100g Pramiracetam


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Phenylpiracetam UK

 

Overview

Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil or Carphedon) or (RS)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide is a racetam derivative of the very first racetam nootropic, differing only by having an additional benzene ring. Reported to be up to 30 – 60 times more potent than its parent, and has been shown to exert more neuroprotective, stimulatory and anti-amnesic properties. While also having a unique ability to improve physical stamina. Phenylpiracetam has been shown to be a general stimulant, more so than most other racetam nootropics, it is also particularly useful at increasing cold tolerance in physical exercise. Phenylpiracetam is well absorbed by the body, quickly reaching the brain and exerting its effect as a psychostimulant and cognitive enhancer. Some research has even shown a slight anti-depressant effect and some immunosupportive functions.

 

Key Findings

Shown to reduce cognitive decline from organic causes.[5][6][7][8][9]

Up to 60 times more potent than its parent, with strong psychostimulation.[1][2][3]

Shown to increase cold resistance, physical and mental stamina.[1][3][4]

Shown effective against asthenia (weakness), while reducing anxiety and depression.[6]

Some immunosupportive action shown.[10]

 

Details

Pramiracetam as a member of the racetam family is likely to work via the brains acetylcholine pathways. Studies have indeed found that Pramiracetam has increased the amount of choline uptake in the brain, allowing for a larger conversion of choline to acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is an extremely important neurotransmitter, vital to the brains formation and creation of new neuronal connections.[2] Studies have clearly shown the ability of acetylcholine to help our brain sustain attention and to enhance neuronal plasticity. By enhancing plasticity acetylcholine has a vital role in short term memory formation and our ability to learn.[10] Acetylcholine is also extremely important in maintaining our body’s REM sleep patterns which is a vital part of our normal sleep cycle.[12] It has even been found that a child’s working memory is a better indication of intelligence and academic success than the Classic IQ test.[5]

Pramiracetam, although relatively new, is extremely safe to use; a 9 week long study using Pramiracetam concluded no adverse effects whatsoever. This study was conducted on 112 normal volunteers and 336 patients who had a varying degrees of dementia. The doses used ranged from 75mg to 1500mg per day and were administered for up to 9 weeks.[9]


How Does Pramiracetam work?

The exact mechanism of action of Pramiracetam is yet to be completely understood, although it is acknowledged that based on it being a Piracetam derivative it would have a similar mechanism of action as the first racetams. Pramiracetam would exert its action by binding to the AMPA receptor allosterically and change the binding site to allow for glutamate to have more of an effect. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter with an excitatory action, with important roles in neuronal plasticity and promoting wakefulness.[14] Pramiracetam by increasing levels of choline allow for an abundant supply of acetylcholine to be used by the brain. Acetylcholine would then act upon the body in the various ways detailed above. Further actions may be upon blood supply and increasing the amount of oxygen available to neuronal cells.

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Pramiracetam - Cited Sources

[1] http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ddr.430030503/abstract

[2] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18160652

[3] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18443283

[4] http://www.stanford.edu/dept/SUSE/SEAL/Reports_Papers/YuanEtal_WorkingMemory.pdf

[5] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20018296

[6] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3088666

[7] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18653001

[8] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2011259

[9] http://www.smart-publications.com/books/full-text/smart-drugs-and-nutrients/smart-drugs-and-nutrients-sec4/smart-drugs-and-nutrients-sec4-pramiracetam

[10] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10808142

[11] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16183137

[12] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21238497

[13] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965012

[14] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10736372