Sunifiram and unifiram review: Are these research chemicals safe for human use?

04/05/2015 Tags: all

Please note: This article is for informational purposes only. We do not endorse intake or use of unifiram or any other nootropic substances listed on this blog. Any adverse events associated with the use of this substance are sole responsibility of the user.

Sunifiram and unifiram are fairly new in the market. User reports on use of these ampakine nootropics are relatively positive and consistent. Nonetheless, most of these research ampakines have not been studied extensively. Animal studies on sunifiram for instances have shown encouraging results. Its safety however has not been tested to the same standards and measures unlike other older nootropic substances such as piracetam. As such, its safety has not been established.

Sunifiram, unifiram as well as the newer research ampakines have not been subjected to long term t tests. We really do not know about the long term effects of these new nootropic agents.

What are AMPAkines?

Ampakines are substance that functions through attaching themselves and stimulating both glutamate and AMPA receptors. This mechanism of action is so unlike most racetams that primarily works through the cholinergic system. Some of these racetams work as ampakines along with their cholinergic properties. Still, these effects are very minimal as compared to that of sunifiram, unifiram and other ampakine research chemicals.

Are these ampakine nootropics excitotoxic?

Before answering the aforementioned question, we have to describe what excitotoxicity is. First, glutamate excitotoxity occurs due to excessive amounts of glutamate in the cells. As glutamate accumulates in the cells, calcium ions are being produced leading to enzyme activation. This activation of enzymes ultimately damages the cells.

It is also important to note that excitotoxicity is caused by several factors. For instance, glutamate can become an excitotoxin itself. Glutamic compounds s linked to glutamate and is commonly available as MSG or monosodium glutamate. MSG is an unhealthy food additive that has been used to enhance palatability of foods whilst promote a sensation of being full. MSG becomes an excitotoxin when ingested in excessive doses.

Several studies have discovered that excitotoxicity may be caused by brain injuries. Even glutamate agonists such as NDMA and kainic compounds becomes excitotoxic when ingested in high amounts. Other factors that could cause excitotoxicity also include alcohol withdrawal which results when NDMA receptors are strained during the process.

So if excessive levels of glutamate agonists and glutamate may cause excitotoxicity, does it mean that sunifiram, unifiram and other research ampakines cause this phenomenon?

Well, ampakines including sunifiram and uifiram does not work like glutamate agonists. Instead, glutamate agonists imitate the properties of natural substances such as glutamate to stimulate the receptors. This is also the primary reason why substances known to mimic the activity of glutamate can also cause excitotoxicity.

Relationship between the mechanism of action of ampakines and excitotoxicity

Ampakines including unifiram and sunifiram works through decreasing the rate of activation of glutamate receptors. Through decreasing the speed of receptor currents, the signals from the glutamate receptors are prolonged thereby improving cognitive and memory functions.

It is important to bear in mind however that there are different types of ampakines causing varying effects in specific parts of the brain. Hence, not all ampakines functions and works the exact way. Some may have predominant effects in the hypothalamus while the others have significant influence on the cortex or brain stem. Due to this, we must reiterate that more study should be done not only to assess the effects of these research ampakines to the brain but also to ensure safety.

Despite the many questions about this particular area of neuroscience, the discovery of ampakines has brought about greater understanding regarding the glutamatergic system. Therefore, it has been established that ampakine nootropics may indirectly promote excitotoxicity through acting as glutamate receptor agonist or through activating and potentiating AMPA receptors in the brain. Still, these ampakines may still be able to help in preventing excitotoxicity that they are causing themselves. Note that while intense AMPA receptor activation causes excitotoxicity, it also causes protective protein kinase transduction. This activity can help in protecting the brain against toxicity. If this is the case, it is possible that ampakines has neuroprotective properties as well.

Final thoughts

Sunifiram and unifiram are relatively safe for human use. However, prospective users must be reminded about the risks associated with it. For this reason, one must use these new and novel nootropic agents with extra precautions. It is also important to note that although unifiram , sunifiram and aniracetam appears to be safe for supplementation, it does not mean that all ampakines are safe. Users should perform intensive research on how these supplements work. It is also not advisable to stack or combine these new research ampakines with other nootropic substances. Doing so might cause excitotoxity.