall is the final process in memory, referring to the action of searching for and retrieving specific information. Sometimes we tend to forget things but remember it later on, suggesting that while the memory still exists there may be problems in the process of retrieving them. Fortunately nootropics can help in this area too. For example, 2006 study looked at individuals with age-related memory impairment who would often forget where they had left things, or information such as phone numbers. After being administered Bacopa Monnieri, researchers found a significant improvement in recall ability. Oxiracetam, another nootropic, also appears to have similar recall-enhancing effects in addition to improving attention and semantic memory. These nootropics of course, won’t just help you remember where you left your keys, they could help make the difference between a good and excellent grade when trying to remember critical information in an exam.


Having a high level of intelligence can obviously make a big difference when it comes to doing well academically but there are different types of intelligence to consider. The first form, crystallized intelligence, refers to the cumulative amount of knowledge you have acquired over your lifetime and is very much a function of long-term memory. This type of intelligence is often what we think of as “book smarts” and tends to increase as we grow, before dropping off with old age as a result of memory deficits. The second type, fluid intelligence, is independent of prior knowledge, referring more to your ability to think logically, problem solve and recognise patterns.

Fluid intelligence is thought to be a function of working memory (sometimes confused with short term memory). Working memory refers to a series structures and processes in the brain that can temporarily retain and manipulate information. This requires neurons to constantly form, destroy, strengthen and weaken synaptic connections between them, and your brains ability to manipulate such processes is known as synaptic plasticity. With a greater synaptic plasticity, your brain can work with more pieces of information, making it more likely that you will be able to successfully devise solutions, perform calculations or carry other tasks commonly associated with this type of intelligence.

Synaptic plasticity can be enhanced by several types of nootropics including the racetams (Piracetam, Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam), Huperzine A, DMAE, Centrophenoxine and Bacopa Monnieri to name but a few. Though some of these mechanisms are not fully understood, there are a few hypothesized routes through which this can occur. Researchers theorize that nootropics can increase the activity of certain neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters act as chemical messengers relaying electrical signals (action potentials) between neurons connected by synapses. In some cases, greater amounts of the neurotransmitters present in the brain can enhance the sensitivity of post synaptic neurons, allowing signals to propagate with greater ease. To give an example, some nootropics appear to increase levels of glutamate and acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain. These areas are involved in memory acquisition and can facilitate the learning of new information, particularly in regard to working memory. Other types of nootropics are capable of regulating levels of acetylcholine and norepinephrine which has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of information in working memory.

Increased functionality of working memory, and by extension fluid intelligence, can be particularly helpful in fields of study like engineering, mathematics and science in which students are constantly challenged to solve problems, manipulate information and think laterally.

Focus and Concentration

The ability to concentrate for long periods will no doubt be useful to any student whether sitting in a lecture hall, or reading difficult texts. Concentration can be thought of as being able to pay attention to one particular stimulus, while simultaneously ignoring other competing stimuli in your environment. This is a part of what is known as the executive function that is associated with the prefrontal cortex of the brain. Although we often consider the ability to concentrate as an abstract idea, is can be thought of as a state of mind that is brought about by the action of several key neurotransmitters. Thus, by altering neurotransmitter levels, we can exert some positive effects on our concentration levels.

There are several neurotransmitters concerned here. Dopamine is responsible for controlling reward mechanisms and is used by our brains to help keep our attention focused on a particular task. Low levels of dopamine have been observed to decrease levels of concentration, so logically nootropics that increase dopamine activity can have the opposite effect. The adrenal system is also implicated in maintaining concentration. Hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine are usually released upon exposure to stressful stimuli to prepare your body for a flight or fight response and part of this effect is to increase alertness.

Nootropics can increase concentration in a number of different ways. As mentioned earlier, using nootropics to enhance dopaminergic activity can modulate reward systems to help keep your attention focused on the task at hand. Similarly some nootropics are cholinergic, increasing acetylcholine activity in the brain which can aid to make the executive function more efficient. Other nootropics have mood enhancing effects and can help the user to concentrate by negating negative moods which could otherwise cause a significant distraction.

Reducing Anxiety and Stress

With deadlines to meet and exams that may ultimately determine future career prospects, there is no denying that today’s students are under a substantial amount of pressure. This often leads to many students underperforming because of pre-test nerves, or dropping out altogether to remove themselves from stress inducing situations. Therefore, being able to control or reduce anxiety and stress levels is important not only for academic success, but the welfare of the individual as well. Experiencing some stress and anxiety is perfectly normal and can even be helpful in motivating us to take actions to remove ourselves from situations that evoke these feelings. It becomes a problem when these feelings of anxiety and stress prevent us from being productive, or this reaction occurs frequently in response to inappropriate situations.

While the exact causes of excessive anxiety are unknown with some scientists suggesting a psychological basis while other believe it may be down to neuroanatomy, most cases can be characterised by excessive stimulation in the brain caused by our body’s flight or fight response. This overstimulation is responsible for many of the symptoms seen with anxiety that can include restlessness, irritability, feelings of dread, changes in sleeping patterns, loss of appetite, nervous habits and increased motor tension (such as foot tapping or other repetitive actions).

Fortunately, a number of nootropics are known to have significant anxiolytic and stress reducing properties. Supplements like Picamilon and Phenibut are GABA derivatives that are broken down into GABA upon entering the body. This important substance is the brains primary inhibitory neurotransmitter that can prevent action potentials from propagating. This mechanism aids in calming an overstimulated brain and can help to break anxious thought cycles that are centred on negative beliefs.

Social Acuity

Being a student of course, doesn’t just mean studying. The ability to socialise as well as create friendships and relationships with other people can greatly enrich your life. Social acuity can also be seen as an important tool to help you more easily achieve your goals. Being an individual who can easily interact with other people is becoming a prerequisite for many jobs, and it is not hard to see why a potential employer would sooner hire a confident, easy going applicant over a stuttering nervous one. Furthermore, some areas of academia often require students make presentations and speak in front of large audiences, something that evokes stage fright in a surprisingly large number of people. Unfortunately not all of us are born as natural socialites, while others have additional obstacles like social anxiety to contend with.

Some of the aforementioned supplements can help individuals to overcome social anxiety. Picamilon for example, while helping to pacify overactive anxious thoughts, can also lower inhibitions that prevent us from making successful interactions out of fear or embarrassment. Other nootropics enhance regions of the brain associated with verbal language skills, and while this does not directly counter anxiety, being able to communicate more effectively can naturally make a user feel more confident.

Additionally, being able to think with more logic and clarity is useful in helping us to understand other people. A greater ability to analyse and empathise means we can more easily determine how to act in an appropriate manner. The memory enhancing benefits of nootropics could also help you avoid certain social faux pas, particularly if you are the sort of person that forgets names and faces easily.

Stacks for Students

Although nootropics can be used individually, most users find that combining several different types into what is known as a stack can greatly increase the range and strength of benefits that are seen. Furthermore, using stacks can help to negate some of the potential side effects that may arise from singular use of nootropics. To give an example, many racetams work by enhancing acetylcholine activity in the brain which causes an increase in the demand for the acetylcholine precursor choline. A majority of the population is deficient in dietary choline sources, so it is often necessary to supplement intake with products like CDP choline or Alpha GPC in order to avoid depletion and resulting side effects such as headaches.

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There are numerous companies that supply various combinations of nootropics combined into a single product, however these come with some distinct disadvantages. Although it is generally more convenient to take a single pill or powder rather than measuring out several different types, preformed stacks do not offer the same versatility as separate supplements. For example it would be impossible to selectively increase the dosage of a single supplement in your stack when using these all-in-one products. Furthermore, the amount of each individual supplement in the stack may not be appropriate for you personally as physiology and brain biochemistry can differ dramatically from person to person. Finally, there is the issue of price which may be particularly relevant to students who seldom have much money to spare. Much of the expense associated with stack products is due to processing and branding costs. It is far more economical to use generic forms of single supplements and combine them yourself. Below is listed a few examples of stacks that may be ideal for students.

Caffeine & L-Theanine

This stack is ideal for both inexperienced users, and students that may already be using caffeine-based products as a cognitive enhancer. This stack uses only natural nootropics and is considered to be very safe, cheap, easily obtainable, and with effects that are almost immediately discernible. The caffeine element of this stack functions as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Adenosine is usually responsible for inhibitory effects within the central nervous system. By preventing the activation of receptors that correspond to adenosine, caffeine can prevent inhibitory signals from propagating. This is the primary mechanism responsible for most of caffeine’s benefits which include increased levels of alertness and concentration. The addition of L-Theanine not only potentiates the positive effects of caffeine, but also helps to negate some of the possible side effects including the jitters, disturbances to sleep patterns, anxiety and increased blood pressure.

Pramiracetam & Alpha GPC

Pramiracetam is considered by many to be among the most versatile and balanced racetam supplements in terms of the benefits that it offers. Though like many of the racetams its mechanisms are not fully understood, it is believed to function by increasing high affinity choline uptake (HACU) and subsequent production of acetylcholine in the brain. Through this mechanism it is able to offer students enhanced memory and concentration, and helps to increase productivity in whatever task attention is directed towards. This makes it an ideal supplement when trying to complete work in a limited time.Buy Bromantane uk

The addition of alpha GPC ensures that choline deficits do not occur as a result of increased cholinergic activity. Some users may also find it useful to use L-Theanine with this stack for its positive mood altering properties, helping the user to feel calm and optimistic when under the pressure of deadlines and exams.

Aniracetam, Alpha GPC, Huperzine A & Vinpocetine

Another good all-round combination of supplements, this stack uses a variety of mostly natural nootropics with low toxicity and differing mechanisms. Aniracetam provides the main cognitive enhancing benefits seen with this stack, with the ability to enhance memory, improve learning and increase the speed of cognitive processing. Aniracetam also has some notable stress and anxiety reducing properties, which can be invaluable in reducing pre-test nerves that can significantly affect cognitive performance.

The Huperzine A in this stack functions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, helping to prevent the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Higher levels of this neurotransmitter are thought to improve memory, specifically the ability to effectively form and recall information which may be useful both in the process of studying, as well as recalling information during an exam.

Alpha GPC is a precursor of acetylcholine, working synergistically with the mechanism of Huperzine to increase overall levels in the brain as well as negating the possibility of choline depletion as a result of Aniracetam use and increased cholinergic activity.

The final component of this stack, Vinpocetine, is renowned for its neuroprotective effects that prevent excitotoxicity (excessive stimulation of neurons) and inflammation of the brain. This aids in maintaining the overall health of neurons and as a result, memory retention is improved as information is not as likely to be lost through damage to synaptic connections. These neuroprotective effects would no doubt be valuable to the average student whose lifestyle often involves imbibing a considerable amount of potentially damaging alcohol. Vinpocetine also acts as a vasodilator, causing blood vessels in the brain to expand delivering greater quantities of materials such as oxygen and glucose needed by neurons to function efficiently.

The CILTEP Stack

This stack has gained much popularity in recent years. An acronym for chemically induced long-term potentiation, this stack is designed to induce the phenomenon of LTP (long term potentiation) covered earlier in the article. The benefits provided by this stack can help students to consolidate and recall study materials with greater ease and aid in the understanding of difficult concepts.

The stack is usually composed of two main components; a cAMP booster and PDE-4 inhibitor. The cAMP booster, commonly a supplement like forskolin from the Plectranthus barbatus plant, works to increase levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Meanwhile, PDE-4 inhibitors such as artichoke extract work by inhibiting the enzymes that break down cAMP. The result is a dramatic increase in cAMP levels, which is thought to lead to long term potentiation.

An additional advantage of this stack is its versatility; because CILTEP stacks work using rather unique mechanisms, it is possible to use it with other combinations of nootropics. For example some users add additional racetams to this stack, while others have noted that CILTEP greatly potentiates the action of stimulants, allowing them to use smaller amounts of stimulants for greater effects.

Users may also want to consider adding a dopamine precursor like phenylalanine to their CILTEP stack as some have reported experiencing fatigue when using this combination of nootropics, most likely a result of dopamine depletion.

These are just a few examples of the many types of stacks students are currently employing to boost their academic performance. With so many different types of nootropic supplement out there, the combinations are limitless. Although these stacks are an excellent place to start, the best stack for your requirements will no doubt be one tailored for your needs. We would therefore advise that you spend some time researching and experimenting with different nootropics to find which supplements and dosages are ideal for you. Remember to keep in mind what you hope to achieve (is it a stack for memory, concentration or learning?) and always consult a doctor before using any type of nootropic.


Modern academic institutions demand a lot from their students. Whether underperforming or overwhelmed, there is no doubt many students feel the need for cognition enhancing supplements. Regardless of whether this should be considered ethically as cheating or not, the fact is that students will go to tremendous lengths to ensure they perform well academically and there is no question as to whether it is better to use potentially illegal, habit forming and dangerous drugs like ADHD medication or safe, legal, neuroprotective supplements like nootropics.

Nefiracetam: a Potent Nootropic for Anxiety and Memory

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Nefiracetam is among the most recently developed nootropics that is capable of enhancing cognition by boosting activity in certain brain regions. It is classed as a racetam but is less well known and used than other supplements in this family. It is derived from one of the first nootropics developed, Piracetam, although it appears to have more structural features in common with the nootropic; Aniracetam. Like Aniracetam, Nefiracetam is lipid soluble and can help to improve both learning capacity and memory, in addition to providing neuroprotective benefits. If you are considering using this great novel nootropic, it is advisable to first learn a little more about its benefits and mechanisms.

Nefiracetam 1

What are the Benefits of Nefiracetam?

The most common reason people use nootropics like Nefiracetam is for its cognitive enhancing properties. There are numerous areas of brain function that make up what we commonly refer to as cognition and this includes learning and memory, fluid intelligence, attention, concentration, planning, perception and control of impulses. Nefiracetam, along with other types of supplement in the racetam class, can help to significantly enhance many of these cognitive faculties. One area in which Nefiracetam may be particularly effective is improving the enhancement of long-term memory retention.

Studies have shown that Nefiracetam can lead to dramatic improvements in spatial (navigational) learning capabilities. It also appears to be an excellent enhancer of concentration, attention and focus when compared with other racetams such as Piracetam, Pramiracetam and Oxiracetam. Additionally, these benefits are not only limited to healthy individuals as this supplement can help to improve cognition in those with neurological disorders. Furthermore, using Nefiracetam can provide neuroprotective benefits with cytoprotective mechanisms that help to promote the survival of neurons, and better overall brain health.

Nefiracetam calmSimilarly to Aniracetam, Nefiracetam also has mood modulating effects useful for the purposes of reducing anxiety, stress, and perhaps even treating depression. These two supplements have somewhat similar mechanisms, however, Nefiracetam appears to provide a greater variety of benefits. To give an example, Nefiracetam shows a greater affinity for increasing GABA and monoamine activity, while the effect of Aniracetam in such areas is comparatively modest. This makes Nefiracetam a more potent anxiolytic than Aniracetam. Evidence to support this idea comes from studies that suggest Nefiracetam could be used as a treatment in cases of severe clinical depression. Other studies have indicated that this nootropic may also be useful as a treatment for different types of seizure that include convulsive, as well as non-convulsive types. This may be particularly useful when concerning seizures that originate from the amygdala, and can this supplement can reduce both the duration and frequency of seizures that result from strokes.

Nefiracetam neuron

How Does Nefiracetam Work?

Nefiracetam has several types of mechanism. Some of these are similar to other more widely used racetams, while others may not be quite so familiar. Nefiracetam is able to prolong the amount of time calcium channels in neurons are open. This means that action potentials are more likely to be propagated, leading to an overall increase in brain activity. This can in turn lead to more efficient memory formation by promoting a phenomenon known as long-term potentiation (LTP). LTP is the process by which the synaptic connection between two simultaneously firing neurons is strengthened, and it is this process which aids in moving information from short-term memory to long-term memory.

Another mechanism associated with this supplement involves substances known as protein kinases, specifically protein kinase C and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. These two protein kinases are involved in augmenting signals in cholinergic receptors which is vital for enhancing neuronal signals in general. One of the effects this has is to increase the concentration of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA in the brain. Both glutamate and acetylcholine (associated with cholinergic systems) are important for a variety of cognitive functions including learning and the formation of memories. These neurotransmitters are also thought to stimulate the formation of pathways and neurons in the brain, and thus contribute to greater synaptic plasticity. GABA meanwhile is the brain’s primary inhibitory neurotransmitter. It works by inhibiting action potentials which can aid to pacify an overactive brain. This makes it useful for reducing anxiety, stress and symptoms of depression as well as for promoting feelings of relaxation.

Recommended Dosage for Nefiracetam

Nefiracetam PillsThe research that has been carried out so far on Nefiracetam has used dosages that vary quite considerably. This has led some confusion and there does not yet appear to be a widely accepted dosage level. However, based on a review of currently available literature, a dosage range between 8 to 30mg for every kilogram of your body weight appears to be effective.

This is the equivalent to around 500 to 1,800mg assuming an average body weight. It should however be noted that body weight, biochemistry and physiology can differ significantly between individuals, so a certain amount of experimenting is advisable to deduce the best dosage level for you. As with any nootropic or supplement, you are advised to begin with relatively small dosages, and increase this slowly and incrementally once you are familiar and comfortable with the effects it has on you. This applies particularly to nootropics which are still considered to be somewhat experimental like Nefiracetam. Nefiracetam is lipid soluble, so it is a good idea to take this supplement with a glass of milk or other type of food that has good fat content.

Potential Side Effects of Nefiracetam

Like all nootropics, Nefiracetam does not appear to pose significant risks when concerning levels of toxicity or severe side effects. Unfortunately, studies on this supplement that have used human participants are somewhat limited, and consequently there has been no established upper limit when using this nootropic. However, research has demonstrated that Nefiracetam is still non-toxic in dosages of up to 900mg a day, with even higher dosages likely to still be safe for use by those in good health.

Nefiracetam may cause some side effects similar to those seen with the use of other racetams. This can include nausea, stomach discomfort, headaches, dizziness, fatigue and irritability. The headaches seen with this supplement are likely due to a choline deficiency as this supplement increases choline usage. As with many other racetams, this can easily be remedied by using a good quality choline supplement such as Citicoline or Centrophenoxine. Other types of side effects are rare and generally only seen when excessive dosages are used.

Phenibut for Less Stress, Less Anxiety and Better Sleep

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Phenibut is a nootropic supplement that is derived from the naturally occurring compound gamma-aminobutyric compounds, more commonly known as GABA. This supplement is used by many for its anxiolytic properties which make it useful for sufferers of anxiety disorders and depression alike. Others use Phenibut to promote more restful sleep or correct disruptions to sleep cycles, while it may also have some cognitive enhancing benefits. It works using different mechanisms and like most nootropics, has a good safety and toxicity profile when used correctly. This article is aimed at describing some of the benefits, mechanisms, potential side effects and usage guidelines associated with this nootropic supplement.

What are the Benefits of Phenibut?

phenibut stressOne of the major benefits of this nootropic is its mood modulating properties. Phenibut is considered to be an anxiolytic supplement which means it has the ability to reduce feelings of stress and anxiety. This makes it useful in lessening the symptoms associated with various types of anxiety disorder as well as depression. Phenibut may be particularly useful for social anxiety, a disorder characterised by feelings of tension in response to certain social situations. As well as calming an overactive anxious mind, they can serve to lower unnecessary inhibitions which may otherwise prevent sufferers from carrying out successful social interactions. By lowering stress levels, it can prevent damage to the heart and neurons caused by stress hormones.

phenibut anxietyUnlike a number of other anxiolytic supplements such as Valium, Phenibut also has the added benefit of not reducing cognitive function. In fact, quite the opposite may be true as this supplement appears to possess some modest cognitive enhancing properties. Though studies that explore this relationship are somewhat limited, experimental evidence does seem to suggest that Phenibut can enhance interhemispheric communications between the left and right sides of the brain. Better global brain function in this regard is thought to be associated with the ability to think more creatively and solve problems. Additionally, other evidence points to the idea that learning and memory may also see improvements with this supplement, but more detailed research is required to substantiate these claims. Some users have also reported that this supplement provides them with a greater ability to concentrate and maintain focus.

Another reason many people use Phenibut is its ataractic or sedative effects which can be invaluable in providing more restful sleep. For example, some individuals find it difficult to fall asleep because they have trouble “switching off” or are preoccupied with anxious thoughts. Phenibut can help to inhibit overactive and anxious thought processes, making it much easier to drift off. Others may have trouble staying asleep during the night but a dose of Phenibut before bed can prevent you from waking up prematurely with its long lasting action. As this supplement helps you to remain asleep, you are more likely to achieve a sufficient amount of time in deep sleep stages, particularly the REM stage that is required for good quality, restful sleep. Not only will this help you to feel more rested, but a good night’s sleep can also indirectly contribute to better cognitive performance.

How Does Phenibut Work?

phenibut moleculePhenibut is essentially a variation of the naturally occurring neurotransmitter known as GABA. Many substances including GABA would be useless as a supplement as they would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to reach their target cells in the brain. The BBB is a kind of biological filter that regulates the type of materials that can pass from the blood stream into the brain. However, unlike GABA Phenibut possesses an additional phenyl ring allowing it to cross the BBB with relative ease.

Upon reaching the brain Phenibut functions as a GABA agonist meaning that it can activate receptor groups that normally correspond to GABA. It is believed that Phenibut binds to GABAB metabotropic receptors that are responsible for the sedative effects of other substances including baclofen and gamma-hydroxybutyric compounds (GHB). There is some disagreement in the literature as to whether Phenibut also acts on GABAA receptors, with some researchers suggesting this is possible at higher concentrations. These GABAA ionotropic receptors are responsible for some of the calming and inhibitory effects seen with alcohol consumption.

phenibut brainActivation of these receptor types can cause a highly negative charge to build in the neuron known as hyperpolarisation. This is achieved by allowing negative chloride ions to enter the neuron, while allowing positive potassium ions out. As a result, any excitatory signals will have to overcome a more negative charge than under normal conditions in order to propagate additional excitatory action potentials. This mechanism can be useful in helping to pacify excessive brain activity that is commonly associated with anxiety disorders, as well as promoting feelings of calm, relaxing muscles and providing other effects similar to sedatives. Some experimental evidence has suggested additional anxiety reducing mechanisms where Phenibut works to antagonise the anxiogenic effects of an endogenous substance known as phenethylamine.

Phenibut Dosage

Phenibut has a wide range of benefits but if used improperly can have a number of negative side effects and thus dosage control with this supplement is particularly important. Phenibut has a recommended dosage of 250 to 1,000mg per day; however, you are advised to start with relatively small dosages. This will allow your body sufficient time to adjust to the supplement, after which you may slowly increase the dosage as needed. Unlike many other nootropic supplements, Phenibut has a relatively long half-life meaning that effects from one dosage may last for up to a day. Due to this, you are not likely to require more than a single dosage of Phenibut in the course of a day, and are advised to allow around 4 to 6 hours if you do choose to use an additional administration. As Phenibut is soluble in water it can be mixed into a drink for the purposes of administration, however its sour taste means that most people opt for the pill format which also provides greater convenience.

Potential Side Effects of Phenibut

While Phenibut is generally considered to be safe when used according to dosage guidelines, exceeding the recommended dosage is known to cause some mild side effects. It is also highly advised against using Phenibut in conjunction with other similar substances as the cumulative effects pose the risk of more serious side effects. Side effects that are commonly seen with Phenibut use include headaches, nausea, fatigue, feeling lightheaded, gastrointestinal discomfort and in more extreme cases, memory loss and unconsciousness. Some online users have also reported experiencing withdrawal symptoms with the use of this supplement and as such, Phenibut should not be used for prolonged periods as a precautionary measure.

Sulbutiamine for Improved Mood, Focus and Memory

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Please note: Because Nootropics are not supplements or approved drugs they cannot be sold as for human consumption. We do not endorse the consumption of any product for sale on our website as they are strictly intended for use in non-clinical scientific research. Not for consumption. As such, all articles and content on this website are strictly for entertainment purposes only.

Sulbutiamine is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (more commonly known as vitamin B1)that was first developed in Japan to counter widespread vitamin deficiencies. Sulbutiamine is classed as a nootropic compound that provides many benefits including memory enhancement, increased focus and mood modulation, while it is also used for a number of therapeutic purposes. Unlike a few other more recently developed nootropics, this supplement has been relatively well researched with a wealth of evidence to support the benefits it can offer. So if you’re someone who struggles to remember things, need help concentrating at work or in the classroom, or even if you feel shy around other people, Sulbutiamine could be the right supplement for you. However, before deciding to use this supplement it is a good idea to first gain some understanding of how Sulbutiamine works. This article aims to cover some of these topics including this supplement’s benefits, mechanisms, potential side effects and usage guidelines.

What are the Benefits of Sulbutiamine?

Evidence from clinical trials has proven this supplement to be an effective memory enhancer. Studies show that through the modulation of various neurotransmitter levels, this supplement is able to improve working memory. The purpose of this type of memory is to temporarily hold and manipulate information, and these abilities may be significant determinants of fluid intelligence. Fluid intelligence refers to our capacity for problem solving, pattern recognition and logical thinking, and is known to be a better predictor of academic or financial success than more traditional measures of intelligence, such as IQ. Such skills can be infinitely useful for fields of study or work that involve engineering, mathematics, scientific research, or indeed practically any task that requires some degree of problem solving or outside-of-the-box thinking. This type of thinking is what leads to innovation, and some of the most progressive minds of our time from Hawking to Einstein are thought to have had exceptionally high levels of fluid intelligence.

Sulbutiamine is also known to improve other aspects of memory formation and recall. Other studies have shown that as well as improvements to episodic memory (our ability to remember past events), Sulbutiamine can help to consolidate information from short-term to long term memory. Users will find that they can more efficiently remember and recall information they have committed to memory. These effects can vary from person to person, with some noticing modest improvements to memory retention, while others may gain the ability to remember everything with an almost photographic-like precision. These memory enhancements are not only useful for healthy individuals, but may help to lessen cognitive decline seen with neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s.

Due to the fact that Sulbutiamine improves signal transmission and communication between neurons, users are likely to experience an additional array of cognitive benefits. For example, users commonly report enhancements in their ability to concentrate, which may in turn lead to a greater attention span, as well as higher levels of alertness and perceived mental energy. These ergogenic properties coupled with enhanced memory performance make Sulbutiamine an excellent study aid, helping students to study longer and more effectively while experiencing less mental fatigue. This supplement’s ability to reduce fatigue is so effective that it has been implicated as being useful in the treatment of Asthenia. This is a condition characterised by chronic levels of fatigue that have a neurological basis, and studies have shown that more than half of the patients treated with Sulbutiamine showed no symptoms of the condition after just 15 days. Researchers do however recognise the need for additional research in this area to fully evaluate Sulbutiamine’s effectiveness in treating chronic fatigue.

Sulbutiamine has also been used for the purposes of reducing certain patterns of inhibitory behaviour that include feeling fearful and timid, or showing avoidance and guardedness towards new stimuli. These behavioural patterns are common in those suffering from shyness, or on a more extreme level social anxiety, as well as depression. A study utilising participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder showed a significant reduction in such incapacitating behaviours after four weeks of treatment with Sulbutiamine. These benefits can help sufferers to have a more successful professional, social and family-life which may have become disrupted as a result of their condition.

How Does Sulbutiamine Work?

To understand how this supplement works it is a good idea to first look at its molecular structure. Chemically speaking Sulbutiamine is a dimer of thiamine meaning it is essentially composed of two thiamine molecules. This arrangement allows it to cross the blood brain barrier (a type of biological filter that separate the bloodstream from the brain) more effectively than thiamine. As a result, it appears that Sulbutiamine is more effective in increasing levels of thiamine and related phosphate esters in the brain than equivalent doses of thiamine. It is these substances that are primarily responsible for the many benefits associated with this nootropic.

Sulbutiamine appears to function through multiple mechanisms. Firstly, it is believed to be involved in regulating the function of a brain structure known as the reticular activating system (RAS). As well as regulating sleep and wakefulness, the RAS is involved in controlling transitions from relaxed wakefulness to periods of high alertness which explains some of this supplement’s ergogenic properties.

Sulbutiamine also appears to modulate the level of several major neurotransmitters. For example, it has been observed to potentiate cholinergic activity associated with the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is responsible for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory to name but a few. These acetylcholine boosting effects appear to be particularly prominent in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that is linked to the formation of long term memories.

This supplement’s memory boosting properties can also be attributed partly to increases in glutamatergic activity. Increases in the activity of glutamate related systems are known to induce a phenomenon known as long-term potentiation (LTP). Briefly defined, LTP is the process by which the signal strength between two simultaneously firing neurons becomes strengthened for a lasting period, contributing to enhanced learning, memory and synaptic plasticity.

There is also evidence that Sulbutiamine may have some effect on dopamine levels in the pre-frontal cortex. Dopamine performs numerous functions in the brain and has been linked to sensations of pleasure, learning and reward systems as well as the all-important executive function that manages a variety of cognitive functions. Rather counter intuitively, Sulbutiamine is thought to actually decrease the level of dopamine that is released. Benefits are derived from compensatory mechanisms that respond to lowered dopamine levels by increasing dopamine receptor density. The result is an increased sensitivity to dopamine that promotes higher levels of activity in dopaminergic systems. This mechanism accounts for many of Sulbutiamine’s stress relieving and anxiolytic properties.

Potential Side Effects

Generally speaking, Sulbutiamine is considered to be quite safe, has a good tolerability profile and exhibits no severe side effects. However, there are a few mild side effects users should be aware of, although it should be noted that these mostly occur in instances where the recommended dosage has been exceeded. Although Sulbutiamine is used by many to reduce the symptoms of depression and anxiety, there have been some reported cases of irritability and anxiety as a result of using doses in excess of the recommended level. Other side effects may include headaches, skin rashes and nausea. If any of these symptoms occur you are advised to stop using Sulbutiamine immediately.

Although there is little evidence to suggest using Sulbutiamine can cause dependency issues, users have reported that a tolerance to this supplement can be built quite rapidly. This applies mainly to energy and mood boosting effects, although some users also report a lessening of cognitive benefits. To avoid tolerance problems, it is a good idea not to use Sulbutiamine too regularly, or consider using it on a cyclical basis, allowing sufficient periods of non-use.

Recommended Dosage

The ideal dosage level for this supplement can differ significantly between users owing to differences in body weight, biochemistry and tolerance levels. However, the average dosage for most users lies between 400 to 1,000mg a day. As Sulbutiamine is lipid soluble, the most effective way to take this supplement is with fish oil supplements, a glass of milk, or with food that has a high fat content. This will ensure the supplement is absorbed quickly and effectively.

Sulbutiamine Stacks

Due to possible tolerance issues, most nootropics users do not use Sulbutiamine on a regular basis, or as part of a daily stack. This supplement is more often used only few times per week during periods that require high levels of focus and productivity. Before using Sulbutiamine as part of any cyclical nootropic stack, you should be sure to try it on its own to familiarise yourself with its effects.

Sulbutiamine makes an excellent accompaniment to racetam nootropics, particularly Aniracetam for the purposes of stress and anxiety relief. It is also commonly combined with caffeine and cholinergic supplements such as Centrophenoxine and Citicoline. Other users find it useful to combine this supplement with Pyritinol, while those seeking more natural or herbal based stacks may consider using Sulbutiamine with Vinpocetine or Huperzine A. There are endless combinations of ways you can incorporate Sulbutiamine into a nootropics stack, and the best stack for you will no doubt require a little experimentation with dosages and different supplements.