10mg Sunifiram


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Sunifiram UK

 

Overview

Sunifiram (DM-235) or 1-benzoyl-4-propanoylpiperazine is an ampakine like alkaloid derived from pipirezine. It has been shown to be over 1000 time as potent as the first racetam nootropic,[1] only differing by having a piperazine backbone instead of the pyrrolidine. This means that Sunifiram is not technically a racetam nootropic, however, it bares very close resemblance in action and safety profile. Sunifiram is structurally related to other nootropics such as Sapunifiram (MN-19) and Unifiram. Sunifiram is able to enhance Long Term Potentiation (LTP), which is an extremely rare and powerful nootropic trait. As a strong Ampakine, Sunifiram is also able to enhance mental stimulation, increase alertness and attention, while also facilitating learning and memory via its acetylcholine releasing properties.


As a whole, the potency and varied cognitive enhancement offered by this nootropic make it a preferred and extremely popular new addition to the nootropic world.

 

Key Findings

One of the only nootropics shown to enhance neuronal Long Term Potentiation (LTP).[2][3]

Shown to have ant-amnesic action via AMPA receptor, effectively reducing memory loss.[4]

Has been shown to increase acetylcholine release: enhancing learning and memory.[5]

Effectively prevented chemically induced amnesia.[5][6]

No toxic effects found even when the dose was increased by 1000 times.[5]

 

 

Details

Sunifiram demonstrates great potential as being one of the most powerful and stimulating nootropics.In particular the enhancement of Long term Potentiation (LTP); this is widely considered one of the most powerful and fundamental aspects of learning and memory, while being an interesting phenomena of neuronal plasticity. LTP is caused when two neurones are stimulated synchronously and fire at the same time causing a long-lasting enhancement in the signal transmission.

Although being equally as stimulating, Sunifiram has been reported to be similar in strength to Noopept but with more of a focus on memory rather than alertness. Sunifiram has been shown to increase NMDA-dependant signalling via the glycine binding site and increase AMPA receptor activation leading to its anti-amnesic effects. Further action upon the release of acetylcholine in prefrontal cortex shows its beneficial effect upon arousal, perception, attention and neuronal plasticity.[2][3][4]

Studies have shown a strong anti-amnesic affect after amnesia was induced chemically using scopolamine, baclofen, diphenhydramine, and clonidine.[5][6]

Pre-frontal release of acetylcholine has been observed after administration of Sunifiram. Acetylcholine is one of the key neurotransmitters involved in helping us to sustain attention and form new memories, while also pivotal to neuronal plasticity, arousal and reward systems.[7]

Sunifiram has been administered with an increase of 1000 times the dose with absolutely no toxicity observed.[5]
 

How Does Sunifiram Work?

Sunifiram has been shown to increase PKCα phosphorylation via the glycine binding site; effectively enhancing NMDA-dependant signalling.[3] Src is then actiated which in turn increases LTP. This NMDA-dependent LTP has been confirmed in vivo after 7 – 12 days oral dosage.[2] Phosphorilation of AMPAR via activation of CaMKII has also been noted.[3]

Mice with hippocampal dependent memory impairment, benefited from a diminished reduction in training sessions after administration of Sunifiram.[2]

Acetylcholine was found to be released from the prefrontal cortex of mice after Sunifiram injection.[5]

 

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Sunifiram - Cited Sources

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17981042

[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23295391

[3] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23733502

[4] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14600801

[5] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11087574

[6] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12070754

[7] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10808142

 

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