Adrafinil Powder


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Overview

Adrafinil is a light pink solid compound that has nootropic-like effects. It has been discovered and developed by a French pharmaceutical company as a treatment for a sleep disorder known as narcolepsy. This nootropic agent is a derivative of a popular eugeroic. More precisely, it is a prodrug. As a prodrug, it is being metabolized into the analogue once ingested. This is also the reason why both nootropic agents share similar beneficial effects [1], [2], [3], [4].

Adrafinil are also categorized as eurgeroic – a type of drug that is able to promote behavioral arousal, increased alertness and wakefulness without producing any undesirable effects usually seen from amphetamine-like drugs. Earlier literature have shown that adrafinil and are effective in boosting memory processes as well as treat depression, sleeping difficulties and voluntary movement problems amongst elderly patients. To date, it remains as an uncontrolled substance in the US and most European countries, hence, it remains legal for users to use, purchase and store a predetermined amount of adrafinil [1], [2], [3], [4], [5].

 

Key findings

 

  • Increases vigilance, wakefulness and alertness [1], [5]
  • Increases motor activity [1], [4], [5]
  • Increased learning capacity [3]
  • Boosts motivation [3]
  • Decreases immobility and mobility problems [5]
  • Decreases anxiety and depression symptoms [5].
  • Treats narcolepsy or excessive daytime sleepiness [6]


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Details

Animal studies have shown that adrafinil is a potent compound that can increase locomotor activities and wakefulness of aged canines without any amphetamine like effects such as dependence, hypertension, increased heart rate and anxiety. Electroencephalogram tests performed on the test subjects further revealed that there was increased brain activities and size discrimination was increase [1], [4]. An open field study have also shown that adrafinil is more effective in increasing behavioral and memory processes enhancement and alertness [7].

One study has also shown that adraifinil is able to boost learning capacity of subjects as compared to placebo use. This positive result was marked by a significant decrease of trials and errors after adrafinil intake [3].

Both adrafinil and are effective in treating in treating sleep related disorders such as narcolepsy and obstructed sleep apnea (OSA). A study demonstrated that adrafinil is able to improve the quality of life of narcoleptic patients including their social and physical functioning. It has also helped in decreasing feelings of fatigue while boosting cognitive functioning. For these reasons, the US FDA has approved the use of adrafinil in treating these sleep problems [6], [8], [9].

 

How does adrafinil works?

Adrafinil is thought to exert its beneficial effects through stimulating specific adrenergic receptors in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus and brain stem. These brain regions are responsible for the regulation of normal wakefulness and alertness through stimulating the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor sites. This mechanism results to the maintenance and stimulation of memory, attention and learning as well as protect the brain from free radical damage [5].

Both eurgeroic drugs are also thought to influence GABA production in different brain areas (e.g. hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens). These substances decreased GABA breakdown thereby increasing glutamate levels in the brain. This paradoxical mechanism then leads to increase in alertness and wakefulness [10].

 

AdrafinilCited Sources

[1] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11191710

[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13679229

[3] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10880682

[4] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10880681

[5] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3713198

[6] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654794/pdf/NDT-3-349.pdf

[7] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11191710

[8] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/228945

[9] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11108188

[10] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2654794/pdf/NDT-3-349.pdf

[11] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/228945

[12] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16142993

[13] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9353396

[14] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2906157